Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World
HORUS OF THE DOUBLE HORIZON
One of the profoundest secrets in the Egyptian astronomical mythology was the mystery of the twofold horizon, or, more exactly the mystery of the double equinox, and one of the earliest forms of the solar god in the zodiac was Horus of the double equinox, when this had been established by the sky-uplifter Shu, with the aid of his sister Tefnut.
Until the time of Har-Makhu the fatherhood of god had not been individualised in Ra. Har-Makhu was the mother's child when she was a virgin, represented by the white vulture of Neith, or the sacred heifer of Isis. The child could be self-generated as the spirit of life in vegetation, or in light, the phenomena being pre-human from the first. Child-Horus in the solar mythos was the little autumn sun conceived upon the western mount as the calf or child. Adultship was attained upon the horizon east with what was termed the double force.The cult was that of Hathor and Horus, the mother and the child, who was the calf on one horizon and the bull of the cow upon the other. In these two characters he was the double Horus, or the “double Harmachis”, the solar god of both horizons, and fulfiller annually in the double equinox. The power of evolution was portrayed in Kheper, the transformer. Kheper showed the old beetle changing into
the young; the tadpole transfiguring into the frog the human embryo developing in utero; the enduring spirit emanating from the mortal mummy. Kheper was a form of Har-Makhu, as we learn from the inscription of the Sphinx. From Har-Makhu, the father-god, Ra-Har-Machis was developed in the mythology which preceded the Egyptian eschatology. Atum was Ra in his primordial sovereignty.
The divine fatherhood was developed from Har-Makhu, who became the great god Ra in his primordial sovereignty: Har-Ur, the elder, first-born Horus in the mythos, was the child of the mother when she had no husband, and he had no father; hence she was the virgin mother who conceived but did not bring forth. There was nothing human in the transaction except the terminology. Horus in the eschatology was he who died and was buried, and who rose again in spirit at his second advent. This time he was imaged in the likeness of the father as the beloved only begotten Son of God, who manifested as the fulfiller of his word and doer of his will. Two types in this way were deposited and made permanent in Horus, the child of twelve years, and Amsu-Horus, the man of thirty years. Both characters were united and made one as solar in Horus of the double horizon. This character of Horus, as Repa or Heir-Apparent, may be
traced historically at a later time as that assigned to a Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty, who represents the double Harmachis, the sun-god of the two-fold horizon. He claims a divine origin as the virgin's child that was not begotten by God the Father. As an infant “in the egg”, he was exalted to be “the Lord of both parts”, or both horizons, like Har-sam-taui. Speaking of the god he says “he anointed my forehead as Lord of men, creating me as chief of mortals. He placed me in the palace as a youth not yet come forth from my mother's womb”. He was born in the likeness of elder Horus to be king, or to. become the royal Horus in the horizon of the vernal equinox, where [Page 333] the two parts were united as east and west in the solar mythos, which followed the stellar Peseshti, or two halves, that were the south and north of Sut and Horus (Records, v. 12, pp. 53, 54).
Without a fundamental knowledge of the mythology as framework it is impossible to comprehend the doctrines of the Egyptian religion. Horus of the double horizon, or the double equinox, was the solar prototype of the double Horus in the eschatology. As sun-god on the western horizon in the autumn equinox Har-Makhu was born, conceived or incorporated as the virgin's child. It was at this point, that Horus entered earth or the matrix of the mother in the mount, and thus became the child of Seb and Isis by adoption, though not by begettal. In the eastern equinox he rose again as Horus of the double force and master of the double feather, or the later double crown. When the sun set at night, or in the autumn season, it sank down into the waters of the abyss below the horizon, which Horus-Sebek swam as the
fish. The crocodile, then, expressed the un-paralleled power by which the sun-god crossed the waters and rose again. The crossing was from equinox to equinox, from the western to the eastern side of the mount, let us say from the sign of Virgo in the autumn to the sign of Pisces in the vernal equinox.
Neith, the suckler of crocodiles, was an earlier form of the Virgin Mother than Isis, and by her aid we may obtain a foothold in the zodiac, like that of Horus resting on the mystical two crocodiles, which became the two fishes in the sign of Pisces. When the autumn equinox occurred in Virgo that was the place of conception for Sebek, the fish of the inundation. Six months later the sun rose in the sign of Pisces, and in the eastern equinox, where the fish, as child and consort, or as the two crocodiles, became the two fishes with Neith as the mother on one horizon and Sekhet on the other. Thus as we read the signs, the virgin Neith conceived her child as Sebek-Horus, the fish of the inundation, which was duplicated to express the adultship, and there were two typical fishes. A well-known picture of Child-Horus shows the youthful sun-god standing on two crocodiles, which we take to express the power of the double, or, more exactly, the doubled Horus. In this representation Har-Ur is described as the old child who becomes young. That is the elder who transforms into the younger Horus on the Mount of Glory in the vernal equinox. Standing on the two crocodiles Har-Ur has now acquired the double power-the power, for example, to take up serpents and other poisonous reptiles in his hands without receiving any hurt. Thus,
the crocodile-headed Sebek as the child attributed to Neith in Virgo, crosses the gulf
of darkness or the abyss of waters to rise up in the east as Horus of the twofold
horizon which he had united in the double equinox as Horus of the doubled power.
The doubled power of the sun or god in symbolism was expressed by duplication of
the type. For example, it was in the autumn equinox, or, as more primitively imaged,
on the western mount - the mount of the cow which was covered with crosses
indicating the equinox (Wilkinson) that Child-Horus was conceived in the mythology
or incarnated in the eschatology. In the first he was the little suffering sun of the crossing, or the cross, who went down into the underworld to die See fig. of Horus, p. 317. [Page 334] and be buried; to transform and to rise again. In the zodiac of Denderah, the sign of the “Scales” contains a portrait of Har-pi-Khart, or Horus the
child, who was conceived or incorporated in that sign as Horus of the double
equinox called Har-Makhu. The name identifies Child-Horus with the sign.
The word for the scales or balance in Egyptian is Makhu, Further, the scales denote the equinox, as the point of equipoise, The Greek name of Harmachis is derived from the Egyptian word Makhu, for the balance or scales and thence for the level of the equinox, where the balance was erected on the day of weighing words and of reckoning the years. The Horus of the double equinox was also termed “the double Harmakhu” (Records, v. 12, p, 53), and this duality was also imaged in the two-foldness of the Sphinx, with its tail to the west and its head to the east, pointing to the equinox each way. But how was the crossing from west to east effected at the time when no Amenta had as yet been opened in the under world?
The passage of the sun-god through the mountain had been imaged as a passage through the cow of earth. We have a perfect survival of the mythos in the Märchen of Tom Thumb or Little Tom, whom we claim as a British form of the solar Tum (or Nefer-Atum), In the Egyptian mythos Tum makes his passage through the mount by means of the cow, and is reborn as Little Tum =Tom Thumb, from the Khepsh of the cow Meh-ur. It is said of him in setting from the western horizon, “Earth stretches her arms to receive thee”.
He is embraced by the mother, whose womb is the Meskhen of rebirth (Magic Papyrus, p, 6, lines 3 and 4), And, again, at his going forth to the eastern horizon, it is said, “Thou hast rested in the cow; thou hast been immerged in the cow Meh-ur” (lnscription of Darius, lines 27, 28). Sebek-Horus swam the water as a crocodile, The eel of Atum made the crossing through the mud of the morass. Kheper the beetle bored his passage through the earth; Behutet rode upon the vulture's wings; Horus made the aerial voyage as a hawk, and Har-Makhu crossed from one horizon to the other through the hollow body of the Sphinx, These were modes of making a passage when the nether earth had not been opened up by Ptah, and the Sekru-sledge, which preceded the boat, had not been laid upon the stocks as the means of travelling by land which was illustrated in the mysteries of Memphis. But, however represented, the Horus who crossed the abyss was named Har-Makhu, the god of the double horizon, or the double equinox, The principle of this duplication on the horizon of the East can be established by means of the two lions. which express the double glory of the double Horus, who was lord of the solar force that was double in the vernal equinox. Horus of the double horizon was also Horus of the two lions, In the Ritual Horus rises again saying, “I am the twin lions, the heir of Ra”. (ch. 38, I). He is Horus rising in the strength of the two lions as the “ lion of the luminous course”.
Again, he says: “I am the twin lions” (62.2), “I am the double lion” (72, 9), “I go out from the dwelling of the two lions to the house of Isis the divine” (which was in Sothis), “ I complete the greatness of Shu the lion” (78, 22, 24). In a vignette to the Ritual the sun of to-day rises betwixt two lions, which represent Safre the sun of yesterday and Tua the sun of
to-morrow. This is the Horus - [Page 335] sun, and the two lions image the double strength or glory of Horus in the sign of Leo.
One title of Har-Makhu, or Horus of the double horizon, is Har-Khuti-Khepera, the Horus who made his transformation as the beetle-headed Khepera. The astronomical locality for this particular transformation would naturally be in the sign of Cancer, which the Egyptians sometimes represented by two beetles, at others times by one. Either way, the beetle was the sign of Khepera as Horus of the two horizons. Thus, two beetles mark another station in which the Horus of the double horizon manifests, as the solar deity, with reduplicated power; just as he emerges on the double horizon from betwixt the two lions or Kherufu, in the sign of Leo, as the lion of the double force. Under one of his zootypes, child-Horus was “the Iamb, son of a sheep”; and the Iamb on the western horizon or mount attained the double power of the adult, as a ram in the opposite sign of Aries on the eastern mount. Indeed, Pisces is the first of six signs in all of which this duplication of the solar power was represented in the zodiac. In the sign of Aries, Horus was the Iamb upon the western mount who became a ram upon the horizon east, as the adult figure of reduplicated power. In the sign of Taurus he was the calf which became a bull. A vignette to ch. 109 of the Ritual shows the “Horus of the solar mount” as the calf in presence of the god, and of the morning star upon the western mount. Hathor, the divine cow, is also present with the calf upon the mount. This is the calf that is to become a bull, “ the bull of the mother” on the Mount of Glory in the double equinox, where Horus, the fulfiller, attained the double power. Now, if we suppose the autumn equinox to coincide at the time with the sign of Scorpio, the vernal equinox would then occur in Taurus, and in that sign the Horus calf would become a bull as symbol of the solar power that was doubled in the vernal equinox.
When the autumn equinox coincided with the sign of Virgo the place of double glory was in the sign of Pisces on the opposite horizon. The god was conceived as the child, calf, or youngling, in the west. As Sebek, his image was the crocodile of Neith, the virgin in the sign of Virgo. The crocodile in the Ritual is the Kamite “great fish”. Two crocodiles are therefore the two fishes. These are exactly opposite the sign of “Virgo”, and the two fishes = two crocodiles are the dual sign of Horus in his double glory, as the expression of his double power in Pisces, like the two lions in the sign of Leo. This principle of duplication may be traced in six of the solar signs. There are two lions as supporters of the sun-god in the sign of Leo; two beetles in the sign of Cancer; two twins in the sign of Gemini. Further, Horus was the calf on the western horizon, who became the bull on the horizon east; also the Iamb on one side and the ram upon the other. Thus the duplication extends from the sign of Leo to the sign of Pisces inclusive, which represents the sun-god as Horus the child and Horus the adult, whose double power or glory was expressed by two lions, two crocodiles, and other types of twinship, in addition to the twins or Gemini who were figured in the human form.
Or if we read - the signs the forward way the two fishes correspond to the two crocodiles of Horus. The sun in Aries answers for the ram and Iamb; in Taurus for the bull and calf. In the sign of the [Page 336] Gemini there is a pair of twins. The sign of Cancer or the Crab was represented by two beetles in Egyptian planispheres. In the lion sign two lions, called the Kherefu, supported the young solar god in his resurrection on the horizon in Leo. Thus, when Horus of the double horizon was conceived with the autumn equinox in the sign of Virgo, he was twinned and brought forth with the vernal equinox in Pisces, where two fishes = two crocodiles, mark the birthplace. The lamb and ram are twinned in Aries; the calf and bull in Taurus. If we take these six signs in the circle of precession the two lions correspond to the
duality of Atum-Horus; the two beetles to Kheper-Ptah; the two Gemini to Sut and Horus; the bull and calf to Osiris and Horus; the ram and lamb to Ammon-Ra and Khunsu, and the two fishes to the twin crocodiles, as six different illustrations of the sun of the two horizons at six different landing-stages on the other side of the celestial deep. Thus, the double Harmakhis includes two characters corresponding to the two equinoxes on the double horizon. In one he is the concept of a virgin, in the other he is brought forth by the parturient mother. In one he was the calf in time, in the other he is the bull of eternity. In the one he is Horus in matter, in the other he is Horus in spirit. In the one he is the child of twelve years; in the other he is the adult of thirty years. The first was the founder, the second is the fulfiller. The first was Horus of the incarnation, the second is Horus of the resurrection. Horus of the resurrection in the solar
mythos was the prototype of Amsu in the eschatology, who rose up in spirit from the inert condition of the mummy, as conqueror of death and all the banded powers of evil. In both phases of character this is Horus of the double force, the double crown, the double feather, the double Uraei, the double life, or other types of duplication, including the double equinox.
Thus the doctrine of a two-fold advent for an ever-coming child, born of a virgin mother, can be traced in the solar mythos to a beginning with Horus of the double horizon. Whatsoever the point in precession, the horizon of the resurrection or the mount of glory coincided with the vernal equinox. The little sun, the calf, or the child Horus entered the mount at the beautiful gate of entrance in the West, for breeding purposes, and rose again as the great sun, the bull, the lion, the adult Horus, that went forth at the beautiful gate of exit in the East to become the bull of the mother when the godhood consisted of the mother, the child, and the divine adult.
The mystery of the double horizon was indeed a riddle of the Sphinx. The great Sphinx of Gizeh is traditionally reputed to symbolize the river Nile at its rising, when the sun coincided with the signs of Leo or Virgo in the water-season of the year. It is now known, however, to be a representative image of the god Har-Makhu. The Sphinx itself has spoken once. On the stele of Tahtmes IV it is “called” the Sphinx of Khepera, the very mighty, the greatest of the Spirits and the most august. “Now Kheper, the son of Ptah is, as already said, a form of Tum-Harmakhis who was not simply a solar god of the double horizon. In the eschatology he became the god in spirit, the one god living in truth, the sole power that was worshipped as eternal. This is the “greatest of spirits” represented by the Sphinx of Khepera. [Page 337]
There had been a sort of hollow under-world made out before Amenta was established as “the earth of eternity” by the opener Ptah. This was the Akar, Khar, or Kar, over which the Sphinx presided brooding in her mysteries of birth - the birth of light, of water, of food, of the young solar god, and, lastly, of an ever-Iiving soul. We learn from the Ritual that the mystery of the Sphinx originated with the mount of earth as the place of passage, of burial, and re-birth for the solar god.
An ancient Egyptian name for the Sphinx is Akar. This also was a name for the hollow of the under-world.
The speaker, in the character of the newly-risen solar god, exclaims, “I am the offspring of yesterday. The tunnels of the earth have given me birth, and I am revealed at my appointed time” in the coming forth to day ( ch. 64, Renouf). It is said that the very bones of the deities quake as the stars go on their triumphant courses through the tunnels of the Akar (Pyramid Texts, Teta, 319). It is demonstrable that a passage through the mount of earth, the same that was made through the Cow, was followed by the passage through Akar, the Sphinx, which was built for the god Har-Makhu, the Horus-sun that was immeasurably earlier than Ra. The speaker is in Akar, which is represented by the goddess Akerit
because it was the place of burial and re-birth. The tunnel through the mount of the Sphinx is oblong; and it is noticeable that the oldest known pyramid in Egypt, that of Medum, is neither conical nor quadrangular, but oblong. To understand the nature of the Akar, says Renouf, we have to imagine a tunnel starting from the spot where the sun sets and extending through the earth as far as where the sun rises. Each end of the tunnel has a sphinx-like form. A human-headed lion couches at the entrance and also at the end. It is through the paws of this double sphinx that the galley of the sun-god enters on the western horizon and comes out on the eastern mount. In the picture, Plate 14, taken from the tomb of Rameses IV. “ Fair entrance” (Aka Nefer) is written atone end of the tunnel, “Fair exit” (Par Nefer) at the
other (Proceedings, Society of Biblical Archy., vol. xv. Pt. 8, p. 385). These two gates of entrance and exit on the horizon were called the gates of Akar, and sometimes the gates of Seb, the god of earth. They were the two gates of earth for the sun in the mythology, and the two gates of Akar for the manes in the eschatology. Thus the twofold horizon was imaged for Har-Makhu in the figure of the double Sphinx. The traditions lead one to think that profound secrets were buried in the building of the Sphinx, as was the way with these builders, who put all they knew into all they did. We gather from the stele of Tahtmes that the monument was built to commemorate the sacred place of creation, or, literally, “of the first time”, an Egyptian expression generally used for the creation or “in the beginning”. This sacred site is said to go back to the days of the masters of Kher or Kar, which as a divine locality was the Neter-Kar of the underworld
or the abyss. Kher is likewise an ancient name of the Egyptian BabyIon, old Cairo. Like Babylon, this was the gate or pathway of the gods - the place of exit, as we read it, for the seven elemental powers who issued from Amenta, as the uraeus-deities, or seven spirits of earth. (Rit., ch. 83.)
In the beginning was the Mother-earth as. the womb of universal [Page 338] life; vegetable, animal, reptile, fish, bird, and human life. The uterine figure was repeated in the making of Amenta as “the Tuat” for the birthplace of water and for edible plants, or, more generally, the elements of life. Thirdly, this type was imaged as the abyss of the beginning in the uranographic representation of the southern heaven. Earth was the womb of life when life was born of water. The birth-place was imaged by the abyss of the Tuat, the well, the gorge, or other type of utterance, from the secret source in the sacred place of creation, the creatory of the Mother-earth. The water of life became a type of the eternal, the fabled fount of immortality that was so preciously preserved in the divine under-world; the living water that was sought
for by the mother when she periodically lost her child who was the same to her as the water of life, and who was found in the abyss, which was indeed the place of its rebirth. The generation of life by water, the birth of Horus by water and in food, was the profoundest of mysteries. This was the way that life actually came into the world, before the subject was made doctrinal. This was a life which did save the world when Horus the Messu was the saviour who naturally gave fulfilment periodically to the promise that he made. In various legends the secret of this water of life that wells up in the subterranean regions jealously guarded by dragons, crocodiles or other monsters of the deep. In the Chaldean versions the seven anunaki or spirits of earth are the guardians appointed to keep the secret of the waters of life in this under-world to which the dead descended and from which the elemental powers first ascended to the surface of the upper earth. There is warrant for assuming that the mystery of the beginning from the abyss was also one of the great secrets that was guarded by the Sphinx at Gizeh. The final fact is that the Sphinx was carved out of the rock at the exact centre of the earth to commemorate “that sacred place of the creation” or beginning which goes back to the domain of Sut, and to “the days of the masters of Kher”. That is the beginning in and with the primordial mundane abyss from which life emanated and from which the elemental powers or seven uraeus-deities were born of Mother-earth. The Sphinx, then,
like the cow of earth, or the hollow mount, was a means of crossing the abyss in which human handiwork had succeeded to the natural type as the figure of a passage. It was made as the means of crossing for Horus of the two horizons or the double equinox. Thus, the Sphinx is a monument that commemorates the founding of the equinox in the double horizon, and as this was assigned to Atum Harmachis, it may account for the Hebrew tradition which associated Adam with the equinox, Adam being a Jewish form of the Egyptian Atum. Harmachis entered the Sphinx at sunset in the west or hinder part, and was reborn in the east as Horus of the fore part, lion-faced. The means of crossing the dark gulf in the solar mythos was now the bridge in death and the mode of uniting the two worlds in one, when the re-arising of the sun was succeeded by the resurrection of the soul, the lion having been adopted for the Sphinx upon the horizon east as an emblem of the double power which made the passage for the sun-god or the soul.
The Sphinx is male in front and female in the hinder part. It is a compound image of the Mother-earth and the young god whom she brought [Page 339] forth upon the horizon of the resurrection. Without the mother there was no rebirth. Where the earth opens for the sunrise it was called the unnu or outrance of Neith. As the Sphinx appears to us it has the human face. But the god Tum-Harmachis was the lion of the solar glory, and his bringer-forth as Sekhet was the lioness. The perfect type was dual as the lion and the lioness combined, only the forepart has been rendered anthropomorphically in the likeness of the Pharaoh who was the lion-ruler at the time. The great Sphinx as keeper of these secrets was couched in mountainous repose upon the horizon in the eastern equinox, when the gate of “fair exit” was in the lion sign and the gate of “fair entrance” was in Aquarius, the water-sign that is figured over the abyss of
source on the celestial globe. The Sphinx then is a figure of the double horizon and the duality of Har-Makhu when the place of conjunction was at the point of precession in the lion-sign. And if, as is the Egyptian way, the fact was registered forthwith, we may date the Sphinx as a monument which was reared by these great builders and thinkers, who lived so largely out of themselves, some thirteen thousand years ago.
The “Aten” of the so-called disk-worship was an ancient form of Har-Makhu, god of the double horizon.
This, however, was not a worship of the solar disk. The disk was but an emblem of the circle made by Aten as the god of both horizons. His was a compound type of godhood, in which the mother was dual with the son who was her child on one horizon and her bull or fecundator on the other. The word Aten, from At, was an ancient name for the child. Horus-Behutet, god of the hut or winged disk, we take to have been the earliest form of Aten. This is the solar god who crossed from the horizon west to the horizon east upon the vulture's wings, which were an emblem of the motherhood. The “hut” was a dual emblem of the divine infant and the mother as bearer of the child. As the bird she carried him over the intervening void of darkness where the Apap lay in wait. Thus the godhood of Aten consisted of the mother, her child, and the adult male or bull of the mother, in a cult which preceded that of the fatherhood of Atum-Ra. The glory of Aten as the power that is doubled on the horizon of the Resurrection was the object of regard in this religion, not the disk.
This cult of the mother and the child who was worshipped in Egypt as Har-Makhu, the child commonly called Horus on the horizon, had an unsuspected development amongst the Mediterranean races. The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult is the title of a somewhat recent work by Arthur J. Evans ( London, 1901).The title implies the common notion that trees and pillars, “stocks and stones” were directly worshipped instead of the power that was represented by them in sign-language. But a volume of evidence might be collected showing that the supreme object of worship in this cult was the deity of the double equinox, the youthful solar god who in Egypt was called “the double Har-Makhu”. Both tree and
pillar had been figures of the pole before they were erected in the equinox. The tree was planted in the abyss as a figure of the southern pole, the “tall sycamore of Sut” or tree of the south. The column of stone was raised in Annu, as the pillar of the northern [Page 340] pole. When the equinoxes were established, tree and pillar both were continued and often blended at the point of equipoise as figures of the birthplace that was shifted to the zodiac in the solar mythos. The Mithraic monuments show us that the tree was a figure of the equinox, and that two trees represented the double equinox when this was resting in the signs of Scorpio and Taurus (Drummond, pI. 13). Both tree and pillar had been types of Hathor as the abode of Horus. In the Egyptian Ritual the tree marks the place of coming forth and point of emergence from Amenta in the equinox. “I am the babe”, says Horus four times. “I am the god within the ash tree”. “I am the link which connecteth the solar orb with yesterday” - and also with to-morrow, as is shown by the two lions (ch. 18). This connecting link is Horus of the two horizons, who is here brought forth from the ash tree. When columns could be carved, tile raising of the stone pillar took the place of planting the tree, or was added to it as a co-type of station. In the twelfth dynasty the foundation of a solar temple is described. Amenemha and his son Usertsen I, were on the throne conjointly as representatives of the solar god of both horizons. The King says, “Henceforth I will make monuments and
erect carved columns to the double Harmachis”. (Records of the Past, vol. xii., p. 53.) That is, to the sun god of the two horizons or the double equinox, who was here represented by the Pharaoh and his son.
The Mycenaean symbolism of the two lions with the central tree or pillar can be read if followed as Egyptian, but not otherwise. The tree, the pillar, or the mount was female as a figure of the birthplace, the place of exit for the babe born from the mount, the meskhen, or its equivalent (in wood or stone). For example, a birthplace in the stellar mythos was in Sothis, the star that showed the birthplace of the babe.
Both child and mother met in Sothis as Hathor and her infant Horus. She was the house of Horus. The house was imaged as a cone or a tree. This will explain why the Mycenaean figure accompanying the tree-pillar is at times a woman and at other times a child. They are the goddess and her babe, identical with Hathor and Child-Horus in the place of birth. In the gold shrine found at Mycenaea (Evans, fig. 65) the figures on each side are two doves. Now the dove in Egypt was the very ancient bird of Hathor, and the two doves are a figure equivalent to the mother and the child that was born within her shrine, her house, her pillar, or her tree, as her dove of the generative spirit, or the later Holy Spirit. The cult of the mother and child is also illustrated on the impression of a gem from Knossos. A sheep represents the mother as suckler of the child beneath her - that is, her lamb, as Horus was called when this type had taken the place of the calf (Evans, fig. 17). In two of the Mycenaean pictures the goddess in person is placed betwixt the two lions (Evans, figs. 44 and 45). This is she who was the tree or pillar, shrine or birthplace, whether as Hathor-Sothis or as bringer forth of the deity of the double horizon in the vernal equinox. Hathor was continued as the Venus of the Mediterranean races. What then was the object of the supposed “worship”? Was it the tree, the pillar, or both? or was it the goddess who was represented by the tree and pillar? or was it the child who was re-born from the birth-place in the tree or rock or shrine? The solar birthplace on the [Page 341] horizon had long been represented by the tree, the mount, the cone, shrine, gate, portal, the unnu or other forms of the opening which was always female, and a figure of childbirth in the mythos, when the mother was the earth. As Egyptian the goddess herself is some-times portrayed; sometimes the child, and sometimes both the mother and the child, are imaged inside the pillar or cone which stands for the place of birth (Schiaparelli, Piramidi Egiziane, Plates). The cult, then, whether as Egyptian or Mycenaean, was a worship of the mother and child, the divine duad that was so prevalent amongst the Mediterranean races, and not a tree-and-pillar cult; not a worship of “stocks and stones”.
The double axe of what has been called “the Mycenaean tree-and-pillar cult” is an emblem of the doubled power, and the so-called god of the double axe is consequently a god of the double equinox, who was Har-Makhu, the Horus who passed into Atum-Ra as the Egyptian Zeus. The sun that made its way through the earth or the abyss was known as the divider, or the cleaver, This was the solar power which clove its way from west to east and from horizon to horizon as Har-Makhu, god of the double horizon or double equinox in the annual round. He was the cleaver of the earth, who was represented by the cleaver as an axe which, we take it, was a sign of Horus, the cleaver of the way. The god of the double equinox who completed the course from horizon to horizon was Horus of the double force, which doubled force was variously imaged by the double crown, the double uraei, the double feather, the two lions, the two crocodiles, and other dual types. Hence the god himself is called “the double Harmachis”.
He was cleaver of the way, whose double power was likewise imaged by the two-headed weapon which has been termed the “divine double axe” of the Mycenaean cult. The type itself may have been derived from the Egyptian nuter-sign of divinity or power divinized, which was the stone axe of the paleolithic age; and a double axe would be the visible symbol of the power that was doubled in the vernal equinox. On a Mycenaean vase from Old Salamis the double axe is figured between two bull's heads, each of which supports a double axe. If we take the double axe as a sign of the power that was doubled in the equinox, it seems to follow that this representation indicates an equinox in the sign of Taurus; and as the bull's head and the axe are both dual, this will be the equinox that was double at the time of celebration, therefore the double equinox determined by the two bull's heads and the double axe as signs of the solar power that was doubled in the vernal equinox.
The reader has but to take up Count d' Alviella's book on the Migration of Symbols to see how widely spread this equinoctial imagery became. In this we find Fig. 58 The tree standing betwixt two lions (from the Cathedral of Torcello).Figure H. Plate 4 -The tree betwixt two lions (from a bas-relief of Bharhut).Figure 35-Gilgames flanked by two lions, which he holds at arm's length. Figure 65 -The tree between two goats (Assyrian cylinder).Figure A, Plate 4 -Tree
between two cherubs (Chaldean art). Tree betwixt two winged unicorns (bas-relief of Nineveh), Figure B, Plate 4 -Tree between two cherubs (from a Phoenician bowl). Fig D. Plate 4 - Tree between two rams (from a bowl). [Page 342] Figure 67 - Tree betwixt two giraffes (vase from Curium). Figure 71-Tree or stalk and winged solar disk betwixt two hare-headed looking animals (Khetan cylinder).
Two figures guarding the tree upon a Syrian amulet (figure 110). The tree here is shaped like the ankhcross, thus showing it to be the tree of life upon Egyptian ground.
The Assyrian combination of the sacred tree and winged solar disk unites the tree of dawn with the rising sun, and the symbol has the same significance no matter whether the sun-god climbs the tree or the disk is borne on wings above its branches. The tree of dawn stands in the solar birthplace. This is in the vernal equinox as birth-place of the annual sun. That which brings forth is the female, and the feminine nature of the type explains the fecundation of the tree by the two acolytes or geni who take the place of the two lions, crocodiles, dragons, beetles, cherubs, birds, and other types of the supporting pair.
Amongst the co-types of the tree may be reckoned the figure of a god or child, a cone or across, a pillar,
papyrus-reed, a lotus or a vase, the unnu or opening”, the meskhen or birthplace, whence issued the
youthful solar deity now fulfilled of his duplicated power. The two confronted lions are common on the
Mycenaean gems as two heraldic supporters of the central figure. This in one instance is the radiating
solar orb itself (figure 41, Evans). In another a male divinity stands betwixt the two lions (fig. 43, Evans).
In others the figure standing or seated between the two lions is the divine mother who brought forth in the
equinox. On two different glass plaques from Mycenaea (Evans, figs. 13 and 14) the supports on either
side of the tree-pillar are two lions. Amongst other figures may be seen:-
Two lions with the sun rising from between them, the same as in the Egyptian representation. (Evans,
figure 42, A and B. Ritual, Vignette, ch. 18.)
Two lions supporting a tat or tree-pillar. (Evans, figure 35.)
Two lions back to back with the tree-pillar between. (Evans, figure 39.)
Two lions with the tree-pillar. (Evans, figure 40. )
Two lions pouring out libations on the pillar. (Evans figures 12, 13, 14)
Two lions with the god in person between them in place of the tree or pillar. (Evans, figure 43. )
Two lions, with the goddess in person between them in place of the symbols. This is she who was the tree, the shrine, pillar, or birthplace. (Evans, fig. 44.)
Two lions with the goddess seated between them. (Evans, fig. 45.)
Other pictures show the mount of the equinox, the tree at the meeting point of sun and moon in the equinox (Evans, fig. 4), the equinox, as mount, betwixt two bulls (Evans, fig. 3). In another scene two bulls support a tree-pillar (Evans, fig. 34). In one instance two sphinxes support the tree-pillar (Evans, fig. 33). The solution now to be propounded is that the mount or pillar-the shrine or the tree - determines the point of equinox that the dual nature of the symbol shows it to be the double equinox as place of re-birth for the god of the double horizon, and that the two lions, two sphinxes, two beetles, two bulls, rams, or goats denote the particular sign of the zodiac in which the vernal equinox and the re-birth of Har-Makhu occurred at the time that is thus visibly portrayed.
The mystery of Har-Makhu and the double equinox was known to Paul, who was a master of the secret wisdom. The doctrine concerning [Page 343] Tum-Harmachis is well stated by him, only it has been rendered Hebraistically. The two Atums, or Atum and Nefer-Atum, are replaced by the first and second Adam as the man of earth and the man from heaven. The second Atum was “he who is our peace” with the title of Iu-em-hetep. This, as the second Horus, was “he who made both one” and “ broke down the middle wall of partition”, “that he might create in himself of the twain one new man”.The middle wall of partition “is a figure in the eschatology of that which was a fact in the equinoctial mythos (Eph. ii. 14, 15).
Whatsoever the type, the double equinox was indicated by the twofold figure. Thus, if a tree were the symbol, then two trees were the sign of the double equinox, and when Horus of the resurrection rises, let us say, as the good shepherd betwixt two trees, it is, as now suggested, a portrait of Har-Makhu, the connecting link between the two horizons or two lives. Now, one of the commonest scenes in the Roman catacombs is this of the two trees betwixt which rises the so-called Good Shepherd, who is sometimes a goatherd. There is a scene from the Roman catacombs in which the good shepherd is the central figure betwixt the two trees, two birds, and also the lamb and ram, by which the resurrection is to be identified with the vernal equinox in the sign of Aries (Lundy, fig. 76). In another of the pictures from the catacombs the good shepherd is accompanied by both the lamb and the ram, which are at least equivalent to the dual type of the equinox in Aries. He carries the lamb upon his shoulders, whilst the ram is resting at his feet (Lundy). Horus was the lamb upon the western and the ram upon the eastern horizon, both being united in a figure of the double power. A kindred representation is portrayed upon agnostic stone now in the British Museum. This is Horus the gnostic Jesus as Ichthus the fish. That the scene occurs in the sign of Pisces is shown by the two fishes, one of which is over the head of Horus, the other under his feet.
The latter also repeats the ancient type of the crocodile on which the divine child was supported in the Cippi of Horus. There is also an altar of the Palmyrene at Rome which has the image .of the solar god on one side, and on the other a conical cypress tree, the foliage of which exhibits a child carrying a ram upon its shoulder ( d' Alviella, Mig. of Symbols), which shows a singular reversal in the position of the child and adult. But it was the child = the lamb that issued from the maternal tree, to be followed by the
adult as the ram. When Horus rises from the dead in the Egyptian tombs it is as the good shepherd. The crook and whip ( or flail) of rule are the insignia of his sovereignty.
According to the Ritual (ch. 109), he rises up between two trees called the “two sycamores of emerald”. Thus he is the perfect prototype of the good shepherd in the Roman catacombs. The god who rises in this character is Horus of the double equinox in the mythology, and Horus in spirit in the eschatology, who by his resurrection joined the
[Page 344] two lives together and the two worlds in one. The good shepherd in the catacombs is self-identified by the cloak he wears, which is the cloak of royalty,
as a figure of the royal Horus, the child who was born and predestined to be king.
The doctrines of the incarnation and the resurrection had already been established in the cult of Har-Makhu, the Horus of the double equinox. Horus the child in one equinox, who was Horus the adult in the other, constituted the double Harmachis, one as the founder and one as the fulfiller - one as Horus of the incarnation, the other as Horus of the resurrection. The doctrine was at first solar, and next eschatological. In both phases it was earlier than the fatherhood of Ra.
The incarnation was at least as ancient as the virgin in the zodiac, who conceived in Virgo, and the mother who brought forth in Pisces, which we calculate may have been some six-and-twenty thousand years ago. The solar god who united the two horizons was the fulfiller of the annual circle, and came to reign as the king of one year, first in the inundation, then in the zodiac. He also came in the character of the great judge to see that justice should be periodically administered. In the stellar mythos Anup had been the judge, with the seat of judgment at the place of equipoise which was then at the celestial pole. In the solar mythos this was shifted to the vernal equinox, and the mount of glory to the east. An ideal of justice, truth, and righteousness, imaged by the balance or scales, was postulated as established and eternal in the heavens as the reign of law, and there was an annual attempt to make that justice visible and veritable on earth. Har-Makhu came as the great judge, accompanied by the seven great spirits who were his executioners, called “the seven arms of the balance”.The balance was erected as a figure of the equinoctial level, for the weighing of hearts and of words. The unjust were punished, wrongs were righted, restitution was enforced. The judgment day in the Easter equinox was similar in point of time to what we in Europe call the “March Assizes”. This was represented as the judgment in Amenta.