Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World
A Work of Reclamation and Restitution in Twelve Books
BOOK 10 THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT AND THE DESERT OF AMENTA
The Seed of Ysiraal
[Page 629] WHEN roughly classified, the myths and legends generally show two points of departure for migrations of the human race, as these were rendered in the stellar and solar mythology. One is from the summit of the celestial mount, the other from the hollow under-world beneath the mount or inside the earth. The races that descended from the mount were people of the pole whose starting-point in reckoning time was from one or other station of the pole-star, determinable by its type, whether as the tree, the rock, or other image of a first point of departure. Those who ascended from the nether-world were of the solar race who came into existence with the sun as it is represented in the legendary lore, that is, when the solar mythos was established. The tradition of the pole-star people found in various countries is that they were born when no sun or moon as yet had come into existence. That is, they were pre-solar and pre-lunar in their reckoning of time. These are they, as was said by the Egyptians, who issued from the eye of Sut, or Darkness, the earliest type of which we reckon to have been Polaris, whether as the pole-star in the southern or the northern heaven. These were the Nahsi and the Blackheads of the dim beginnings in the stellar mythology. Following them, come the people born from the eye of Horus, which was a symbol of the moon. These were held to be the lunar race. Lastly came
the children of the sun. Thus, the eye as symbol of a repeating period was stellar as the eye of Sut; it was lunar as the eye of Horus; it was solar as the eye of Ra. In the stellar mythos men descended from the summit of the mount, which was an image of the pole. And still in legendary lore they try to tell us from which of the seven stations they descended as a time-gauge in the prehistoric reckoning of their beginnings. But in the solar mythos they ascended from the under-world which had been hollowed out beneath the mount of earth for the passage of the sun. Thus there are two points of departure in the astronomical mythography, one from above and one from below. The oldest races that have kept the
reckonings are descended from one or other of the seven stations in the mountain of the north, and in the later mythos men ascended from the earth below, or from below the earth; the human ascent being figured in the upward pathway of the sun. These were the solar race [Page 630] who followed the lunar and stellar people of the past. These, when born in Egypt, were the children of the sun-god Atum, who became the Hebrew Adam as the father of the human race.
Before Amenta was created by the excavator Ptah within the nether earth there was no typical ascent of man. Indeed there were no men until the time of Tum, since which time the race has been considered human. When the sun-god Ra arose up from the earth, or from the Lotus, as the father of created man, or man the mortal, the legend of the human ascent was established. In the “creation” of Atum, instead of being reckoned as the offspring of the old First Mother or the group of the seven pre-solar gods, men became the children of Ra, who are said to have come into existence as tears from his eye, or as germs of an elemental soul proceeding from the solar god. Stars were the children of Ra the sun-god in the solar mythos. Souls were the offspring of Ra the holy spirit in the eschatology; and here we may possibly delve down to one of the tap-roots of the legendary “Exodus.” The stars were looked on as a race of beings having souls of light that emanated from the sun. To these the solar race, as human beings, were affiliated by means of the totemic types, which included the crocodile of Sebek, the beast of Bes, the hawk of Horus, the scarabeus of Kheper. Hence it is said by the god Ra to the righteous in Amenta, “You yourselves are tears of mine eye in your person of superior men. I have shed abroad my seed for you” (Book of Hades, 5th division, D). These were the seed of Ra, who, as figured, were born like a tear from his eye, as a mode of effluence, and being solar they were the superior race of men, the Ruti, or men par excellence. Under the name of Khabsu in Egyptian the stars are synonymous with souls. These in their nightly rising from Amenta were the images of souls becoming glorified. They came forth in their thousands and tens of thousands from the lower Egypt of the astronomical mythos, the earliest exodus being stellar. Thus we can realise the leader Shu, who stands upon the height of heaven, rod in hand, and who was imaged in the constellation Kepheus as the Regulus or law-giver at the pole.
In the “Destruction of Mankind” the stars are said to be “the multitudes which live in the nocturnal sky.” In this under-world Taht, the moon-god, is called the luminary of Ra “in the inferior heaven,” and in the deep region where he “inscribes the inhabitants” and it is said to him, “Thou art the keeper of those who do evil, whom my heart abhors” (Pl. C., lines 65-70). Taht was the reckoner of the stars here called the inhabitants of the nocturnal heaven, or sky of Amenta, whose names or numbers were inscribed by him, possibly as six hundred stars, which number was extended by the Jewish Kabalists to their six hundred thousand souls in Guph. Be this as it may, here are the souls in Amenta represented by stars as inhabitants of the underworld. And in the new creation by Atum-Ra, god of the nocturnal sun, they are spoken of as “these multitudes of men.” Ra orders that his heaven shall be depicted as a field of rest, and there arose the elysian fields or paradise of plenty on Mount Hetep. In this new heaven, says Ra, “I establish as inhabitants all the beings which are suspended in the sky, the stars! said by the majesty of Ra (to Nut), I assemble there the multitudes that they may celebrate [Page 631] thee, and there arose the multitudes.” These multitudes as stars had been the inhabitants in the deep region of the inferior sky. Ra having been “lifted up” as god alone in this new heaven of the astronomical mythos, the stars that were in the lower are to be assembled and grouped together in the upper heaven. This is followed by the stellar exodus from “lower Egypt and the desert of Amenta” under the leadership of Shu-Anhur, the uplifter of the sky together with its inhabitants, the stars, called the children of Nut, or heaven. It is said by Ra “my own son Shu, take with thee my daughter Nut, and be the guardian of the multitudes which live in the
nocturnal sky,” or the sky in the lower Egypt of Amenta; “put them on thy head and be their fosterer,” or sustainer. (Pl. B, line 42.) Then, as said in the hymn to the god Shu, “Uplifted is the sky which he maintains with his two arms” as “king of Upper and Lower Egypt” in his new character of Shu-si-Ra, who, in the solar mythos, had become the son of Ra. In the Ritual, ch. 110, heaven is described as the mansion of Shu, “the mansion of his stars,” which was nightly renewed as “the beautiful creation which he raiseth up.”
We have now delved down to an origin for the Egyptian exodus in the stellar mythos. Shu was the uplifter of the sky under his name of Anhur with his rod. As raiser of the firmament he uplifts the starry host or multitude of beings known as the offspring of Nut, or later, the seed of Ra, or later still, the children of Ra.
These were previously the dwellers in the lower Egypt of the mythos who are to be set free from this realm of darkness and gathered together in the land of light, the starry heaven of Nut on high. Their deliverer was Shu-Anhur, the leader up to Heaven, with his rod, as “repeller of the dragon coming out of the abyss.” (p. 2, lines 5 and 6.) This exodus belongs to the rendering in the mythology, and underlies the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day according to the Book of the Dead, in which the mythos has become the mould of the eschatology. The resurrection of souls has taken the place of the stars in the stellar, and of the sun in the solar mythos. The exodus was now the coming forth of the Manes from “Egypt and the desert” as localities in the mysteries of Amenta. This was then made geographical and practical by
literalization in that exodus of the Israelites from the land of the Pharaohs which has hitherto passed as biblical history.
In reviewing M. Renan’s work on Israel, a recent writer asks, what then is the origin and significance of the exodus and its attendant plagues and prodigies? “When did they come, where or when were they invented? The monuments are never likely to tell us.” No, not if we are looking for the Palestinian Jews in Egypt as an ethnological entity, or for the ancient Egyptian fables as biblical facts. But when we get clear of that cloud of iridescent dust which the Jewish writings have interposed betwixt us and the monuments, we shall find they do tell us more or less what was the origin of the wonderful tale by which the world has been beguiled so blindly through mistaking verifiable myth for God’s own historic word. The sufferings of the Chosen People in Egypt and their miraculous exodus out of it belong to the celestial allegory of the solar drama that was performed in the mysteries of the divine nether-world, and had been performed as a mythical representation ages before it was converted into a [Page 632] history of the Jews by the literalizers of the ancient legends. The tale of the ten plagues of Egypt contains an esoteric version of the tortures inflicted on the guilty in the ten hells of the under-world. We have seen somewhat of the descent of mankind from a celestial birthplace that was constellated as an enclosure on the mountain of the pole.
We have now to trace the ascent from the regions of the nether-earth, which, as Egyptian, is an exodus from Lower Egypt and the “desert” of Amenta. We shall have to make the journey through this nether earth once more in following the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt in the character of the manes issuing from Amenta. The legend of the exodus or coming forth to-day, like those of the creation, the deluge, and the lost paradise in the book of Genesis, belongs to that mythology which underlies and is the source of all the märchen and the folk-lore of the world. The clue, as will be shown, has been preserved in what is commonly termed the wisdom of the ancients, which we hold to be Egyptian in its origin and derivative on all the other lines of its descent. We find the mythos, the legends, and the folk-tales of the world are all involved in the Egyptian wisdom, and the Hebrew traditions are demonstrably the débris of Egyptian myth and eschatology. But, of all the various versions of the coming forth or exodus from out the underworld, not one has caused such deep perplexity as this of Israel issuing from Egypt, in which the mythos has been misappropriated and converted into an ethnical history. As Egyptian, it was not pretended that the children of Ra were ethnical, or that the mysteries of Amenta were transactions in the earth of time.
The way up from Amenta was variously portrayed as an ascent by means of steps; by scaling a mount, or by climbing a tree, a grape-vine, a reed, a bean-stalk, or a papyrus reed. In the legends of many races we find the tradition of a deliverance from some subterranean dwelling-place which was their primeval home. This exodus from the under-world is common in the märchen of the red men. With the Lenni Lenape Indians, the beginning was in a subterranean abode up out of which they were led by the wolf as their chief totemic zootype. Now, the wolf is an equivalent for the jackal. In Egyptian the wolf and jackal (Seb) are synonymous; and the jackal was the guide of roads in Amenta who led the people through its wilderness, and showed a way for them to ascend into the world of light. All the myths and legends of an
under-world depend upon there being an under-world, or nether-earth, and this again depends on there being a double-earth which was hollowed out by the God who represented the nocturnal sun for the passage through the mount of earth by night, and who as Egyptian was Ptah, the founder of Amenta.
In the Mandan tradition of their origin, it is related that the whole nation once resided in one large village underground beside a subterraneous lake. A grape-vine extended its roots down to their habitation, and gave them an upward view of the light. Some of the more adventurous spirits climbed up the vine, and found themselves in a lovely region full of buffaloes, and rich with every kind of fruit. From this they returned with the grapes they had gathered, like the men who had gone forth to spy out the land in another [Page 633] version of the mythos. Their fellow-countrymen were so delighted with the taste of their newly-found fruit that men, women, and children determined to leave their lower earth and ascend to the upper by means of the grape-vine. But when the people were about half-way, a corpulent woman who was clambering up the vine broke it with her weight. This closed the aperture upon herself and the rest of the nation, and shut out the light of the sun. But when the Mandans die, they expect to return to this, the original country of their forefathers, the good reaching the ancient village of the vine by means of the lake which the wicked will not be able to cross by reason of the burden of their sins (Lewis and Clarke). This land of the forefathers was that of the ancestral spirits, the country of the tree of life, here identified with the vine. The subterranean lake is one with the lake in Tattu. The corpulent woman is the Great Mother, who was the enceinte Apt or Hathor in Egypt, whose tree is the sycamore-fig. The double-earth is the same as in the ritual. Consequently the vine is the tree of dawn up which the sun and souls ascended from the Tuat by means of the tree. The exodus from the nether-earth, or Lower Egypt, is the same as in the Hebrew and other versions of the mythos, the original of which is provably Egyptian. The Quiché “Popul Vuh” portrays the ancestors of the race as wanderers in the wilderness upon their way to the place where the sun was to rise. They also crossed the water, which divided whilst they passed, and which they went through just as if there had been no sea. They passed on the scattered rocks rolled on the sands, that served for stepping-stones. This is why the place was called “ranged stones and torn-up sands,” the name that was given to it on their passage through the waters that divided as they went. “At last they came to a mountain where, as they had been told, they were to see the sun rise for the first time” (Bancroft, vol. III, p. 51). This was the mount of glory in the solar mythos, and the waters which were crossed were those of the celestial Nun. The “ranged stones” in the waters correspond to the twelve stones that were set up by Joshua to mark the spot where the waters were held up for the Israelites to pass dry-footed through the river Jordan. In the Hawaiian tradition the king of the country, named Honua-i-lalo, was the oppressor of the Menehune people. Their god Kane sent Kane-Apua and Kanaloa the elder brother to bring away the oppressed people, and take them to a land which Kane their god had given them. The legend further tells how they came to the Red Sea of Kane, Kai-ula-a-Kane, and were pursued by Ke-Alii Wahanui. Thereupon Kane-Apua and Kanaloa prayed to Lono, and then
they waded safely through the sea, and wandered in the desolate wilderness until at last they reached the promised land of Kane, called “Aina-Lauena-a-Kane.” This, says Fornander, is an ancient legend, which also contains the story of water being made to gush forth from a rock (Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race).
The passage of the Red Sea and the destruction of those who follow the fugitives are also found in a Hottentot fable. Heitsi-Eibib was once travelling with a great number of his people, when they were pursued by the enemy. On arriving at the water which [Page 634] had to be crossed as the only way of escape, the leader said, “My grandfather’s father! open thyself that I may pass through, and close thyself afterwards.” So it took place as he had said, and they crossed the water safely. Then the pursuing enemy tried to pass through the opening likewise, but when they were in the midst of the divided water it closed upon them and they perished. (Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 75.) In this the personification of the water as the first father, God the grandfather, is in accordance with the Egyptian Nnu or celestial water, who is
represented as the primordial male divinity, the father of the fathers, including Ra the solar god. The Nnu or Nun identifies the water as celestial, and it is this that divides to let the sun-god and his followers pass through dryshod. These in the Ritual are pursued by the Apap and the Sebau to the edge of the horizon.
Then the water of day overwhelms the powers of darkness, and Apap the dragon with all his evil host are overthrown, submerged, and drowned in the waters of the lower Nun (Rit., ch. 39). They are described in the “Magic Papyrus” as the “immerged,” who do not “pass,” or go along, but remain floating on the waters like dead bodies drifting on the inundation; with their mouths for ever shut and sealed (Records, vol. x, 151). In another version of the Hottentot legend a Nama woman and her brothers are pursued by an elephant. “Stone of my ancestors,” cry the fleeing ones, “divide for us.” The stone opens and they pass.
The pursuer used the same words, and the rock opened for him also, but it closed on the elephant and
crushed it to death (Bleek, Hottentot Fables, pp. 64, 65). The fable can be read by means of the Egyptian wisdom. It belongs to the war that was waged for ever betwixt the powers of darkness and light. In the Egyptian mythos the pursuing monster as the Apap-dragon of the deep, in place of the elephant, pursues the children of light who are escaping from the under-world. They reach the rock of the horizon or the Tser-hill, which opens for the “coming forth” and closes again when the pursued ones have passed through in safety. Shu=Moses stands upon the rock to smite it with his rod, with the result that the waters of day gush forth in light. This is the water of heaven set flowing from the rock of the horizon for those who are followed by the Apap-reptile of darkness and consuming drought. The sun-god in the Ritual staggers forth upon the mount with many wounds, but Apap is caught and crushed and cut up piecemeal
in the place appointed for the dragon to be drowned in the red lake of the mythos (Rit., ch. 39). Through this Red Sea the followers of Ra, of Heitsi-Eibib, or Jehovah, pass in triumph on their way to the land of promise on the mount of glory. But the hosts of evil are continually overthrown.
The starting-point of the Mangaian migration was from Savaiki in the shades. The natives of the Penrhyns speak of going down to Savaiki in death, and they say their first ancestors came up as heavenbursters from the same country. All such origins are mythical, not historical or geographical, although the mystical land gets localised on the surface of the earth as it is in the heptanomis of the Hervey Isles.
Savaiki was known as the home of the ancestors, but the only ancestors first known were the ancestral spirits, and it was these as manes that sought deliverance from the under-world. In one of [Page 635] the traditions the Egyptians were reputed to come from the land of Puanta, the Ta-neter or country of the gods, the land of glory, or the golden land. When it is said to the sun-god, “Adoration to thee who arisest out of the golden,” it means out of Puanta, the nether-land of dawn (Rit., ch. 15, hymn 1). This land of the gods as a mythical locality was in the under-world, not on the surface of our earth; it is not the Puanta that was geographical in the south. The people from Puanta, the land of the gods, are those who had a solar origin. They issue from the land of glory with the sun. The gods and the glorified came up from this divine land when they emerged from Puanta in the Orient.
One title of the first chapter in the Ritual is “The chapter of introducing the mummy into the Tuat on the day of burial.” This applies to the mummy interred on earth, and also to the Osiris or manes in Amenta, who was figured in the mummy-form. The Tuat is a place of entrance to and egress from the under-world.
And in the Pyramid Texts (Pepi, i. 185) those who are in the Tuat are called the Tuata. Now, as the Tuat was in Tanen, the land (ta) beneath the waters of the Nen, they are the Tuata-Tanen, in whom we propose to identify the Irish mythical heroes or divine ancestors called the Tuatha de Danan. In the oldest account of the Tuatha it is said they came from heaven. Therefore their origin was not human. In issuing from the Tuat of Amenta they came from the lower paradise of two from which they brought the wisdom and the symbols of the Egyptians as their sacred treasures, including the four precious things belonging to the Tuatha de Danan. The Tuatha are described as the gods and the not-gods, a title that exactly corresponds to the Egyptian two classes of spirits called the gods and glorified. According to Giraldus in his Topographia Hibernia, it was a guess of the learned that the Tuatha “were of the number of the exiles driven out of heaven,” and if they were of those who came from the land of promise and issued from the Tuat, they would come from the subterranean Aarru or earthly paradise. The hills and mounds of Erin are the places of entrance to and exit from the invisible world of elfin-land, which answers to the hidden earth of the manes in Amenta. When euhemerised by tradition, the Tuatha de Danan are said to have retired into the hills and mounds after they were utterly defeated in battle. In other legends Dagda and his sons were once the rulers over this nether-land, and they are said to lie buried there with “the síd or fairymound of the brugh as covering for their resting-place” (Rhys). The brugh was originally the place of burial. He who sleeps at Philae is he who sleeps in the brugh, the burgh, or bury. The name written in
hieroglyphics is Piruk=brugh, and there the mummy slept in the burgh of Amenta, or with the Tuata in the Tuat of the nether-world. The divine mother of the Tuatha is known by the name of Danan. The Tuatha are the tribe or people of the goddess Danan, who is also the deëss of death. Now, there is an Egyptian goddess Tanan who is a form of Hathor=the amorous queen in the earth of Tanen, the land of the nocturnal sun and the domain of the dead. The god Tanen is lord of that land, and the goddess is identified with Hathor by her headdress. The name of Tanan may also be written Tann. This agrees [Page 636] with the naming of the Welsh and Irish goddess Danu or Danan. Her name takes the form of Don in Welsh, and the deities who descend from her, like Gwydion and Arianrhod, are called the children of Don.
The Tuatha de Danan are also termed the Fir Déa, or men of the goddess. Hence we propose to identify the goddess Tanen with Danan or Danu, the Great Mother of the Tuatha de Danan, who were the people of the goddess as the souls of the dead in the divine Neter-Kar, i.e. in Tanen, and who issued from the Tuat with the sun or solar god as the men of the Goddess, who was Tanan in Egypt, Danan in Ireland, and Don in Britain. The men of the goddess, as we suggest, were the Tuata of the Pyramid Texts, who as divine ancestors become the Irish Tuatha de Danan. The same word is represented by the Irish Tuath for the tribe; Breton Tud, Gothic Thiuda, Saxon Theod, for a people; the Oscan Tauta for a community; it is also extant in the name of the Teutons. One of the chief attributes of the Tuatha de Danan is the power they have of assuming any form at will, and this is a supreme trait of those who come forth when the Tuat is opened (Rit., ch. 2). Chapter 64 is the one by which the Tuata take all forms that each desireth, whether on entering or coming forth from this womb of Amenta. The transformation of the manes has come to be called shape-shifting, but there is no beginning with it as a faculty of the wizards in Ireland.
There are various hints in the Irish fairy-lore of the Tuatha de Danan being one with the spirits of the dead. Their relation to the prehistoric mounds is the same as that of the Tuata with the mount of Amenta.
There is also a still prevailing confusion in the Irish mind betwixt the fairies and the ghosts, which is very natural when we know that the fairies originated in the spirits of the elements which have got mixed up with the manes of the dead. According to Caesar, the Druids taught the Gauls that they were all descended from Dis Pater, the Demiurge — that is, from the god of Hades or Amenta, who is Tanan as consort of the goddess, and whose name was taken by Ptah-Tanan, the better known Dis Pater, who was earlier than Osiris in the Egyptian cult, and from whom the solar race ascended, whether from Puanta or from the Tuat. Thus interpreted, the Tuatha or tribes who brought the ancient wisdom out of
Lower Egypt or the Tuat may have been genuine Egyptians after all, as the much-derided traditions of the Keltae and the Kymry yet allege and strenuously maintain. “The oasis of Tuaut” is another bit of ancient Egypt still surviving in the country of Morocco, where it testifies, like some strange boulder on the surface, to the buried past.
The birthplace of the stellar races was in the celestial north. The solar race were they who came forth from the East. In going down to Amenta, as manes, they were the westerners; in coming forth they are the easterners. Thus, when we are told that Abraham came from Ur of the Kasdim, or the Magi, which was his birthplace, that goes far to identify him as a solar god, just as Laban, the white one, was a lunar deity, and Ur a mythical locality. Ur is an Egyptian name for that which is eldest, first, great, principal. The course of the sun-god by day is reckoned to run from Ta-Ur to Am-Ur, i.e. from east to west. Ta-Ur then is Egyptian for the land of the east, and the migration thence is solar, that is — mythical, — and would be astronomical when the [Page 637] birthplace is designated “Ur of the Kasdim” or Chaldees. Ur of the
Kasdim is self-identified by name with the Magi, astrologers or astronomers. Moreover, the frequent coupling of Ur and Martu in the astrological tablets points to Ur as a name for the east being juxtaposed to Martu for the west, “Ur and Martu” meaning east and west, and not Ur a city on earth and Martu a quarter in the heavens.
It has been pointed out by translators that various place-names in the Egyptian Book of the Dead denote celestial localities, and are not geographical. They are names in the astronomical mythology which had been first derived from Egypt on earth, that were afterwards applied to Upper Egypt in heaven and Lower Egypt in Amenta. The heaven above and Amenta below were divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian cities of Thinis, Hermopolis, Memphis, Thebes, Annu, and others were repeated in the planisphere as mythical localities which furnish place-names for the eschatology in the Ritual. When Osiris triumphs, and “joy goeth its round in Thinis,” that is the celestial, not the earthly city (Rit., ch. 18).
When the deceased in Amenta exclaims, “May Sekhet the Divine One lift me up so that I may arise in heaven and issue my behest in Memphis” (Rit., ch. 26), it is the heavenly Memphis, the celestial Ha-ka-Ptah, or spirit house of Ptah, the enclosure of the white wall on high, that is meant. When the priest says in the first chapter of the Ritual, “I baptize with water in Tattu, and anoint with oil in Abydos”, the scene of the baptism is in Amenta, not on earth. Rekhet, the place where the two divine sisters waited and wept for the lost Osiris, was a locality in the earth of eternity, but Rekhet was also geographical in Egypt.
At first the localities, as Egyptian, were topographical, next they were constellated as uranographical, and finally they constituted a double Egypt of the other world in the earth and heaven of eternity.
The Egyptian Exodus is a mystery of Amenta. It is described in the Ritual as the Peri-em-heru or “coming forth to day” from “the Hades of Egypt and the desert” (Records, vol. x, p. 109). Thus when Horus comes forth in his resurrection it is said that “Egypt and the desert are at peace” (Rit., ch. 183). Egypt and the desert were the two parts in the double-earth that was divided between Sut and Horus, betwixt whom was internecine war that only ended temporarily at the coming of the prince of peace who came to set the prisoners free from the land of bondage, of drought and darkness, of Apap and the plagues of Egypt in the under-world.
The sufferers depicted in the mythos were at first the stars that fell down headlong into the abyss to be swallowed by the dragon, of whom it is said, “Eternal Devourer is his name” (Rit., ch. 17). This was in the astronomical mythology. In the eschatology the prisoners are the manes or body-souls of the dead who passed into Amenta, the earth of eternity, as it were by way of the grave. Both were the children of light, mythical or eschatological, otherwise the children of Ra, at war for ever with the creatures of darkness in the nether-earth. The exodus or coming forth from [Page 638] this nether Egypt is represented astronomically on the great Mendes Stele. On one side Horus Behutet, the great god, lord of heaven and giver of life, is described as coming “out of the horizon on the side of Upper Egypt,” and on the other side
of the Stele “the coming out of Lower Egypt” is spoken of instead. That is the exodus from Kheb or Lower Egypt, which is Amenta in the eschatology (Records, vol. viii, 91). This is the exodus from Egypt of the lower earth according to the representation in the solar mythos that preceded the version in the eschatology by which it was followed and enforced. In the making of Amenta the Egyptians mapped out Egypt in the nether-world in accordance with Egypt on earth, only on a vaster scale. They had their Lower and Upper Egypts in the other life as they had in this. But Khebt, the Egyptian original of the Greek Eguptos, is more expressly the Lower Egypt, hence the lower of the two Egypts in the mythical
representation. This was the Egypt below, through which the nocturnal sun and the souls of the deceased passed on their way up to the land of liberty and light. This was the Egypt where the Lord (as Osiris, or the elder Horus) was crucified in the Tat (Rev. xI. 8), or where the solar god suffered his mortal agony, his death and burial; the Egypt from which he rose again. Here was the wilderness of the wanderings during the forty days of the Egyptian Lent, which represented the forty days of the seed that was buried in the earth to attain the new life in the regermination of Osiris, which forty days were disguised as forty years in the historic version of the Jewish exodus. It is unfortunate and humiliating to us as a nation that Egyptology and Assyriology in England should have first fallen into the hands of
devout believers in the biblical “history.” Archaeology had to call itself “biblical” in order that a society might be founded for the study of Egyptology and Assyriology, and Egyptian exploration was for a long time limited to looking for “biblical sites” in Egypt, which are only to be met with as mythical localities in Amenta. Nor is this mania of the historic-minded yet entirely extinct! Jewish or Gentile commentators who know nothing of the astronomical mythology, or the Egyptian origin of the Hebrew legends, have never been able to apply the comparative method to these writings. There is but one Egypt for them. But there was another Lower Egypt, another Red Sea, another dragon, another deliverance from Rahab and the Apap-monster, and another exodus, which have not hitherto been taken into account by the Hebraists. It was not to Egypt topographically that the ransomed of the Lord were to return singing the songs of Zion.
There is another and a truer version of these mystical matters possible, even as there was of old.
The creation of Amenta in the Egyptian mythos has been already explained as the work of Ptah and the seven Knemmu or navvies who were his assistants in opening up the under-world, and who in the Hebrew rendering become the seven princes that digged the well, referred to in one of the fragments of ancient lore (Num. xxi. 18), which seven princes in the Semitic legends are identified with the chariot of the Lesser Bear. Amenta was a second terra firma for the souls of the departed, a mental fulcrum to the eye of faith laid on the physical foundation of the solar mythology for [Page 639] those who travelled the eternal road. Thus the origin of the exodus, as Egyptian, was in the coming forth of the heavenly bodies from below the horizon in the mythical representation. This was followed by the coming forth of the
manes from dark to day, from death to life, from bondage to liberty, from Lower to Upper Egypt in the eschatology. In the coming forth of the Israelites from “the Hades of Egypt and the desert,” it is said the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light: that they might go by day and by night: the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night departed not from before the people” (Ex. xiii. 21, 22). It is possible that the zodiacal light supplied a natural image for the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire described in the book of Exodus. The zodiacal light is a phenomenon visible in Egypt at certain seasons of the year. It is seen as a conical pillar of cloud towards the east in the morning, just before sunrise, and towards the west at sunset. In the pale light of dawn it is a pillar of cloud, and in the ruddy glow of sundown it becomes a veritable pillar of fire. It is said of the Great One God, “the living one, who liveth everlastingly,” and who was Atum-Huhi in his temple at On, “He traverseth the heavens, and compasseth the nether-world each day; he travels in the cloud to separate heaven and earth, and again to unite them” — that is, at morn and evening in making the passage of Amenta. The ‘Lord of the Cloud” is also addressed as the guide of navigation. The flame of the sun is the protection of those who cross the double-earth. He who “commands heaven causes his disk to appear in the desert” (Rit., 99). “He who purifies the water” “appears on the liquid abyss” (101).
“He marches for the dead; for those who are overturned” (I.). The opening chapters of the Book of the Dead are called the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day. In other words, this was the Kamite exodus of the manes from Amenta in the eschatological phase of the mythos, which has been converted by literalization into the “history” found in the book of Exodus. The Hebrew märchen are the legendary remains of the Egyptian mythos, whether in the book of Genesis or the book of Exodus. The “coming forth to day” with which the Ritual opens is the Egyptian exodus, and the Hebrew exodus is likewise the coming forth to day.
An entrance to the mythical Amenta, previously shown, was localized at Abydos as the cleft or the mouth of the rock, a narrow gorge in the Libyan range of hills. Opposite this entrance stood the temple of Osiris Khent-Amenta, a name which denotes the opening to the interior of Amenta. Through this gorge the solar bark passed into the mountain of the west, and bore the image of the dying solar god on board. Once a year also there was a feast of the dead, or, as we have it in survival, of All Souls, and there came a funeral flotilla to the mouth of the cleft on one of the first nights of the year. This answers in the mythos to the starting-point in time of the Jewish exodus as history, in the first month of the year.
Two ways of entering the other world are represented in two different categories of the ancient legend, both of which are derived from the same fundamental origin. One is by means of the dividing [Page 640] waters, the other by means of the passage that opens and closes in the earth at evening or in the equinox. In the Egyptian mythos the entrance to Amenta is both by land and water. The god on board the solar bark, or the children of Ra=Israel on board the bark of souls, passed through the cloven rock by water. Previously the water had to be divided for the travellers to pass. But the waters thus divided were celestial, being mythical. They are the waters divided by Shu-Anhur with his rod as leader of the manes from Amenta up to heaven. It is not written in the Old Testament what the Lord did for Israel in the vale of Arnon, but the Targum of Jerusalem tells us that when the Beni-Israel were passing through the gorge or defile, the Moabites were hidden in the caverns of the valley, intending to rush out and slay them. But the Lord signed to the mountains, and they literally laid their heads together to prevent it; they closed upon the enemy with a clap, and crushed the chiefs of the mighty ones, so that the valleys were overflowed with the blood of the slain. Meanwhile Israel walked over the tops of the hills, and knew not the miracle and the mighty act which the Lord was doing in the valley of the Arnon. Thus the miracle of the Red Sea was reversed. In the one case the waters stood up in heaps and were turned into hills; in the other the solid hills flowed down and were fused, whilst Israel passed over them as if they were a level plain. In the one miracle the Red Sea was turned into dry ground; in the other the dry ground was turned into a red sea of blood. The hills that rushed together to make a level plain are a familiar figure of the equinox, to be found in varied forms of legendary lore (Book of Beginnings, vol. II, pp. 356-357). This account therefore is as good as the biblical one, and it tends to prove that both belong to the astronomical mythos, and that the crossing here was in the equinox.
In the mythos of Amenta the promised land of plenty, the land of corn and wine and oil, was the Aarrufield of divine harvest that awaited the righteous who had been wanderers in the wilderness and who fought their way to it through all the obstacles of the under-world. These obstacles can still be traced in the Jewish narrative compared with the books of Amenta and the mysteries of Taht. All through the journey of this Egypt underground, the objects besought and fervently prayed for are a good passage through the waters and all other hindrances, and a safe way out upon the eastern side, where lay the promised land. One great object of the manes in knowing the words of great magical power in Amenta is to obtain command over the waters. The deceased prays that he may have command over the waters which he has to pass through, even as Sut had command of force on the “night of the great disaster” (Rit., chs. 57 and 62). These waters are the Red Sea of the Jewish exodus, in which the Apap-dragon lurks and lies in wait. The later scholiasts tell us that the habitation of this monster was the Red Sea.
Thus the Red Sea is identifiable with the lake of Putrata in which the dragon lurked that lived upon the drowned, the dragon that was turned into the cruel Pharaoh in the Hebrew version of the exodus.
It is evident that the Jews were in possession of an esoteric rendering of the same mystical matter as is presented exoterically in the books ascribed to Moses. There were two versions of the dark [Page 641] sayings and the hidden wisdom, the esoteric and the exoteric, amongst them, as there were amongst the Egyptians, and these have doubled the confusion. The Christian world has based its structure of belief simply and solely on the exoteric version; thus the door of the past just now being opened anew in Egypt was closed to them and locked; they were left outside without the key, and in the darkness of the grossest, crassest ignorance the Christian faith was founded. We have now to recover such “history” as is possible from the Pentateuch by eliminating the mythos and the eschatology. Fragments of the original
mythos crop up in the Haggadoth, the Kabalah, the Talmud, and other Hebrew writings, which tend to show that in the earlier time and lowermost strata the same matter had been known to the Jews themselves as non-historical. Thus it is provable and will be proved that “biblical history” has been mainly derived from misappropriated and misinterpreted mythology, and that the mythology is demonstrably Egyptian which can only be explained in accordance with the Egyptian wisdom. This is not to say that the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Joshua are intentional forgeries, but that the data were already more or less extant as subject-matter of the mysteries, and that an exoteric version of the ancient wisdom has been rendered in the form of historic narrative and ethnically applied to the Palestinian Jews. The most learned of the Rabbis have most truthfully and persistently maintained that the books attributed to Moses do but contain an exoteric explanation of the secret wisdom, though they may not trace the gnosis to its Egyptian source. The chief teachers have always insisted on the allegorical nature of the Pentateuch.
Two laws, they tell us, were delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai. One was committed to writing, as in the Pentateuch; the other was transmitted orally from generation to generation, as is acknowledged by the Psalmist when he says, “I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard and known and our fathers have told us.” Parables and dark sayings of old are the allegories of mythology and enigmas of the ancient wisdom uttered after the manner of the mysteries. Now the subject of this psalm is the story of Israel in Egypt and the exodus from the old dark land. The plagues of Egypt are described. “He set his sign in Egypt; he turned their rivers into blood.” “He sent them swarms of flies which devoured them, and frogs which destroyed them.” He also gave their increase to the caterpillar and their labour to the locust. He killed their vines with hail and their sycamore-trees with frost, and “smote all the first-born in Egypt.” The coming forth is also described. The Psalmist tells of the marvellous things that were done “in the land of Egypt.” How the Lord “clove the sea” and “caused them to pass through” whilst the waters were made “to stand as an heap.” How he led them forth with a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. How he clove the rock in the wilderness “and gave them drink abundantly as out of the depths, “ and “ opened the doors of heaven “ and “ rained down manna upon them to eat.” This was heard and known orally as a tale that is told in dark sayings of old which did not originate in the biblical history of the exodus. They are “tried as silver is tried” in the refineries of the nether-earth. They go “through fire and through water,” and are “brought out into [Page 642] a place of abundance” in the pleasant Aarru fields. This journey is described in various psalms. “Working salvation in the midst of the earth, thou didst divide (or break up) the sea by thy strength; thou breakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou breakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces” (Ps. LXXIV. 12-14). In the Hebrew Song of Moses we are in the same nether-earth, where the matter is eschatological. The adversaries are the same opponents of the chosen people — the same, that is, in the book of Deuteronomy as in the Book of the Dead. Ezekiel (XX. 36) makes an allusion to “the wilderness of the land of Egypt,” which points to the lower Egypt of the mythos in Amenta. Egypt itself, as the land of the living, the cultivable land, was the very opposite of the wilderness.
Amenta in the Book of Hades, and also in the Ritual, is described as consisting of two parts, called “Egypt and the desert land or wilderness.” This latter was the domain of Sut in the Osirian mysteries. One part of the domain, named Anrutef, is self-described as the place where nothing grows. It was a desert of fruitless, leafless, rootless sand, in which “ there was no water for the people to drink” ; or, if any, the water was made bitter or salt by the adversary Sut or the Apap-dragon. The struggle of Sut and Horus (or Osiris) in the desert lasted forty days, as these were commemorated in the forty days of the Egyptian Lent, during which time Sut as the power of drought and sterility made war on Horus in the water and the buried germinating grain. Meantime “the flocks of Ra” were famishing for lack of pasture and for want of water in the wilderness. These forty days spent in the desert of the mythos have confessedly been extended into the forty years of the history. They were the forty days of suffering in the wilderness of the under-world which lay betwixt the autumn and the vernal equinox. And when it is threatened by Ihuh that only the children shall go forth with Joshua, it is said, “Your children shall be wanderers in the wilderness even forty days, for every day a year” (Num. XIV. 33, 34).
The lower Egypt of Amenta was a land of dearth and darkness to the manes. It was the domain of Sut at the entrance in the west. Here was the typical wilderness founded on the sands that environed Egypt. Aarru or the garden far to the eastward was an oasis in the desert ready for the manes who were fortunate enough to reach that land of promise. The domain of Sut was a place of plagues; all the terrors of nature were congregated there, including drought and famine, fiery flying serpents and unimaginable monsters. There were the hells of heat in which the waters were on fire; there were the slime-pits, the blazing bitumen, and brimstone flames of Sodom and Gomorrah. The desert of engulfing sands, the lakes of fire, and the deluge of overwhelming waters had to be crossed, and all the powers of death and hell opposed the passage of the glorified elect, the chosen people of the Lord, who were bound for bliss in the land where their redemption dawned upon the summit of the mount. This then was the land of bondage where the manes were in direst need of a deliverer. The typical tyrant and taskmaster in the Hebrew “history” has never been identified on earth, and it may be somewhat difficult to identify him in Amenta, but it is not impossible. The devourer of the people in that land takes several forms. The [Page 643] Apap monster lies in wait and has to be encountered at the entrance to the valley of the shadow of death. But there is one typical devourer. The Red Sea is his dwelling-place, and “eternal devourer is his name.” Another of his names is Mates, the hard, cruel, flinty-hearted. He is described as having the skin of a man and the face of a hound. His dwelling is in the red lake of fire, where he lives upon the shades of the damned and eats the livers of princes. As he comes from the Red Sea, his overthrowal is in the Red Sea, like the overwhelming of Pharaoh and his host. The same typical devourer has another figure in the judgment hall, where it is named Amemit. Here it has the head of a crocodile. Where we might speak of the jaws of death, hell, or destruction, the Egyptians said or showed the jaws of the crocodile.
Those who are condemned to be devoured pass into the jaws of the devourer. Thus the crocodile is the devourer, the typical tyrant, the cruel, hard-hearted monster who bars the gate of exit and will not let the suffering people go up from the land of bondage. When the manes seeks his place of refuge in Amenta or in the Ammah (Rit., ch. 72), he prays for deliverance from the crocodile in the land of bondage. He also says, “Let not the powers of darkness (the Sebau) have the mastery over me,” and he prays that he may reach the divine dwelling which has been prepared for him in the Aarru-fields of peace and plenty, where there is corn of untold quantity in that land toward which his face is set. This is the chapter “by which one cometh forth to day and passeth through Ammah or the Ammah” in seeking deliverance from
the crocodile or dragon in the land of bondage. Protection is sought in Ammah because the god who dwells there in everlasting light is the overthrower of the crocodile. The crocodile is the dragon of Egypt to the Hebrew scribes, who use it as an image of the Pharaoh. When Ezekiel writes, “Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh, King of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers,” the imagery is derived from the Egypt of Amenta, however it may be afterwards applied. The great dragon, as typical devourer in the land of bondage, is here identified with the Pharaoh of Egypt, as it also has been in the book of Exodus.
Amenta is spoken of at least once in the Ritual as the place wherein the living are destroyed. It is also described as the Kâsu or burial-place. One of the twelve divisions of this under-world was known as “the sandy realm of Sekari,” the place of interment. The dead were buried underneath their mounds in this domain of Sekari, which was a wilderness of sand. This is the probable origin of the wilderness full of buried corpses in the book of Numbers. For, after all the promises made to the children of Israel, they are suddenly turned upon by the Lord and told that their carcases shall fall in this wilderness. “Your little ones will I bring in, but as for you, your carcases shall fall in this wilderness” (Num. xiv. 31, 32). Now, the carcases that were to rot in the wilderness are equivalent to the mummies buried in the sandy realm of Osiris-Sekari, god of the coffin and the desert sand. In the Kamite eschatology those who made the exodus from Amenta to the world of day are those who rise from the dead in the desert called “the sandy realm of Sekari” = the wilderness. Moreover, they rise again as children who are [Page 644] called “the younglings of Shu.” And Shu was the leader and forerunner of this new generation of divine beings, called his “younglings,” from the “sandy realm of Sekari,” when their redemption from that land of bondage dawned (Rit., ch. 55). The wilderness of the nether-earth being a land of graves, this gives an added significance to the question asked of Moses, “Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness?” (Ex. XIV. 11), which as the domain of Osiris-Sekari was depicted as a cemetery of sand, where the dead awaited the coming of Horus, Shu, Ap-uat (or Anup), the guide,
and Taht, the lunar light, as servants of Ra, the supreme one god, to wake them in their coffins and lead them from this land of darkness to the land of day. Amenta, as the place of graves, is frequently indicated in the Hebrew scriptures, as in the description of the great typical burial-place in the valley of Hamon- Gog. This was in the Egypt described in the book of Revelation as the city of dead carcases, where also their lord was crucified as Ptah-Sekari or Osiris-Tat. Amenta had been converted into a cemetery by the death and burial of the solar god, who was represented as the mummy in the lower Egypt of the netherearth.
The manes were likewise imaged as mummies in their coffins or beneath their mounds of sand.
They also rose again in the mummy-likeness of their lord, and went up out of Egypt in the constellation of the Mummy (Sahu-Orion), or in the coffin of Osiris that was imaged in the Greater Bear.
In the Ritual the power of darkness called “the devourer of the ass,” which was a solar zootype, is Am-ãã, the great, great devourer by name. Am signifies the devourer, of whom it is said eternal devourer is his name (Rit., ch. 17). This Am-ã-ã, the great, great devourer, is apparently the Amalek of the biblical legend: Melek, the lord of rule, being suffixed to the name of Am, to describe the character. “Then came Amalek and fought with Israel in Rephidim,” in the region of the Rephaim, Sheol or Amenta (Ex. XVII. 8).
“The Lord hath sworn he will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” These are the two great opponents, who were Apap, the devourer of the ass, and Ra in the wars of Amenta. The wars of the lord, as Egyptian, were waged against the adversaries of Ra or Osiris in Amenta. These adversaries were the powers of evil, the Apap-dragon of drought, the serpent of darkness, the Sebau, the Sami, together with Sut and his co-conspirators in the later rendering of the mythos. The adversaries of the Good Being are annihilated in the tank of flame (ch. I). Osiris is thus addressed: “Hail to thee, the great, the mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks! Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilatest Apap! Thou hast utterly destroyed all the enemies of Osiris” (Rit., ch. 15). Chapter 18 is in celebration of the triumph of Osiris over all his adversaries, who are slaughtered and destroyed. The
great slaughter of the adversaries is carried out in the nether-world (ch. 41) or secret earth of Amenta, at a place called Suten-Khen. Also the plagues of Egypt had previously been let loose by the Lord on Abram’s account. “And the Lord plagued Pharaoh with great plagues” before “Abram went up out of Egypt” (Gen. xii. 17; XIII. 1). This is a bit of the same myth of Amenta, which was earlier than the [Page 645] Mosaic exodus. The scenery of Sodom and the pits of bitumen may be found in the Ritual, together with the night of reckoning, which is the “night of fire against the overthrown, the night of chaining the wicked in their hells, the night on which their vital principles are destroyed” (Rit., 17). In the Hebrew version this “reckoning” on the fatal night when the Typhonians (or Sodomites) were destroyed in the hells of fire and sulphur takes the shape of “reckoning,” whether there are fifty, forty-five, forty, thirty, twenty, or ten righteous persons to save the doomed city from destruction (Gen. XVIII. 24-32). In the legend of the monkey, the god who reposes in Amenta and traverses the darkness and the shadows, when he rises gives up the pig to the plague (Book of Hades). Now the pig was a type of the evil Typhon.
In one of the pictures a pig called the devourer of the arm (of Osiris) is being driven by the monkey, which was a lunar zootype. Thus the pig which is here given to the plagues shows that in the true mythos the plagues of Egypt were let loose on the Typhonians or powers of evil, the Sebau, the Sami, the conspirators of Sut, the children of darkness, whether from a physical or moral point of view, and that this was in the lower Egypt of Amenta. These in the Hebrew version have been transformed into ethnical Egyptians who so cruelly oppressed and preyed upon the suffering Israelites. Thus the plagues of Egypt occurred twice over in a land which was not the Egypt of the Pharaohs, and the people who suffered from them were not Egyptians. This agrees with the hidden gnosis in the Wisdom of Solomon, and also in the book of Revelation, where the plagues are of the same mystical nature, but are only seven instead of ten in number. The “wilderness” was obviously a place or state in which the shoes and clothes of the people did not wear out. This was only possible to the manes in the desert of Amenta. The two regions of the clothed and unclothed are named in relation to the judgment hall of Mati. The clothed and unclothed are well-known terms for the elect and the rejected manes; the children of light and the offspring of darkness. In the trial scenes the spirits who are judged to be sound and pure are told that they may pass on as the clothed, whilst the condemned are designated the unclothed. Thus the clothed ones pass safely and freely through the desert region of the unclothed. In the Hebrew version we read, “I have led you forty years in the wilderness, (and) your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and your shoe is not waxen old upon your feet” (Deut. XXIX. 5). There can be no doubt about these being the divinely clothed and fed, as described in the Ritual, where they eat of the tahen and drink of the water made sweet by the tree of life, and pass, as the clothed, through the wilderness which is called the region of the naked. To say that the clothes and shoes of God’s own people did not wear out during a period of forty years is a mode of showing they were divinely made for everlasting wear, but not on earth, where nowadays they wear out all too fast for Gentile as for Jew. Apparently the Hebrew manna represents the Egyptian tahen which was given to the manes for food in the wilderness of Amenta. In passing through the desert or the region of the unclothed, the manes tells of the tahen that was given for sustenance (ch. 124). So far as
the tahen is [Page 646] known, it agrees well enough with the Hebrew manna. “When the dew that lay (on the ground) was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness a small round thing, small as the hoarfrost on the ground,” which was “like unto wafers made with honey.” Wafers made of tahen were also eaten sacramentally as food of heaven in the Osirian eucharist. In the mystery of opening the mouth and of giving breath to the breathless ones in Amenta, the Egyptians made use of an instrument called the urheka, or great magical power. It is sometimes a sinuous, serpent-like rod without the serpent’s head. At others it has the head of the serpent on it, united with the head of a ram. Both ram and serpent were types of the deity Khnef, who represented the breath of life or the spirit, Nef, Hebrew Nephesh, which
was assumed to enter the Osiris when the mummy’s mouth was typically opened to inhale the breath of future existence. Here then is a magical rod that turned into a serpent, which may be seen figured in the Vignettes to the Ritual as a form of the magical rod with which the mouth of the deceased was opened in the mysteries of Amenta. It is held by the tail in the hand of the magician or priest who performs the ceremony of apru, i.e., opening the mouth, in illustration of the chapters by which the mouth is opened in the nether-world (Vignettes to chs. 21, 22, 23). The rod is changed into a serpent at the time when the Lord is desirous for Moses to become his mouthpiece. Moses objects, whereupon the Lord asks, “Who hath made man’s mouth? Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth and teach thee what thou shalt speak.” The contest ends in Moses having his own way, and in Aaron becoming a mouth to Moses.
Moses is to take in his hand the rod wherewith he is to “do the signs” (Ex. IV. 1-17).
Here then we identify the serpent-rod of the Egyptian priests that was known by name as the great magical power, and it was sometimes a rod, at others a serpent. This we take to be the original of that rod with which the tricks are played in the Hebrew märchen by the Lord God of Israel for the purpose of frightening Pharaoh. “And the Lord said unto him (Moses), What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod.
And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent: and Moses fled from before it. And the Lord said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand and laid hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand” (Ex. IV. 2-5). The type of great magical power is thus turned to account in astonishing the natives and in giving lessons to the magicians of Egypt. In both scenes we have the opening of the mouth. In both we have the serpent-rod with which the signs and wonders are wrought. And it is admitted that Pharaoh had wise men, sorcerers, “magicians of Egypt,” who had rods which became serpents as types of transformation. These rods are to be seen in the hands of the wise men portrayed in the Ritual, but not for any such fool’s play as is described in the book of Exodus.
There are two serpents in Egyptian symbolism — one is a type of evil, the other is the good serpent. One is the Apap of drought, darkness, and death or negation; the other is the Uraeus-serpent of life, that was worn on the frontlets of the gods and the glorified manes as a sign of protection and salvation or safety (ch. 34). In [Page 647] the chapter by which a person is not devoured or bitten to death by the eater of the head, which is a snake, an appeal is addressed to the solar Uraeus as the source of life, the flame which shineth on the forehead of the glorified. In the seventh abode there is a serpent named Retuk (the cartouche in my copy reads Ruruk or Rerek), that lives on the manes and is said to “annihilate their magical virtue” (149). The speaker says, “I am the master of enchantments” (149). He is the magician, the prototype of Pharaoh’s, who worked by enchantment (Ex. VII. 11). The “fiery serpent” of the wilderness may be traced in this great serpent of Amenta, whose name is “dweller in his flame.” However rendered, the hieroglyphics identify the mythical serpent of fire as the fiery serpent of the Hebrew märchen. The lifting up of the serpent can also be paralleled in the text when the speaker exclaims, “I am raised up to (or as) the serpent of the sun” — that is, the Uraeus, the good serpent when compared with Apap. The serpent Aker is joined to the nocturnal sun as he traverses the Amenta (or the wilderness) by night. Thus Aker, the serpent of fire, is the good serpent that is raised up as the fiery serpent in the exodus. The evil serpent Apap is then told that he must retreat before this uplifted solar serpent (which accompanies the orb in the Egyptian triad) and in presence of the revivifying sun. And in this way the
mythos furnished matter for the märchen and the folk-tales about the evil serpents that bit the wandering Israelites, and how they were saved and healed by an image of the good serpent, which always had been lifted up in Egypt as a solar symbol of healing and of life. In playing off the serpent of fire against the serpent of darkness, the deceased anticipates Moses with Nehushtan the brazen. He exclaims triumphantly, “I understand the mystical representations of things, and by that means I repulse Apap” (108). Also in the zodiac of Esné fiery flying serpents are to be seen on the wing in the decans of Cancer as the sign of heat and drought (Drummond, Oed. Jud., pl. 8). The children of Israel, as followers of the solar god, are the children of Ra, or Atum-Ra, under whatsoever racial name; and these are to be met
with even by name, making the passage through the lower Egypt of Amenta on their way to the promised land. People named the Aaiu, an Egyptian plural equivalent to our word Jews, are described in the underworld.
Their god is the ass-headed Aiu, or Iu, who was one of the gods of Israel that led the people up out of Egypt — that is, the ass was one of the zootypes of the god Aiu, as the calf, bullock, or ox was another. We had to dredge this nether-earth for much of the sunken treasure of Egyptian wisdom that has long been lost in its authentic shape. And in Amenta we find the ass-headed god of the Jews, respecting whom they have been so ignorantly derided and maligned. His name, we repeat, is Aiu, Au, Aai, or Iu, both as god and as the ass in old Egyptian; and this name survived in the forms of Iao, Iau, Iahu, Ieou, and others. The god was Atum-Ra in Egypt, and Aiu the ass-headed is one of the types of the
solar god. Aiu appears ass-headed in Amenta as a god stretched out upon the ground who has the solar disk upon his head, with the ears of an ass projecting beside the disk. He is holding the rope by which the solar boat was towed up from the nether-world (Lefébure, Records, vol. X, [Page 648] p. 130). The figure lying on the ground denotes the god who was Atum-Aiu, the sun by night in the earth of eternity.
The people who are with Aiu in this scene are amongst those “who guard the rope of Aiu, and do not allow the serpent Apap to mount towards the boat of the great god.” These are the Aiu as the people of Iu. It is said of them, “Those who are in this scene walk before Ra (Atum-Iu). They charm (or catalepse) Apap for him. They rise with him towards the heavens.”
The Book of Amenta, called the Book of Hades by Lefébure, shows this god in his mummied form as one with Osiris in the body and with Ra in soul; otherwise it is Atum in the body, or mummy, and Iu in soul.
And just as Ra the holy spirit descends in Tattu on the mummy Osiris, and as Horus places his hands behind Osiris in the resurrection, so Iu comes to his body, the mummy in Amenta. Those who tow Ra along say, “The god comes to his body; the god is towed along towards his mummy” (Records, vol. X, p. 132). The sun-god, whether as Atum-Iu (Aiu or Aai) or Osiris-Ra, is a mummy in Amenta and a soul in heaven. The imagery is quite natural: the nocturnal sun became a mummy as a figure of the dead, and a soul or spirit in its resurrection as a figure of the living. Atum, or Osiris, as the sun in Amenta, is the mummy buried down in Khebt or Lower Egypt, and Iu in the one rendering, or Horus in the other, raises the mummy-god. This is the meaning of the ass-eared Aiu when he is portrayed in the act of hauling at the rope of the sun or raising the mummy in Amenta. The god Aiu is represented mummified upon the tomb of Rameses the Sixth — that is, in the character of Atum the father, buried as the mummy in lower Egypt. Thus we identify the ass-god Aiu or Iu (an ancient Egyptian name of the ass) in lower Egypt, and his followers, who are the Aiu by name. The followers of Iu=Aiu then are the Aiu, Ius, or the later Jews.
They fight the battle of the sun-god in the nether-earth, where the dragon Apap was the cruel impious oppressor; and when they do escape from this, the land of bondage for the manes, they are the Aaiu or the Jews, who “rise behind this god to heaven,” and their exodus is from Khebt, the lower Egypt of Amenta. The whole story of the faithful Israelites who would not bow down to the gods of Egypt is told in a few words relating to the Aiu (or Jews) in Amenta. As it is said, “These are they who spoke the truth on earth and did not rise to (prohibited) adorations” or heresies (Lefébure, Book of Hades, Records of the Past).
The legends of the exodus, like those in the book of Genesis originated in the astronomical mythology, in which the making of Amenta is followed by the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day from the lower Egypt of the under-world and the wilderness or desert. The story of this exodus is inscribed in hieroglyphics on the sarcophagus of Seti, now in the Soane Museum. The Book of Hades, or Amenta, and the Book of the Dead suffice of themselves to prove that “the Egypt and the desert” of the exodus were in Amenta, and not in the land of the pyramids. This was “the Egypt and the desert” in which the flocks of Ra were shepherded and fed. “Horus says to Ra’s flocks, Protection for you, flocks of Ra, born of the great one who is in the heavens. Breath to your nostrils, overthrowal to your coffins” (Book of Hades, 5th division, [Page 649] legend D). These are the manes in Amenta called the flocks of Ra, who are shepherded by
Horus as Har-Khuti, lord of spirits. The overthrowal of the coffins shows that this was the deliverance of the dead, and that the exodus or coming forth to day was synonymous with the resurrection from the dead.
Amenta had been mapped out in twelve domains, according to the twelve astronomical divisions and the twelve gates which the sun passed through by night. “As it is said, the great god travels by the roads of Hades, to make the divisions which take place in the earth” (Book of Hades). There are various groups of the twelve as divine personages or children of Ra in this lower Egypt of Amenta.
As characters in the mythos, Jacob and the ten tribes, sons, or children correspond to Ra the solar-god, with his ten cycles in the heaven of ten divisions (Rit., ch. 18), whilst Israel — the same personage — with the twelve sons, answers to the same god, Ra, in the heaven of twelve divisions or twelve signs of the zodiac.
It has now to be admitted that the twelve sons of Jacob are not historic, and the historical exodus must follow them, for that is founded on the twelve sons going down into Egypt as historic characters, and the people of Israel coming out of it as their direct descendants hugely multiplied. The twelve, as sons of Jacob, go down to Egypt in search of corn, and in the Book of Amenta we get a glimpse of the twelve or their mythical prototypes who make the journey as characters in the astronomical mythology. Twelve gods of the earth are to be seen marching towards a mountain, which shows they are on their way to the nether-world, as it is depicted upside down. Twelve gods in the earth of Amenta are marching towards another mountain, and these two mountains form a sort of forge toward which the divine boat voyages.
This is the entrance to Amenta, and these are the twelve as sons of Ra, who are on their way down to the lower Egypt of the mythos, the prototypal twelve who are the sons of Israel in the Hebrew version.
These are said to be “those who are born of Ra, born of his substance, and which proceed from his eye.”
Thus Ra is the father of the twelve. Ra has prepared for them “a hidden dwelling” in this Egypt of the lower earth or desert of Amenta. Twelve persons called the blessed are portrayed as worshippers of Ra.
Twelve others are the righteous who are in Amenta. Twelve mummies standing upright, each in a chapel with open doors, are “the holy gods who are in Amenta.” Twelve men walking represent “the human souls which are in Amenta.” Twelve bearers of the cord with which the allotments are measured for the glorified elect are represented by twelve persons carrying the long serpent Nenuti. These bearers of the cord in the Amenta are those who prepare the fields for the elect. Ra says, “Take the cord; draw, measure the fields of the manes, who are the elect in your dwellings, gods in your residences, deified elect, in order to rejoin the country, proved elect, in order to be within the cord.” Ra says to them of the enclosures, вЂњit
is the cord of justiceBЂќ. Ra is satisfied with the measurement. “Your own possessions, gods, and your own domains, elect, are yours. Now eat. Ra creates your fields and appoints you your food”. “The gods are content with their possessions, the glorified are satisfied with their dwellings”. The followers of Har-Khuti, lord of spirits, are the twelve, who take the [Page 650] place in the solar mythos of the earlier seven Khuti in the stellar mythos, five more being added to the seven. These are the twelve as the children of Ra, who cultivate the fields of divine harvest in the plains of Amenta, where they reap for Ra as followers of Horus the beloved son: “They labour at the harvest, they collect the corn. Their seeds are favoured in the land by the light of Ra at his appearance.” Thus the twelve are the cultivators of corn in Egypt. They give food to the gods and to the souls of the elect in Amenta. As the bearers of food they are twelve in number. In one scene the twelve are portrayed in two groups of seven and five persons. The seven are the reapers. The five are seen bending towards an enormous ear of corn. These are described as the twelve who labour at the harvest in the land of corn which is in the earth of eternity. The scene with the twelve in a posture of adoration suggests the sheaf of corn in Joseph’s dream. “Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and behold, your sheaves came round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf” (Gen. XXXVII. 7). In one form the Aarru enclosure was portrayed as the field of divine harvest, and the twelve were the typical reapers of the corn that grew there seven cubits high (Book of Hades, Records of the Past, vols. X and XII). This is sufficiently
suggestive of the twelve enormous sheaves in Joseph’s dream, and of the reapers being a form of the twelve harvesters. The twelve as gods were also rulers in the twelve signs which formed the final circle of the Aarru paradise. And in Joseph’s second dream his star is greeted with obeisance like his sheaf.
“Behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven (other) stars made obeisance to me,” he who was represented by the twelfth star as well as by the twelfth sheaf (Gen. XXXVII. 6-9). Horus in the harvest field of lower Egypt has two characters, one pertaining to the mythos, one to the eschatology. In the first he is one of the twelve as harvesters: the twelve who row the solar boat, the twelve to whom the stations were assigned or thrones were given in the zodiac. In the other character he is Har-Khuti, lord of spirits,
and in this phase he is the supreme one at the head of the twelve, who are now his servants.
The pictures show the children of Ra both as the group of twelve and also as the twelve with Horus. In one scene Horus is depicted leaning on a staff, and eleven gods are walking towards Osiris. These are the twelve altogether, of whom Horus is one in presence of the father. But on the tomb of Rameses the Sixth the twelve appear, preceded by Horus, the master of joy, leaning on his staff. These are the harvesters: seven of them are the reapers, the other five are collectors of the corn (Book of Hades). Thus the fields of divine harvest are twelve in number; the cultivators are twelve in number; the reapers and bearers of food are twelve in number; the children of Ra=Jacob-El or Isiri-El are twelve in number. So it was not left for the historic Israelites to map out the land of promise in twelve allotments betwixt the twelve tribes and twelve children of Ihuh. Amenta in twelve sections with twelve gates represented the heaven in twelve divisions, and the chart was as old as the solar zodiac of twelve signs that was already in existence, as we reckon, in the heaven of Atum-Ra some 13,000 years ago. Not only was the promised land mapped out in twelve divisions in [Page 651] accordance with the twelve signs of the solar zodiac or the twelve pillars raised by Moses round the mount — not only did the chosen race, as children of the one god Atum, take possession of the land allotted to them, or the land appointed them by lot, as Joshua renders it; title-deeds were also issued to the glorified elect.
This lower Egypt, the land of corn, in the Book of Hades is not geographical. Like Annu, Thebes, and Memphis in the Ritual, it is a mythical locality in the earth of eternity. It is the lower domain of the double earth, the country of the manes called Amenta that was hollowed out by Ptah the opener. It is the lower Egypt named Kheb, to which Isis was warned to flee by night as the place of refuge for the infant Horus when his life was threatened by the Apap-monster. Lower Egypt is the land of death or darkness, leading to the world of life and light. It is here that “Horus says to the flocks of Ra, which are in the Hades of Egypt and the desert”, “Protection for you, flocks of Ra, born of the great one who is in the heavens” as Atum-Ra. These flocks “in the Hades of Egypt and the desert” are the chosen people, the deified elect, as the children of Ra. Amenta was a land of darkness until it was lighted by the nocturnal sun. This was
the origin of the typical “Egyptian darkness”. But in the Egypt of this lower hemisphere the god prepared a secret and mysterious dwelling for his children where the glorified elect were hidden in the light. “Ra says to the earth, Let the earth be bright. My benefits are for you who are in the light. To you be a dwelling”. “I have hidden you”. (Book of Hades, 1st division.) Food is given them because of the light, in which they are enveloped. This divine dwelling created by Ra for the elect is entitled “the Retreat”. As it is said, “The earth is open to Ra, the earth is closed against Apap. Those who are in the Retreat worship Ra”. This Retreat is equivalent to the biblical land of Goshen, where the chosen people dwelt in light. In the book of Exodus there is a three days’ solid darkness over the land of Egypt, “but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings” (ch. X. 22, 23). The land of Goshen in the Hebrew version represents
the Retreat of Ammah in the Ritual. Ammah is a locality that is traversed in knowing the spirits of Annu or of attaining the garden eastward. Those who belong to the state of the elect are hidden in Ammah. They are described as being concealed in light by Ra. Ammah is a region reserved for the gods and the glorified spirits who are the children of light bound for the land where there is no more night. It is a place impenetrable to the creatures of darkness and to those who are twice dead — dead in their sins as well as in the mortal body. These are they who do not rise again from the lower Egypt. There is no deliverance or exodus for them; they do not enter Ammah, or follow Shu, the lion of strength, who leads up the elect into the land of light. Ammah is the sixth one of fourteen abodes in the 149th chapter of the Ritual. It is an abode of peace reserved for the blessed, where the evil dead cannot enter. It is a mystery to the manes. The god who is there is called the overthrower of the crocodile or dragon. The deceased in saluting Ammah asks that he may take possession of its stuffs in peace. “O Ammah! Reservation of the gods; mystery for the manes where the dead may not enter. Hail to thee, O Ammah [Page 652] the august.
I come to see the gods who are there. Open to me, that I may take possession of your stuffs.” (Cf. the spoils.) Ammah is the Goshen of the Ritual, reserved and set apart for the glorified as a place impenetrable to the powers of evil or the dead who do not rise again, and for whom there is no exodus or coming forth to day (149). It is the work of the worshippers in Amenta to destroy the enemies of Ra and defend the great one against the evil Apap. They “live on the food of Ra, and the meats belong to the inhabitants of Amenta. Holy is that which they carry unto the dwelling where they are concealed.” This divine food is apparently repeated in the quails and manna that were sent from heaven, according to the biblical account.
Dreadful massacres are perpetrated in taking possession of this promised land mapped out in twelve divisions. Ra says, “I have commanded that they should massacre, and they have massacred the beings.” He orders his followers to destroy the impious ones in a suppression of blood. But these beings are not the human inhabitants of Canaan or any other land on earth. The wars of the lord in these battles of Amenta are fought by his true and faithful followers on behalf of Un-Nefer the good being. The enemies who are doomed to be slaughtered by the invaders are the Sebau and Sami, the creators of dearth and darkness, who were in possession of the land, and who are for ever rising in rebellion against the supreme god Ra. It was these dwellers in the ways of darkness who were to be annihilated by the children of light, the glorified elect, the chosen people, who are then to take possession of the land. Ra says to them, “Your offerings (made on earth) are yours. Take your refreshments. Your souls shall not be massacred, your meats shall not putrefy, faithful ones who have destroyed Apap for me.”
Thus the massacres by which the Israelites were enabled to clear out the inhabitants of Canaan and take possession of their lands had been previously committed by the followers of Ra. Ra says to those who are born of him, and for whom he had created the dwelling-place in the beautiful Amenta, “Breath to you who are in the light, and dwellings for you. My benefits are for you.” But the beings there massacred were not human. In the biblical version it is said of a mythical event, “It came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let them go, that the Lord slew all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man and the first-born of beast” (Ex. XIII. 15). This insane proceeding on the part of the Lord may be explained by reference to the original. From this we learn that amongst the beings massacred or sacrificed were “quadrupeds and reptiles” (Book of Hades, 1st division, legend E). The Hebrew historian has discreetly omitted the first-born of the reptile, unless it is included as a beast. Again, one name of the keeper of the 17th gate is “lord of the massacre and of sacrificing the enemy at midnight!” (Rit., 145). With this we may compare the passage, “And it came to pass at midnight that the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt . . . and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead” (Ex. XII. 30).
Now, amongst the glorified elect or chosen people who are the children of Ra, the ass-god, Aai, or Iu, there is a group of his [Page 653] defenders and followers who accompany him, and who are said to rise with Ra towards the heavens to be “for him in the two sanctuaries,” and to “make him rise in Nu” (heaven). These are among the worshippers of the ass-headed god Iu, who are called the Aaiu (the Ius or Jews) by name. Apap is threatened thus, “O impious cruel one, Apap, who spreadest thy wickedness.
Thy face shall be destroyed, Apap! Approach thy place of torment. The Nemu are against thee: thou shalt be struck down. The Aaiu are against thee: thou shalt be destroyed”. It is these Aaiu as worshippers of the god Iu that we claim to be the Ius or later Jews of the mythical legends so long supposed to have been historical. Thus the glorified elect, the blessed, the righteous, who are in Amenta, that is in the lower Egypt of the mythos, are the chosen people of the most high god, who was Ra in his first sovereignty as the ass-headed Iu=Iao, Aiu, or Iahu; Atum-Huhi as god the father, Atum-Iu as god the ever-coming son.
The Aaiu or Jews, then, are amongst those who “rise for Ra.” “They beat down Apap in his bonds”. Apap is stricken with swords. He is sacrificed. Ra rises at the finishing hour; “he ascends when the chain is fixed”. Those who are in this scene drag the chains of this evil-doer (Apap). They say to Ra, “Come Ra; advance Khuti! The chain is fixed on evil-face (Neha-her), and Apap is in bonds” (Book of Hades, 10th division). This is the scene of making fast the dragon in the pit which is preparatory to the rising of Ra.
These Aiu or Jews accompany the sun-god when he makes the journey through the valley of darkness, the lake of Putrata, and the desert in “the Amenta of Egypt,” where they are protected as the “flocks of Ra.” Amidst the people that dwell in darkness and black night they are the glorified elect, enveloped and concealed in light, and fed mysteriously in the wilderness with food supplied from heaven. Earth opens to let them pass when they are pursued by their old enemy, and closes to protect them against the devouring dragon. Hence it is said by those who render the great serpent impotent by their magic, “Earth opens to Ra! Earth closes to Apap!” The monuments of Egypt are as truly and honestly historical as the geological record. Both have their breaks and their missing links, yet are perfectly trustworthy on the whole. And these monuments, from beginning to end, have no word of witness that the Jews or Hebrews ever were in Egypt as a foreign ethnical entity. They know nothing of Abraham as a Semite who went down into Egypt to teach the Egyptians astronomy. They know nothing of Jacob except as a Hiksos Pharaoh, or a divinity, Jacob-El, whose name is found on one of the scarabei. They know nothing of Joseph and his viziership, nor of the ten plagues, nor of the going forth in triumph from the house of bondage to attain the promised land. These and many other wonderful things related in the Word of God are known to the Egyptian records, but not as history. There is another Egypt not yet explored by the bibliolaters: the Egypt of mythology and the Kamite eschatology.
Unless we take into account the mound of the Jew in the neighbourhood of On and the temple of Atum-Iu (W. M. F. Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities), the only way of identifying the Jews [Page 654] in Egypt is by the name of the Iu or Aiu in the lower Egypt of the mythical Amenta, where we find the twelve sons or children of Israel, under the name of the Ius or Aiu, as worshippers of the god who was known in Egypt as the ass-headed Iu, Aiu=Iao, Ieou, or Iahu, and who, as we see from the scarabei, may also have been known in Egypt as Jacob-El, the father of the twelve who were reapers of the corn in the harvest of Amenta.
The writer has previously suggested, in A Book of the Beginnings, that Jacob represents the god Ra as Iu in Kheb, the lower Egypt of Amenta. Jacob was known as a divinity in Northern Syria by the name of Jacob-El, and Joseph by the name of Joseph-El. The El is a Semitic suffix to the names, denoting the divinity of both, versus the ethnical origin of Jacob and Joseph. These, according to the present showing, were among the gods of Egypt as Huhi the father and Iu the son, or sif in Egyptian, Iu-sif being=Joseph in Hebrew. Thus we propose to identify the mummy of Jacob in Egypt with the mummy of Atum or Osiris as a form of the mummy-sun that was portrayed as being carried up from Amenta. Jacob, as we read, was embalmed in Egypt, and the mummy in its coffin was taken up by Joseph and carried to the land of Canaan. This was the land of promise, which is the Aarru-paradise, the field of the tree of life up which the sun-god climbs in his resurrection from the coffin. The “burying-place” of Jacob is “before Mamre,” where the tree of Atum in the garden or meadow, the Sekhet-Hetep, is represented by the oak or terebinth under which Abraham dwelt. Joseph the son (Iusif) is the same character in carrying up the mummy of Jacob that Horus the beloved son is to the dead Osiris in his coffin. Horus acts as the raiserup of the mummy. This is expressed when the speaker says, “I am he who raises the hand which is motionless” (Rit., ch. 5). Elsewhere Horus comes to raise the mummy of Osiris. Thus the carrying up of Jacob out of Egypt by the son may be paralleled by the resurrection of Osiris, coffin and all. One name of
the burial-place for the mummy-Osiris in the Ritual is Sekhem. The deceased is enveloped as a mummy in Sekhem. He rises again and goes, as pure spirit, out of Sekhem. Also the well of Jacob near Shechem answers to the water of Osiris, and the oak or terebinth in Shechem to the tree of life in the pool of the persea or the water of life. The fields of Shechem correspond to the Sekhet-Hetep or fields of peace and plenty, the oasis of fertility which prefigured the celestial paradise. “The parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph” was in Shechem, also called Sichem. This is a parallel to Sekhem as place of burial given by Osiris the father to Amsu-Horus the son, who rose again as the living mummy or sahu after the burial, and went up from the lower Egypt of Amenta and the sandy wilderness of Sekari as the god in the coffin or sekeru-bark. The Egyptian Sekhem was no doubt localized as a sanctuary when Judea and Palestine were sown over with the old Egyptian names. Osiris was the reputed holder of property in Sekhem, unless we understand that his mummy, the body of the lord, constituted the property that was held in that sanctuary (Hymn to Osiris, lines 1 and 2).
The lower Egypt of Amenta is a land of bondage to the manes who were doomed to labour in the harvest-field. Chapter 5 is [Page 655] called the chapter by which work is not imposed upon a person in the nether-world. But provision is made for the work being done by proxy. Chapter 6 is the chapter by which the funeral statuettes may be made to do work for a person in the nether-world. “Be thou counted for me,” says the speaker, “at every moment, for planting the fields, for watering the soil, and for removing the sands.” Thus there was a system of enforced labour in the lower Egypt of Amenta. The land of bondage is likewise alluded to as the land of rule in the Book of the Dead. In the chapter by means of which the manes come forth to day and pass through Ammah or the Ammehit it is said, “Hail to you, ye lords of rule (or ruling powers), living for ever, whose secular period is eternity. Let me not be stopped at the Meskat (or place of punishment); let not the Sebau have the mastery over me; let not your doors be closed upon me.” And amongst other pleas in this invocation it is said, “Deliver me from the crocodile of this land of rule,” or, as it got interpreted, this land of bondage in the lower Egypt of Amenta. In this chapter the crocodile has an evil character, and the evil crocodile is the mythical dragon, the dragon of Egypt, a figure of the Pharaoh who kept the people in bondage and would not let them go from out their prison-house in the Meskat where the evil Sebau had the mastery over the manes, who plead, “Let not the powers of darkness obtain the mastery over me. . . . . I faint before the teeth of those whose mouth raveneth in the nether-world” (Rit., chs. 72 and 74, Renouf).
The Apap-dragon of Amenta is the real Pharaoh who held the people in bondage, but in certain of the Semitic legends Atum-Ra, the great judge and punisher of the wicked, has been mixed up with the cruel Pharaoh who would not let the people go. According to the Arab traditions, the name of the Pharaoh who detained the chosen people, the elect children of light, was known as “Tamuzi”. Castell gives this as the Arabic name of the Pharaoh who hindered the exodus of the Israelites, which name goes to the root of the matter, for Tamuzi appears in the Ritual as Atum-Ra, commonly called Tum. The name of this Ra or Pharaoh is derived from “tumu” to shut up, to close. Tum as the setting sun was the closer in the western gate. As shutter up of day or of autumn he wears the closing lotus on his head, the antithesis to Horus
rising out of the opening flower of dawn. Atum was the closer as well as the opener of Amenta by name.
Those who were captives in his keeping down in the Amenta were hindered from making their exodus until the plagues were passed or the conditions of freedom had been all fulfilled.
The entrance to Amenta figured in the Egyptian itinerary was “the mouth of the cleft” as it was termed at Abydos. This is apparently represented in the Hebrew legend by the mouth of the gorge at Pi-ha-hiroth, “which is before Baal Zephon.” Thus the opening in the mount of the swallowing earth is at the same point as the passage of the Red Sea which also opened for the Israelites to pass when pursued by Pharaoh and his host. There are, however, two starting-points in the biblical exodus of the Israelites. No sooner had they set out on the old road that ran from Rameses to Succoth (or Thuku) and Etham or Khetam, the border-fortress in the land of Thuku, than they were commanded to turn back for a fresh [Page 656] departure from Pi-ha-hiroth, the pass or gorge which was entered by the mouth of the cleft. At this point of divergence the local topography is brought to confusion and serves no further use for localizing the journey. We have to go back and start from the entrance to Amenta by the mouth of the cleft in the rock that was figured at Abydos as the beautiful gate of entrance to Khent-Amenta. This twofold starting-point at least coincides with the two modes of entrance, one by land and the other by water.
At Pi-ha-hiroth we enter the Red Sea of the mythos, the water of the west that was red at sunset, but not the geographical Red Sea. This was entered by the boat of the sun and the boat of souls which passed through the cleft by water as depicted in the vignettes (Maspero, Dawn of Civ., Eng. tr., p. 197). We are now upon the track of the exodus from the lower Egypt of the nether-earth, which was mythical in the lesser mysteries and mystical in the greater, and able to show where and how and why the children of Israel pursue the same route through Amenta as do the children of Ra in the Book of Hades (Records of the Past, vols. X. and XII). At Pi-ha-hiroth the Israelites come to the mouth of the cleft and enter on the passage of the Red Sea, pursued by Pharaoh the dragon and his evil host. In the book of Exodus the Israelites, of course, are treated as the glorified and the Egyptians as the powers of darkness, the conspirators against the elect, the chosen, the children of light. Or, according to the Ritual, by the Apapdragon and the Sebau, whose habitat is in the Red Sea of the mythos and therefore was not geographical. The Egyptians made the passage by water, but by substituting the miracle for the mythos, “the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea.” After crossing the waters they enter the wilderness, which is true to its character in the Egyptian books of the nether earth.
When the land that flowed with milk and honey is promised to the children of Israel, it is said by Ihuh, “I will send my terror before thee — I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before thee —“ (Ex. XXIII. 27, 28). Now the hornet, wasp, or bee was a type of Ra the solar god, and thence of the Egyptian Pharaoh. Hor-Apollo says, “They depict a bee to denote a people obedient to their king” (B. i, 62), the force of the creature’s sting being emblematic of the supreme power. Also the abait or bird-fly, a bee, wasp, or hornet, was their guide to the Aarru-garden in the Ritual. “I have made my way into the royal palace,” says the Osiris” (ch. 76), “and it was the bird-fly (abait) that led me hither” — that is, to the land flowing with milk and honey. Apparently this symbolic abait or bee as guide to the Aarru-paradise has been turned into the hornet that drove the people out of
the land in the Hebrew rendering of the story. When Moses sends the explorers ahead to spy out the land of Canaan, and they come back afraid because it is inhabited by the Anakim or giants, “Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, вЂњLet us go up at once and possess it, for we are well able to overcome it” (Num. XIII. 30). Caleb the explorer who had been sent forward by Moses to spy out the land of promise is another of these converted divinities. In the Semitic languages Caleb is the dog, and the dog as Egyptian was the jackal, apuat, the guide of ways, the zootype which was the guide of [Page 657] ways in the solar mythos, and the guide of souls to the garden of Amenta, wherein grew the grapes of paradise in brobdingnagian clusters which are to be seen in vignettes to the Ritual. Shu as son of Ra is the great leader of the people to the promised land; Anup the jackal=dog was the guide; and these two are represented in the book of Numbers by Joshua (or Hoshea) the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Those two, the leader and the guide, both in the astronomy and the eschatology, are the only two in the Hebrew version that are to go forth in the exodus from the wilderness and burial-place of the dead. “And they came unto the valley of Eschol, and cut down from thence a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it upon a staff between two” (carriers). “And they returned from spying out the land at the end of forty days”. They showed the fruit of the land to Moses and the Israelites, and said, “We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the fruit of it” (Num. XIII. 23-28). The colossal cluster of grapes seen in Eschol by those who were sent to spy out
the promised land is of itself almost sufficient to prove the mythical nature and Egyptian origin of the land that flowed with milk and honey and bore the grapes that took two men to carry one cluster. Not only was the circumpolar paradise the land of the seven cows, called the providers of plenty; as Egyptian it was also the garden of the grape-vine by name. Not as Eden, but as Aarru the garden of the vine or the grapes. In one of the Hebrew märchen it is said that when the explorers of the promised land returned they related, “We have seen the land which we are to conquer with the sword, and it is good and fruitful.
The strongest camel is scarcely able to carry one bunch of grapes; one ear of corn yields enough to feed a whole family; and one pomegranate shell would contain five armed men. But the inhabitants of the land and their cities are in keeping with the productions of the soil. We saw men the smallest of whom was six hundred cubits high. They were astonished at us, on account of our diminutive stature, and laughed at us. Their houses were also in proportion, walled up to heaven, so that an eagle could hardly soar above them” (Baring Gould’s Legends of the Old Testament Characters, vol. II, p. 118; Weil, p. 175). These are based upon the gigantic inhabitants of Amenta in the Ritual, who have been vastly exaggerated in the märchen. This grand domain was constructed for the manes who as the glorified ones have joined the powers of the east at the point of coming forth where Shu uplifts the sky for Ra and blows off the divine barge with favouring gales. The great or glorified ones are said to be each nine cubits (about 18 feet) in height, and therefore this is the land of the giants to which the Israelites were bound under the leadership of Joshua and the guidance of Caleb the dog. This region of things gigantic may be found in the mystical abodes of the Ritual through which the manes have to pass on their way to the world of light and blessedness. The second abode is called the “greatest of possessions in the fields of the Aarru. The height of this corn is seven cubits; the ears are two, its stalks are three cubits”. The spirits also are said to be seven cubits in stature (ch. 149). Of the fifth abode it is said, “Hail, abode of the spirits, through which there is no passage. The spirits belonging to it are seven cubits long in [Page 658] their thighs. They live as wretched shades”. “Oh, this abode of the spirits”. In chapter 109 the inhabitants are nine cubits in height. The passage through the Hades in the eleventh abode is described as the belly of hell. “There is neither coming out of nor going into it, on account of the greatness of the terror of passing him who is in it”. That is, the devouring demon, the Am-Moloch. The same fear is reflected in the faces of the spies from the land of giants; they had seen the same sight. The Moabites called the giants who dwelt there in times past the Emim (Deut. II. 11), and the Am-am in Egyptian are the devourers. Am is the male devourer, Am-t the female devourer in the Ritual. As said in chapter 109, “It is the glorified ones, each of whom is nine cubits in height, who reap the Aarru fields (in the divine domain of the promised land) in presence of the powers of the east” (Renouf). The giants as Rephaim are also Egyptian (Rit., ch. 149, 5th Abode). These giants of Amenta and the religious mysteries still survive in the grotesque masks of the Christmas pantomime, which represent the huge inhabitants of an under-world that is the lowermost of three, the highest of which is on the mount of glory. Emim, Anakim, Rephaim, and Zamzummim are all giants” — hence the Anakim under different names, nine cubits high; and this land of the giants as Egyptian was in the nether-earth, the original of the Hebrew Sheol, in which the giants are identifiable as non-human inhabitants of a foreworld that had passed away. It is to that foreworld and its people, the children of darkness, that the writer of Deuteronomy refers, and as its inhabitants were altogether mythical (or eschatological), the children of Israel, and of Lot, who drove them out and destroyed them utterly, could not be human nor the transaction humanly historical. The land of the mythical giants can be localized in Amenta, but not elsewhere.
The lower or sub-terrestrial paradise, otherwise called the garden of Aarru, was the garden eastward, the garden of the mount in Amenta, which was in prospect throughout the journey. This was the paradise to which Shu-Anhur was the leader from the western mountain and Anup-Ap-Uat was the guide as dog or jackal. It was the paradise of all good things, including the gigantic grapes and grain, the milk and honey, as types of food and drink in everlasting plenty.
The point of emergence from Amenta was at the double gate of glory on the summit of the eastern mount; otherwise expressed, this was the place of exit from the lower to the upper Egypt of the mythos as celestial localities. Anhur was the uplifter and supporter of the heaven and its inhabitants by night. Shu was the deliverer by day who brought the solar orb to the horizon. In the Hebrew rendering Moses sustains the rôle of Anhur, and Joshua that of Shu, the halves of the whole round being extended to the circle of the year. The earthly paradise was planted as the Allu or elysian fields to the eastward of the nether-earth where stood the tree of life, and where the mountain of the double earth was climbed to get a glimpse of the land of promise that was visible over-sea. Upon this mountain “Moses stood, to view the landscape o’er”, or rather the skyscape. The lower paradise was but a picture and a promise for the wanderers in the wilderness of Amenta. The upper was the paradise [Page 659] of all the ancient and presolar legends. Thus far the deliverer as Anhur or as Moses was the conductor of the children of Ra or Israel. High on Mount Hetep, in the heaven of eternity, was the paradise of spirits perfected. This was the land of promise and final fruition both in one, the land overflowing with milk and honey. The milk, called “the white liquor which the glorified ones love”, was supplied by the seven cows, providers of plenty in the meadows of the upper Aarru. Here also was the land of corn in limitless abundance. No words could say how much. Lower Egypt was a land of corn, but the legendary promised land of corn, honey, and oil was in the Aarru fields of the mythos. These were the fields where the corn grew seven cubits high, with ears three cubits long and in eternal plenty for all comers. The landing-place upon Mount Hetep at the summit of attainment is called “ the divine nome of corn and barley” (Rit., ch. 110).
The Egyptians were already tillers of the ground when Ptah laid out and planted the lower Aarruparadise, as their other field of work, in an earth that was ruled or tyrannized over by the powers of evil, headed by the Apap-dragon. This was the earth of the abyss, the primeval desert which had to be reclaimed by the pioneers and planters of that under-world. It was laid out strictly on the allotment system. Each one of the manes had a portion in which to plough and sow and reap. The seed grown in the harvest-field of life on earth was garnered up to sow and bring forth a hundredfold in this, the field of divine harvest, which was so magnified by tradition because its bounty had been divinized. The Egyptian
authorship of a paradise of peace and plenty is pre-eminently shown by their converting the “earth of eternity” into a world of work, the harvest-field that was cultivated by the manes, who dug and hoed and sowed in it, and reaped the corn according to their labours (Rit., ch. 6). Amenta was made from sand converted into fertile soil well watered by the all-enriching Nile. It was like lower Egypt, the land of honey, the land of the sycamore fig-tree, which was a veritable tree of life to the Egyptians. It was the land of the grapes that grew in clusters of prodigious size. It was the country of abundant corn. Not that the Egyptians thought the other world a replica of this, but such was the natural plan on which they wrought in making out the unknown by the known. They dramatized another intermediate state, and acted the eschatological drama in accordance with conditions familiar to them in this world. The Aarru-paradise in Amenta is copied from Egypt in the upper earth. The fulfilment of all blessedness was in its being a likeness of the dear old land made permanent and perfect in the spirit-world. It was the promised land for those who were prepared to take possession of it and to drink of the sacred Nile at its celestial source. Its tree of life was the same sycamore fig-tree that had always been the tree of life and food in season.
The journey from the lower Egypt of the mythos through the deserts of Amenta was from west to east, from the place of sunset to the point of sunrise which was called the solar mount of glory. At sunset Anhur-Shu upraised his mansion of the starry firmament which he uplifted nightly, standing on the steps of Am-Khemen. This presented a stellar picture of the upper Egypt or the upper [Page 660] paradise for which the wanderers in the wilderness were bound. At dawn the mount of sunrise in the garden eastward was attained. This was the mountain of Amenta, also called Shennu or Shenni=Sinai. Shena in Egyptian signifies the point of turning in the orbit of the solar course. This point was figured on the mountain where the lions rested as supporters of the solar disk at dawn, or Shu uplifted Ra from out the darkness of
Amenta and held the orb aloft with his two hands. At this point Anhur’s place as leader of the chosen people was taken by his alter ego Shu. The Magic Papyrus describes the warrior-god as “king of upper and lower Egypt” in his two characters of Anhur and Shu-si-Ra. By night Shu-Anhur was the uplifter of the firmament for the Egyptian exodus or coming forth to day from out the darkness of Amenta or of “Egypt and the desert” (Rit., ch. 110). (See the figure of Shu as the uplifter, p. 315.) Under the name of Anhur he is the leader of the upper heaven, rod in hand. His starry image probably was seen as Regulus in the constellation of Kepheus, the ruler there, arrested with the rod or staff still lifted in his hand. He repels the crocodile or dragon coming out of the abyss, the crocodile that is the dragon of Egypt and the
Pharaoh of the Hebrew writers. This repelling of the crocodiles that issue from the abyss corresponds to the overthrowal of Pharaoh or the dragon and his host in the Red Sea. Anhur is the lord of the scimitar.
He is designated “smiting double horns”; “the god provided with the two horns”, like Moses. “Uplifted is the sky which he maintains with his two arms”, like Moses. This two-fold character of Anhur is indicated when he is described as “the king of upper and lower Egypt, Shu-si-Ra”. This was the Egypt of Amenta.
Thus, as the king of lower Egypt he was Anhur the uplifter of the firmament for the chosen people to come forth. At daybreak he assumed the character of Shu, the son of Ra, who lifted up the solar disk at dawn on the horizon, otherwise upon the mount of sunrise. As Regulus on the horizon in the zodiac the leader of the manes changed to Shu, who is then called “the double abode of Ra”. The Magic Papyrus, which contains “the hymn of the god Shu”, is called “the chapter of the excellent songs which dispel the submerged”. It is the celebration of the great victory over the Apap-reptile and all dangerous animals lurking in the depths of the mythical Red Sea. It is said to Shu in the hymn, “Thou leadest to the upper heaven with thy rod in that name which is thine of Anhur. Thou repellest the crocodile coming out of the abyss in that name which is thine of repeller of crocodiles”. The crocodile, of course, is the dragon of Egypt. The wicked are overthrown by Anhur the valiant as the lord of events. His sister Tefnut accompanies him. She is a form of Sekhet, “the goddess in her fury”, the “chastiser of the wicked”. “She gives her fire against his enemies, and reduces them to non-existence”. She is the Kamite prototype of Miriam, the sister of Moses. Tefnut accompanies her brother in his battles with the Sebau and the submerged. Elsewhere she changes her shape into a weapon of war. She shouts her defiance against “the wicked conspirators”, exclaiming, “I am Tefnut thundering against those who are annihilated for ever!
“and against those that “ remain floating on the waves, like dead bodies on the inundation”, just as it was on that [Page 661] day when “Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore” (Ex. XIV. 30). Tefnut, the prototype of Miriam, “gives her fire” against her brother’s enemies to reduce them to non-existence by their being submerged in the waters, where “Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea” (Ex. XV. 20-21). Moses corresponds to Anhur. He is the leader of the children of Israel during the first part of the journey towards the promised land. He conducts them through the Red Sea where Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore; through the sandy wilderness, the waterless wastes, and the ways of darkness. “Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim”. This, as we reckon, was the great battle of the autumn equinox. It was not a battle fought by human beings once for all on mundane ground, but a war betwixt the Lord and Amalek, that went on for ever, from generation to generation, because it was periodic in the phenomena of external nature, and not a duel betwixt the Lord of heaven and an earthly potentate or people. The description of holding up the hands of Moses to maintain the equilibrium shows the equinoctial nature of the conflict. The going forth at the equinox is further identified by the month of the year. The Jewish new year still begins about the time of the autumn equinox, a little belated in consequence of its not having been carefully readjusted. “And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you” (Ex. XII. 1, 2). This was the year that opened with and was determined by the full moon nearest to the autumn equinox. For six months thenceforth the moon was ruler of the year as the great light in the darkness of the double earth. Again, at the time of the vernal equinox there is another poising of the scales, if not a standing still of sun and moon, and another great battle in which the sun-god finally overcomes the dragon of darkness and all the evil powers that war against the light of life and welfare of the world; also against the children of Ra on their journey as souls or manes from the lower Egypt of the mythical Amenta to the upper heaven on the mount of glory.