Ancient Egypt - The Light of the World
THE EGYPTIAN WISDOM IN OTHER JEWISH WRITINGS
[Page 470] The Kamite mythos of the old lost garden may be seen transforming into Hebrew legendary lore when Ezekiel describes an Eden that was sunk and buried in the lowermost parts of the earth. “Thus saith the Lord. ..When I cast him (Pharaoh) down to Sheol with them that descend into the pit: and all the trees of Eden, ...and all that drink water were comforted in the nether parts of the earth. ...”, “To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden ? Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden into the nether parts of the earth; thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised”. (Ez. xxxi. 15, 16, 18.) This is the garden of Eden in Sheol, and Sheol is a Semitic version of the Egyptian Amenta. That is why the lost Gan-Eden is to be found in the nether parts of the earth as an outcast of the later theology.
When the word Sheol in the Old Testament is rendered in English by “the grave”, it is inadequate times out of number. The Hebrew writers were not always speaking or thinking of the grave when they wrote of Sheol, which has to be bottomed in Amenta, the divine nether-earth, not simply in the tomb. The grave is not identical with hell, nor the pit-hole with the bottomless pit. The pangs and sorrows of Sheol, like the purging pangs of the Romish purgatory, have to be studied in the Egyptian Ritual. Many of the moanings and the groanings in the Psalms are the utterances of Osiris or the Osiris suffering in Amenta. They are the cries for assistance in Sheol. The appeals in the house of bondage for help from on high, and for deliverance from afflictions and maladies more than human, were uttered In Amenta before they were heard in Sheol, and the Psalmist who first wrote the supplications on behalf of the manes was known as the divine scribe Taht before the Psalms in Hebrew were ascribed to David. The speaker of Psalm xvi. is talking pure Egyptian doctrine in Amenta concerning his soul and body when he says, “My flesh shall dwell in safety, for thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thy holy one to see corruption; thou wilt show me the path of life; in thy presence is the fulness of joy, in thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore”. As we see from the Ritual, this is the manes expressing his confidence in the duration of his personality, the persistence of his sahu or mummy-soul in [Page 471] Amenta, and his hope of being vivified for ever by the Holy Spirit and led along the pathway of eternal life by Horus the Redeemer to the right hand of his father, Atum-Ra. He is the sleeper in Amenta when he says, “I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied with thy likeness when I awake” (Ps. xvii. 15). The Osiris woke in Sekhem, where he saw the likeness of his Lord who left his picture there; his true likeness as the risen one transformed, transfigured, and divinely glorified, that looked upon the manes, smiling sun-wise through the defecating mist of death, for the Osiris to come forth and follow him. The speaker was in Amenta as the land of bondage when the “cords of Sheol” were bound about him. He was assimilated to the suffering Horus, sitting blind and helpless in the utter darkness, pierced and torn and bleeding from the wounds inflicted on him by Sut, who had been his own familiar friend, his twin-brother, and who had turned against him and betrayed him to his death. The most memorable sayings in the
Psalms, and the most misleading when misunderstood, are uttered in this character of Osiris, who was the typical victim in Amenta, where he was tormented by the followers of Sut, the forsaken sufferer who was piteously left to cry, “My God! My God! Why hast thou forsaken me? Why art thou so far from helping me?” The sufferer is in Sheol, the miry pit, when he says, “I sink in deep mire”. “Deliver me out of the mire, and let not Sheol shut her mouth upon me” (Ps. Ixix. 2,14, 15). Sheol, then, is one with Amenta, and the drama with its characters and teachings belongs to the mysteries of Amenta, which are attributed to Taht, the Egyptian psalmist, who is the great chief in Sekhem, the place where Horus suffered or Osiris died. Taht was the writer of the sayings attributed to Horus in his dual character of the human sufferer in Amenta and of Horus-Tema, the divine avenger of the sufferings that were inflicted on Osiris by the “wicked”, the Sami, the co-conspirators with Sut, the Egyptian Judas. This will account for the non-natural imagery and hugely inhuman language ascribed to the supposed historic David, who as writer was primarily the psalmist Taht, and who called down the divine wrath upon the accursed Typhonians for what they had done in binding, torturing, and piercing Horus (or Osiris) and pursuing him to death.So far as the language of Taht remains in the Psalms of David, it is inhuman because the characters of the drama were originally non-human. This is one of the many misrenderings that have to be rectified by means of the Egyptian Ritual, when we have discriminated between the earth of time and the earth of eternity, between the denizens of Judea and the manes in Sheol, and learned that the Hebrew and Christian histories of these mystical matters have been compounded out of the Egyptian eschatology.
It is noteworthy that certain of the Psalms, in two different groups (xlii. to xlix. and lxxxiv. to lxxxviii.), are specialized as “Psalms of the Sons of Korah”. These were the rebels, once upon a time, who, according to Hebrew tradition, disappeared when the earth opened and swallowed them up alive. This is a legend of Amenta. The only earth that ever swallowed human beings was the nether-earth of Sheol; and if we take our stand with the sons of Korah in Amenta we can [Page 472] read these Psalms and see how they should especially apply to those who were swallowed by Sheol in the nether-world. “One thing”, says a commentator, “which added to this surprising occurrence, is that when Korah was swallowed in the earth his sons were preserved”. They went down to the pit in death, but lived on as did the manes in Amenta.
The sons of Korah are in Sheol. But, says the speaker,“God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol” (Ps. xlix. 15). He exclaims, “Bring me unto thy holy hill and to thy tabernacles”. Psalm xlv. is a Psalm addressed to the anointed son, the king=the royal Horus, who comes as a conqueror of death and Sheol. Psalm xlvii. is a song of the resurrection from Amenta. “God is gone up with a shout”, to sit upon his holy throne, in the eternal city “on his holy mountain”, which was the way up from the dark valley for those who, like “the sons of Korah”, sank into the nether-earth, but who lived on to rise again and reach the summit of the sacred mount. The Kamite steps of ascent were buried as a fetish figure in the coffins with the dead for use, typically, when they woke to life in Amenta. It is said to the Osiris in the Ritual, “Osiris, thou hast received thy sceptre, thy pedestal, and the flight of stairs beneath thee”; this was in readiness for his resurrection. These images of the stand on which the gods were elevated, like Anup at the pole, the tat of stability, and the steps of ascent to heaven, were buried with the mummy as emblems of divine protection which are with him when he emerges from the comatose state of the dead. The steps thus buried stand for the mountain of ascent. We are reminded of this by the Psalmist when he sings, “O Lord, thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol. Thou, Lord, of thy favour hadst made my mountain to stand strong” (Ps. xxx. 37) the mountain that was imaged in the tomb by the steps with the aid of which the deceased makes the ascent from Amenta, and can say, “I am the lord of the stairs. I have made my
nest on the horizon” (Rit., ch. 85). The Pharaoh Unas exults that the ladder or steps have been supplied to him by his father, Ra, as means of ascent to spirit world. When King Pepi makes his exodus from the lower earth to the elysian fields Sut sets up his maket, or ladder, in Amenta by which the manes reaches the horizon; and, secondly, Horus erects his ladder by which the spirit of Pepi reaches up to heaven. This divides the steps of ascent into halves of seven each as these are figured in the seven steps of the solar boat. Thus the total number is fourteen, as it was in the lunar mythos when the eye of the full moon was attained at the summit of fourteen steps or top of the staircase. The number, as may be explained, was fifteen in the soli-lunar reckoning of the month. Thus in one computation there were fifteen steps to the ladder of ascent from the depths of Amenta to the summit of the mount. Now, fifteen of the Psalms (cxx. to cxxxiv.) are termed “Psalms of degrees”. In the Hebrew they are called “a Song of ascents”. In the Chaldee they were designated “a song that was sung upon the steps of the abyss”. These are the steps from the abyss or depths of Sheol mentioned by the speaker. who says, “Thou shalt bring me up again from the depths of the earth” (Ps. Ixxi. 20). “Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O Lord” (Ps. cxxx. I). Thus the steps constituted a means of ascent from Sheol or Amenta, [Page 473] and in the song of ascents we can identify the staircase of the great god by which the summit of the mount was attained.
The speaker has dwelt long in the death-dark land. He will lift up his eyes to the mountains, or the mount:
“Unto thee do I lift up mine eyes, O thou that sittest in the heavens”. “The Lord hath chosen Zion: he hath desired it for his habitation'' - as he had already done when his name was Khnum, or Osiris, the lord of Sheni (Rit., ch. 36). The celestial mountain is the place where the throne was prepared for the last judgment in the mysteries of Amenta, and figured in the maat upon the summit of the mount. It was there Osiris sat “in his throne judging righteously as king for ever”. The mount was also called the staircase of the great god. Osiris is said to sit at the head of the staircase, surrounded by his circle of gods (Rit., ch. 22 ). In the pre-Osirian cult it was Atum-Ra who sat as the great judge in the maat, the hall of truth, law, and justice. As we have seen, the mount on high was also imaged by other types of the ascent to heaven.
The speaker in the song of ascents or the psalms of fifteen degrees is at the base of the mythical mount in Sheol = Amenta. The lord whom he addresses is upon the summit of his holy hill, just as Osiris or Atum or Sebek, is the great god seated at the head of the staircase. In his distress he cries unto the Lord for deliverance from the enemy, who is Sut the liar and deceiver; “him that hateth peace”. “My soul”, he says, “hath long had her dwelling with him that hateth peace. I am for peace”. “Woe is me!” he cries, “ that I sojourn in Meshech” (Ps. cxx. 5). Meshech, or meska in the Egyptian, as a place-name signifies the place of scourging and purifying in Suten-Khen. It is the Kamite purgatory as a place of rebirth in Amenta (Rit., ch. 17)for the soul, on its resurrection from the dead prior to the ascent of the steps, the ladder, staircase, column, or mount. On passing through the sixth abode of Amenta (Rit., chs. 72 and 149) the
speaker pleads, “Let me not be stopped at the meska; let not the wicked have mastery over me”. “Let me join my two hands together in the divine dwelling which my father Atum hath given me, he who hath established an abode for me above the earth, wherein is wheat and barley of untold quantity, which the son of my own body offereth to me there as oblations upon my festivals”. And when the manes has passed through the meska or place of purifying he prays to be delivered from the hells that await the damned. In Meshech or the meska the sufferer says he will lift up his eyes unto the mountains from whence his help shall come. The mount is pluralized, but it is the summit upon which stands the heavenly Jerusalem, “builded as a city that is compact together, whither the tribes go up, even the tribes of Іhuh, to
give thanks unto the Lord”. There were set “the thrones for judgment, the thrones of the house of David”, which are the twelve thrones in heaven, as described in the book of Revelation. The single mount is Zion, the Egyptian shennu, or hetep, the mount of rest.
“For the Lord hath chosen Zion,
He hath desired it for His habitation;
This is my resting place for ever”. -Ps. cxxxii.
On the last of the fifteen steps of ascent a call is made upon the starry luminaries to praise the Lord. “Bless ye the Lord, all ye [Page 474] servants of the Lord, which by night stand in the house of the Lord.
Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless the Lord. The Lord bless thee out of Zion” (Ps. cxxxiv.).
These are they who stand by night around the throne at the top of the steps, and this last finishing touch is very definitely astronomical. As Egyptian, there was an upper circle of the great spirits round the throne upon the summit of the mount, who were called the shennu, and the mount of the shennu = Mount Zion.
Under one of its Egyptian names the valley of Amenta or Sheol is called “Akar”. This valley of Akar we identify with Achor, the valley of sorrow in the Hebrew. “Achor's gloomy vale” , is sung of in the Christian hymn, and this is the essential character of Akar. It has been observed by Renouf that the notion of obscurity is connected with Akar, whereas the notion of brightness is essentially associated with the mount (Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., March 7, 1893, p. 223). The two gates of Akar are mentioned in the pyramid texts of Pepi (line 72) as equivalent in sense to the two gates of Seb or the earth (Renouf, Rit., ch. 39, note). The difference lies betwixt the mythical and eschatological application. The gates of Seb refer to our earth, and the gates of Akar to Amenta, the land of shades in the earth of eternity. When the
valley of Achor is to become a door of hope it is in the wake of the solar god who goes forth from the gate of Akar to the summit of the mount. Israel was to be judged and to make answer in the judgment hall (which stood at the place of exit in the topography of Amenta), “as in the day when she (previously) came up out of the land of Egypt”, which was one and the same thing in the mythical representation of the Exodus (Hosea, ii. 15). In fact, the supposed history is identified with the mythos by Esdras, who portrays the last judgment, which is to be as it was in the time of Achan when he was doomed die in the valley of Achor, the Egyptian valley of the shadow in Akar (2 Es. vii. 26-37). In this valley was the sepulchre of Osiris, betwixt the two mountains or horizons of the west and east. So the graves of the Hottentot deity
Heitsi-Eibib were made in a valley or narrow pass between two mountains, and from these he, like Osiris, rose again and made his transformation in the tree of dawn.
The nature of Achor is indicated by Hosea when he says of Israel, (ii. 14, 15), “I will allure her and bring her into the wilderness, and I will give her the valley of Achor for a door of hope, and she shall make answer in the judgment there”. It was in Achor that the stoning of Achan occurred, in the valley of vengeance, and it is there that Israel was to answer for all her iniquities. Thus, whatsoever events had occurred in Achor's gloomy vale took place in the Akar or Ati-kerti of the nether-earth, which was a place of passage for the manes through Amenta. In the distance lay the Aarru-paradise with the seven cows called the providers of plenty resting in the green fields of peace and prosperity. The vale of Akar led to the Aarru-meadows, and out of “these arose the mountain of the Lord, upon the summit of which was the place of rebirth in the upper paradise, the abode of the blessed. This is the imagery made use of by Isaiah (Ixv. 9, 12): “Thus saith the Lord: I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my mountain; and my chosen [Page 475] shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there. And Sharon shall be a pasture for flocks, and the valley of Achor a place for herds to lie down in, for my people that have sought me. But ye that forsake the Lord, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for fortune and that fill up mingled wine unto destiny, I will destine you to the sword”. This is the mountain of Amenta. Fortune and Destiny are two Egyptian deities who are mentioned here by the name of Gad and Meni, but only mentioned to be abjured. As Egyptian the goddess of fortune was Rannut, who was also the giver of good fortune in the harvest. The god of destiny or fate was Shai, the apportioner of the lot. These are to be cast out and their worshippers destroyed, but the mould of the imagery remains in the valley of Achor. Indeed, the chart of Judea looks like a copy of the scenery in Amenta as it would be if the land had been originally mapped out by the emigrants from Egypt. Amenta and the Aarruparadise, with its heaven on the summit of the mount, have been repeated at innumerable sacred places of the world, such as the garden of the gods and the holy mountain of Shasta in Colorado.
The first resurrection of two and the coming forth to day occur in the valley of Akar. The valley of passengers, the burial-place for Gog and his multitude; the valley of Elah, the valley of giants, the valley of the Rephaim, the valley of death, the valley of judgment, the valley of Siddim, the valley of Hinom - are all figures of Amenta in the nether-earth of the mythos and eschatology, and therefore of the Hebrew Sheol. The “valley of decision” Joel, iii. 14) is likewise the valley of Amenta associated with the mount of the Lord, the valley of the lower earth in which the great judgment was delivered at the end of the world, or age, or cycle of time, which was annual in the mysteries, as it still is in the Jewish ceremonies celebrated at the end of every year. The Lord is about to judge the whole world in the valley of judgment,
here called Jehosaphat. “Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision, for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision. The sun and the moon are darkened, and the stars withdraw their shining. And the Lord shall roar (as the god in lion form - Rit., 54, I) from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens shall shake; but the Lord will be a refuge unto his people, and a stronghold to the children of Israel. So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God dwelling in Zion my holy mountain. And it shall come to pass in that day that the mountain shall drop down sweet wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah shall run with waters, and a fountain shall come forth out of the house of the Lord and water the valley of the acacias”. Every feature of this imagery is and ever had been Egyptian. The valley of decision is the Egyptian valley of judgment in which the great hall of mati, the house of the Lord
in the solar mythos, was the judgment-seat. The lord who sat in judgment was Atum, in his lion form as lord of terrors. The lord enthroned upon his holy mountain was Atum-Ra upon the mountain of Amenta which the manes climbed for their rebirth in heaven. The mountain that souls are commanded to flee to for safety in the time of trouble and threatened destruction - which is repeated in the New Testament - is the mountain of the manes, who fled to its summit in the likeness of [Page 476] birds. This is expressed in Psalm xi. “In the Lord put I my trust. How say ye to my soul flee as a bird (or birds) to your mountain. For lo, the wicked bend the bow; they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may shoot in darkness at the upright of heart. The Lord is in his holy temple, the Lord, his throne is in heaven”, on the summit of the solar mount to which the hawk-headed manes fled and were out of the reach of the rebels, the sebau, the wicked, the Sut-Typhonians who pursued and shot at them in the darkness, and who were rained upon with fire and brimstone and the burning blast, or overwhelmed with the inundation in the Red Sea or lake of Putrata in Amenta. According to the ancient Osirian mythos, there was a cleft in the hillside at Abydos, through which the manes passed as human-headed birds in the shape of hawks or herons. This was a proto-typal representation of the souls fleeing for refuge to the mountain, that was afterwards repeated in Semitic legends, Hebrew and Arabic.
The typical valley, then, goes with the mythical mountain or mountains in the Hebrew writings. The valley of Amenta is the dwelling-place of the manes, which are represented as the rephaim who answer to the Egyptian repait. The repait, or pait, are the dead below the earth who are in the custody of Seb. The rephaim are the dead in the Hebrew Sheol. In the day of vengeance, says Isaiah, “it shall be as when the corn is reaped and the ears are gleaned in the valley of Rephaim”. In the valley of Amenta was the field of divine harvest and the vintage of vengeance. In tracing the Israelites on their journey out of Lower Egypt we shall meet with the rephaim, who are the giants and at the same time shades of enormous stature. Meanwhile, whatsoever battles were fought or vast events occurred in the valley of the rephaim, they took place in the earth of the dead, and not upon the upper earth. The giant king of Bashan was one of the rephaim; Goliath, the colossus, was another of the rephaim; and these giants dwelt in the valley of the rephaim. Consequently, the conquerors of the rephaim, whether called Moses or Abraham, Joshua or David, who warred with the giants as shades of the dead in the valley of the rephaim, could no more be historical characters than were the rephaim themselves.
On entering the dark valley of Amenta the Egyptian manes most assiduously seeks for the place of refuge and safety provided by the great god, and for the entrance to the ark or tabernacle of Osiris-Ra.
This is a secret covert in the midst of Akar. Osiris is denominated “lord of the shrine which standeth at the centre of the earth” (Rit.ch.64). It is said by the speaker in the Litany of Ra, “Here is the Osiris; carry him into the hidden sanctuary of Osiris, lord of eternity who is under the care of the two divine sisters that give protection in the tomb! Carry him into the hidden dwelling where Osiris resides, and which is in Amenta, the mysterious sanctuary of the god at rest. Bear him, open your arms to him, stretch out your hands to him, take off your veils before him, for he is the great essence whom the dead spirits do not know”, but to whom they are indebted for the resurrection to new life. In the Psalms the tabernacle or sanctuary in Sheol takes the place of the ark or secret shrine of Osiris in Amenta. “Lord, who shall
sojourn in thy Tabernacle? (Ps. xv. I). “In the court of his tabernacle shall he hide me” ( xxvii. 5).[Page 477] “In Salem is his tabernacle, and his dwelling-place in Zion” (Ps. lxxvi.2). The resurrection of the manes took place in Sheol or Amenta. And it is as the risen manes in Sheol that the speaker seeks to dwell in the sanctuary of the Lord and to contemplate his temple. Hence he says, “In the covert of his tabernacle (or dwelling) shall he hide me. He shall lift me upon a rock. I will offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy” (Ps. xxvii.). Such sacrifices or offerings are made to Osiris in his shrine of earth or tabernacle in Amenta, as shown by the vignettes to the Ritual. This was the “stronghold of salvation to his anointed” in the earth of eternity. This we take to be the tabernacle, sanctuary, or house of the lord in
Sheol, of which it is said, “Who shall sojourn in the tabernacle?” “In the day of trouble he shall keep me secretly in his pavilion. In the covert of his tabernacle shall he hide me” (Ps. xxvii. 5, 6), “in the place where the divine glory dwelleth” (Ps. xxvi. 6).
The mummy-Osiris in Amenta is the figure of a sleeping deity. This, as the mummy-Ptah or Putah, we hold to have been the prototype of the sleeping Buddha. The mummy-image of divinity was continued in Osiris-Sekeri. He is the inert in matter, the sleeping or resting divinity, the breathless one; Urt-Hat, the god of the non-beating heart, the silent Sekeri. Such also is the divine sleeper who is piteously appealed to by the human sufferer in Sheol, and who is identical with Osiris sleeping in Amenta. The speaker in the Psalms cries “unto the Lord with his voice”, “Arise, O Lord! save me, O my God”, “Arise, O God, judge the earth. O God, keep not thou silence. Hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God”
( Ps. lxxxii. 8; lxxxiii. I ). The waking preceded the great judgment. “Arise, O Lord, in thine anger; lift up thyself against the rage of mine adversaries, and awake for me. Thou hast commanded judgment” (Ps. vii. 6). “O Lord, when thou awakest thou shalt despise their image”. “Awake; why sleepest thou, O Lord ? Rise up for our help” (Ps; xliv. 23, 26). “Then the Lord awaked as one out of a sleep, and he smote his adversaries backward” (Ps. lxxviii. 65). This is the awaking of the god as Amsu, whip in hand, when he arises and asserts his sovereignty over all the opposing powers. The speaker is in the position of the Osiris, as the mummy sleeping in Amenta when he pleads with the protecting power, “Keep me as the apple of the eye.
Hide me under the shadow of thy wings from the wicked that spoil me, my deadly enemies that compass me about”. “As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied with thy likeness when I awake” (Ps. xvii. 8-15). In these passages Osiris the mummy-god as sleeper in Amenta and the Osiris as a manes are both represented, and are both distinguishable each from the other. The speaker in Psalm xvii. is in Sheol waiting to awake in the living likeness of this redeemer from death, and he is surrounded by “the wicked”, who are the “deadly enemies” that compass him about. He cries, “Deliver my soul from the wicked which is thy sword '' - as power of punishment (xvii. 13). It is the wicked who come upon the sufferer “to eat up his flesh”, not as cannibals on earth, but as evil spirit-powers of prey (Ps.
xxvii. 2). The opponents of the sun and the manes appear in the Psalms as the adversary and the adversaries. The individual adversary is discriminated from the [Page 478] adversaries. Also the individual adversary is reproduced in the two characters of the Apap-dragon and of Sut or Satan, once the familiar friend or twin brother of the good Osiris, and afterwards his betrayer and inveterate personal enemy.
Now, the adversaries of Osiris, or of souls in Amenta, include the Sebau, and these are the “wicked” by name, for the word in Egyptian signifies the profane, impious, blasphemous, culpable, or wicked. They rise up from Amenta as the powers of darkness in revolt, but are for ever driven back into their native night by Horus or Ra, Taht or Shu. These are the wicked of whom it is said in the Psalm, “They shall return or be driven back to Sheol” (Ps. ix. 17).
The comparative process shows that, like Taht, the Psalmist opens in Amenta, the place of the wicked who have no power to “stand in the judgment. .The “wicked” in Amenta are the adversaries of the sun and the soul of man. These are the rebels who for ever rise in impotent revolt against the Lord and his anointed, Osiris-Ra and Horus in the Ritual, Іhuh the father-god and David the beloved in the Psalms.
The “wicked” rage against the Lord and his anointed, saying, “Let us break their bands asunder and cast away their cords from us” (Ps. ii. 3). These are the “cords of death”, the “cords of the wicked” (Ps. cxxix. 4), the cords with which the manes are fettered in the land of bondage and the depths of Sheol. The Lord that sitteth in the heavens has these children of failure in derision. He has set his son as king upon the holy hill of Zion, who is to break them with a rod of iron and dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.
These are they of whom it is said to the Lord, “Thou hast broken the teeth of the wicked”. That is in defence of the sufferer in Sheol, who exclaims, “I cry unto the Lord with my voice, and he answereth me out of his holy hill. I laid me down in death and slept; I awaked, for the Lord sustaineth me” ( Ps. iii. 4, 5 ).
Osiris the typical sufferer in Amenta was imaged as the mummy bound up in the bandages of burial. As Osiris the mummy he was the Karest or prototypal Corpus Christi. As Osiris-Sekeri he was the coffined one. As Osiris-Sahu he rose again in a spiritual body. As Osiris-tat he was a figure of eternal stability. For reasons now to be adduced, Osiris, or the Osiris, represents that typical sufferer whose cries and ejaculations are to be heard ascending from Amenta in the Egyptian Ritual and from Sheol in the Hebrew Psalms.
David pleading in the cave is equivalent to Osiris crying in the caverns of Sut in Amenta. He says, “I cry with my voice unto the Lord. With my voice unto the Lord do I make my supplications. I said, Thou art my refuge, my portion in the land of the living” (he being in Sheol, the land of the dead). “I am brought very low. Deliver me from my persecutors. Bring my soul out of prison” (Ps. cxlii.). The prison here is identical with the deep, the pit, the miry clay of Sheol, elsewhere specified. The sufferer in Amenta is Osiris or Horus in the Egyptian eschatology. He is also the Osiris as the suffering manes. Both have to be taken into account in tracing the sufferer in Sheol. He enters Amenta as a prison-house. He prays that it may be opened for him to come forth, so that he [Page 479] may be finally established with those who have secured a place among the stars that never set, and who are called the masters of eternity. He cries, “O Ra, open the earth! Traverse Amenta and sky! Dissipate our darkness! O Ra, come to us!” (Book of Hades, 4th div. tablets 2, 7, and 8). Amenta or Sheol was the prison-house of the soul in death, and the soul of the deceased is portrayed as a prisoner in the bandages of the mummy, like Osiris in the Kâsu.
The Osiris, says to the warders of the prisons, “May I not sit within your dungeons, may I not fall into your pits” (Rit., ch. 17). Horus, the deliverer of the “spirits in prison”, comes to set the prisoners free from their sepulchres, to dissipate the darkness and open all the pathways to the land of light. In the chapter by which the prison-house of Amenta is opened to the soul and to the shade of the person, that he may come forth by day and have the mastery over his feet, the speaker prays that the eye of Horus may deliver his soul. He cries to the keepers, “Imprison not my soul, keep not in custody my shade. Let the path be open to my soul. Let it not be made captive, by those who imprison the shades of the dead” (Rit.,ch.92). Horus is the Kamite prototype of the chosen one, called the servant by Isaiah, who came “for
a light of the Gentiles, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the dungeon and them that sit in darkness, out of the prison-house” (Is. xlii. 7). It is not pretended that mortal Horus was born on earth of a mother who was a human virgin in the house of bread at Annu, or that he lived as Unbu the branch at Nazareth or its Kamite equivalent. Such localities in the Ritual are in Amenta, and the transactions take place there, not on this earth. There was the prison-house of death, and from thence the resurrection to a future life by transformation of the human soul into an immortal spirit, as it was represented in the greater and most solemn mysteries.
When the mortal entered Amenta, it was in the likeness of Osiris, who had been bodily dismembered in his death, and who had to be re-constituted to rise again as the spirit that never died. The mortal on earth was made up of seven constituent parts. The Osiris in Amenta had seven souls, which were collected, put together and unified to become the ever-living one. The deceased in the image of the ba-soul asks that he may be given his new heart to rest in him (Rit., ch. 26). He becomes a sahu, or glorified body (ch. 47). He pleads that the way may be made for his soul, his khu (glory), his shade, and his ka (chs. 91 and 92). These have to be united in the likeness of the typical divine soul which was personalized as Horus, the son of Ra, in whose image the spirits of the just made perfect finally became the children of God.
When the deceased enumerates his souls, he is a manes in Amenta, and! it follows that when the speaker in the Psalms does the same, he is in Sheol, the Hebrew. Amenta, not on earth, and therefore is neither a King David nor any other mortal. This identifies the doctrine as Egyptian.
As we have seen, man, formed in the image of God, had seven souls. Seven souls were assigned to Atum-Ra, and the human being who was made in his likeness had seven component parts. These were described as the ka, the l or ego; the ba a human-headed soul; the hati, or breathing heart; the sahu, or spiritual body , the khu [Page 480] or glory; the khabit, or shade; and finally, the perfect spirit. At least six of these can be identified in a passage of the sixteenth Psalm. “Because he (the Lord) is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh (the mummy-form) also shall dwell in safety. For thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life”. In this passage we can perceive a reference to the hati or breathing heart, the khu or glory, the sahu or mummy-form, the ba-soul, the Horus-spirit, and the ka. If the khabit or shade had been mentioned, there would have been seven altogether, which constituted the totality of a future personality. The speaker in Psalm vii, had said, “Let the enemy pursue my soul” (or human-headed ba); “let him tread my life (ankhu) down to the earth, and lay my glory (khu) in the dust”, but for all this he will be avenged upon his adversaries in the judgment. The khu is the particular soul of the seven that was known as the luminous one, or the glory-the soul that was brought up from Sheol or Amenta when it had attained the glory or become one of the glorified. At this stage the speaker in the Ritual says, “Here am I; I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power” ( ch. 94). He has attained the glory of the khu. In the book of Psalms the speaker, who has passed through Sheol, says, “Thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol”. “Thou hast girded me with gladness, to the end that my glory may sing praise to thee” (Ps. xxx. 3, I I, 12). “Awake up, my glory” (Ps. lvii. 8). “I will sing praises with my glory” (Ps. cvii. I ). The language is akin to that of the manes in the Ritual, who says he may be buried in the deep, deep grave and be bowed down to the region of annihilation, yet he shall rise again and be glorified ( ch. 30, A), or he will attain the glory of the venerable khu.
Sheol is a land of darkness and the shadow of death. So is Amenta, until lighted up with the presence of the sun by night in its nether firmament. Sheol is the place of the rephaim or shadows of the past. The rephaim are to be found in Amenta as giants, huge shades of enormous stature; types of terror, made more formidable by their exaggerated size. Sheol is the place of the shades, the under-world to which the souls of the departed went, and from which the dead were summoned by the consulters of oboth or familiar spirits. It includes purgatory and hell, the Ethiopic Siol and Assyrian Saul. There were deeper abysses in the abyss, and chambers of death in the house of death. “Tophet” is another Hebrew name for Sheol. “A Tophet is prepared of old. ...deep and wide ” (Is. xxx. 33), which may be traced to the Egyptian Tepht, a name of the abyss, the cavern of Apap or hole of the serpent. It was from Amenta, the hidden earth, that the ghosts of the dead were summoned by the magi, or rekhi-khet, not as evil demons, but as pure, wise spirits. It is from this nether earth of Amenta that the soul of Samuel is supposed to have ascended when invoked by the witch, pythoness, or . When the mortal entered Amenta, it was in the likeness of Osiris, who had been bodily dismembered in his death, and who had to be re-constituted to rise again as the spirit that never died. The mortal on earth was made up of seven constituent parts. The Osiris in Amenta had seven souls, which were collected, put together and unified to become the ever-living one. The deceased in the image of the ba-soul asks that he may be given his new heart to rest in him (Rit., ch. 26). He becomes a sahu, or glorified body (ch. 47). He pleads that the way may be made for his soul, his khu (glory), his shade, and his ka (chs. 91 and 92). These have to be united in the likeness of the typical divine soul which was personalized as Horus, the son of Ra, in whose image the spirits of the just made perfect finally became the children of God.
When the deceased enumerates his souls, he is a manes in Amenta, and! it follows that when the speaker in the Psalms does the same, he is in Sheol, the Hebrew. Amenta, not on earth, and therefore is neither a King David nor any other mortal. This identifies the doctrine as Egyptian.
As we have seen, man, formed in the image of God, had seven souls. Seven souls were assigned to Atum-Ra, and the human being who was made in his likeness had seven component parts. These were described as the ka, the l or ego; the ba a human-headed soul; the hati, or breathing heart; the sahu, or spiritual body , the khu [Page 480] or glory; the khabit, or shade; and finally, the perfect spirit. At least six of these can be identified in a passage of the sixteenth Psalm. “Because he (the Lord) is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh (the mummy-form) also shall dwell in safety. For thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life”. In this passage we can perceive a reference to the hati or breathing heart, the khu or glory, the sahu or mummy-form, the ba-soul, the Horus-spirit, and the ka. If the khabit or shade had been mentioned, there would have been seven altogether, which constituted the
totality of a future personality. The speaker in Psalm vii, had said, “Let the enemy pursue my soul” (or human-headed ba); “let him tread my life (ankhu) down to the earth, and lay my glory (khu) in the dust”, but for all this he will be avenged upon his adversaries in the judgment. The khu is the particular soul of the seven that was known as the luminous one, or the glory-the soul that was brought up from Sheol or Amenta when it had attained the glory or become one of the glorified. At this stage the speaker in the Ritual says, “Here am I; I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power” ( ch. 94). He has attained the glory of the khu. In the book of Psalms the speaker, who has passed through Sheol, says, “Thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol”. “Thou hast girded me with gladness, to the end that my glory may sing praise to thee” (Ps. xxx. 3, I I, 12). “Awake up, my glory” (Ps. lvii. 8). “I will sing praises with my
glory” (Ps. cvii. I ). The language is akin to that of the manes in the Ritual, who says he may be buried in the deep, deep grave and be bowed down to the region of annihilation, yet he shall rise again and be glorified ( ch. 30, A), or he will attain the glory of the venerable khu.
Sheol is a land of darkness and the shadow of death. So is Amenta, until lighted up with the presence of the sun by night in its nether firmament. Sheol is the place of the rephaim or shadows of the past. The rephaim are to be found in Amenta as giants, huge shades of enormous stature; types of terror, made more formidable by their exaggerated size. Sheol is the place of the shades, the under-world to which the souls of the departed went, and from which the dead were summoned by the consulters of oboth or familiar spirits. It includes purgatory and hell, the Ethiopic Siol and Assyrian Saul. There were deeper abysses in the abyss, and chambers of death in the house of death. “Tophet” is another Hebrew name for Sheol. “A Tophet is prepared of old. ...deep and wide ” (Is. xxx. 33), which may be traced to the Egyptian Tepht, a name of the abyss, the cavern of Apap or hole of the serpent. It was from Amenta, the hidden earth, that the ghosts of the dead were summoned by the magi, or rekhi-khet, not as evil demons, but as pure, wise spirits. It is from this nether earth of Amenta that the soul of Samuel is supposed to have ascended when invoked by the witch, pythoness, or woman said unto Saul, I see a god (or Elohim) coming up out of the earth”, but which earth of the two is
not stated in the Hebrew (1. Samuel, xxviii. 13). In several of the Psalms the singer utters the cries of a soul that suffers purgatorial pains in Sheol. As we have seen, the Egyptian purgatory is a [Page 481] domain in Amenta called the meska=meshek. It was a place of spiritual rebirth by purgation - a meaning that survives in the name of purgatory. This is described in the Ritual (ch. 17) as “ the place of scourging and purifying”. “Let not the Osiris advance into the valley of darkness”. “Let not the Osiris enter into the dungeon of the captives”. “Let him not fall among those who would drag him behind the slaughtering block of the executioner” are cries of the manes.
Amenta is the land of monsters, chief of which in the mythos is the Apap-dragon, which has its lair in the lake of outer darkness. In Amenta the crocodiles have to be repelled ( ch. 31). Also the serpent Seksek (ch. 35); Apshait the devourer of the dead (ch.36); the serpent Rekrek (ch. 39); the serpent Haiu (ch. 40); the serpent Abur (ch. 42); the crocodile-dragon in the land of bondage (ch. 72); the raging bull (ch. 78); the devouring monsters (ch. 80); the howling dogs (ch. 102); the piercing serpent (ch. 108); the black boar of Sut (ch. 112). Baba, the eternal devourer of the condemned, is the monster most eminent in the eschatology. “Deliver me from the crocodile (or devouring monster) of this land of bondage” (Rit., ch. 72).
“Grant that I may come forth and have the mastery of my two feet. Let me advance to the goal of heaven”. “Deliver me from Baba, who feeds upon the livers of princes, on the day of the great reckoning”.
These are also the cries of the manes.
The appeals for divine protection during the passage of Amenta and for deliverance from the pangs of purgatory and the terrors of the hells are echoed in the land of Sheol. “Many bulls have compassed me.
Strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. They gape upon me with their mouth (Ps. xxii. 12, 21). “Thou hast sore broken us in the place of jackals, and covered us with the shadow of death” (Ps. xliv. 19). “My soul is among lions. I lie among them that are set on fire” (Ivii. 4). “Deliver not the soul of thy turtle unto the wild beast” (lxxiv. 19). There is a description in the Ritual of the torn and mutilated Osiris encompassed by the howling dogs of Amenta. “Salutation to thee, Ur-ar-set, in that voyage of heaven and the disaster in Tennu, when those dogs were gathered together, not without giving voice”. The dog is a prominent type of the devourer in Sheol. The sufferer exclaims, “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one (or my soul) from the power of the dog” (Ps. xxii 20). The dog in Amenta represents the devourer “who lives upon the damned. His face is that of a hound and his skin is that of a man. Eternal devourer is his name” (Rit., ch. 17). He seizes upon souls in the dark, and is therefore said to be invisible, as a type of very great terror. Osiris bound as a mummy in Amenta prays to be released by the god who had tied the cords about him in the earth. That is, by Seb, the god of earth, who was custodian of the mummies in the earth, whose hands and feet were bound up typically in Amenta in the likeness of the earthly mummy. The sufferer in Sheol cries, “My God! Why hast thou forsaken me? All they that see me laugh me to scorn. They shoot out the lip, they wag the head, saying, “He trusted on the Lord that he would deliver him”. “Thou hast brought me into the dust of death. For dogs have encompassed me. The assembly of evil-doers have enclosed me.They bound my [Page 482] hands and my feet. They look and stare upon me. They part my garments among them, and upon my vesture do they cast lots”. “Yea, mine
own familiar friend in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted his heel against me”. “I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none”. They gave me also “gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink”. These are the pitiful cries and ejaculations of the suffering Osiris or Horus, the saviour in the Egyptian wisdom, and these scenes, circumstances, and sayings have been reproduced as the very foundations of the “history” in the Gospels. They were confessedly found among “the parables and dark sayings of old”, which, as the scribe admits, “we have heard and known and our fathers have told us”. That is, they were found in the writings of the divine scribe and psalmist Taht, which were preserved in the psalms of the Hebrew David. The matter of the mythology goes with the mythical characters, and this has been mistaken for prophecy that was to be
fulfilled in some future human history.
There is a chapter in the Ritual on not letting the mummy decay - that is, the mummy as a type of the personality continued in a future life (ch. 154). In this the mummy-god Osiris is addressed as the father by the Osiris as the manes in Amenta. The speaker says, Hail to thee, my father Osiris ! Thy limbs are lasting, thou dost not know corruption”. And as with the god so is it with the manes. In spite of death, he says, “I am, I am; I live; I live; I grow, I grow; and when awake I shall awake, I shall awake in peace. I shall not see corruption. I shall not be destroyed in my bandages”. “My limbs are lasting for ever. I do not rot. I do not putrefy. I do not turn to worms. My flesh is firm; it shall not be destroyed; it shall not perish in the earth for ever”. (Ch. 154, Naville.) In the parallel passages of the Psalms the speaker says, “My heart is glad and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh shall dwell in safety (or confidently). For thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life”.
“As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness. I shall be satisfied with thy likeness when I awake” (Ps. xvi. and xvii.) The “flesh” in the Psalm takes the place of the mummy in the Ritual. The speaker in the Psalms “cries out” continually, and calls on the ka or image of the eternal, in the likeness of which he expects to rise again and live as Horus or as Jesus the beloved son.
Another type of the beloved son in Sheol is the turtle-dove. The speaker cries to the god of his salvation, “Oh, deliver not the soul of thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast. The dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of violence” (Ps. lxxiv. 19, 20). The soul of the turtle-dove is the dove that was a symbol of the soul. When the transformation from the mummy was made in Amenta the deceased became bird-headed as a soul, and thus assumed the likeness of Ra the holy spirit. This bird of soul in the later eschatology was the hawk, the sign of a soul that was considered to be male, the soul of god the father. The dove of Hathor was an earlier type of a soul derived from the mother. This is the turtle-dove of the Psalmist. In one of the Egyptian drawings the soul is portrayed in the process of issuing from the mummy in the
shape of a dove, instead of the usual hawk. [Page 483] Both are emblems of the risen soul, but the dove in monumental times was almost superseded by the hawk of Ra and Horus.
In the Ritual snares are set and a net is prepared to catch and destroy the manes. The deceased prays that he may not be taken like a foolish fish in the net. In the Psalms the speaker, who is David in the cave, exclaims, “They have prepared a net for my steps” (Ps. lvii.). “Pluck me out of the net that they have privily laid for me” (Ps. xxxi. 4). These are the liers in wait (Ps. v. 8) who privily lurk to catch the passing souls. In vignettes to the Ritual the souls of the ignorant are shown in the guise of fishes being caught in the net by cynocephali, who are allowed to capture them because of their ignorance.
The waters of the deep were in Amenta. The deep is identical with the pit, the pit with Sheol, and Sheol with Amenta. “Save me, O God; for the waters are come in unto my soul. I sink in deep mire, there is no standing. I am come into deep waters where the floods overflow me”. “Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink. Let me be delivered from them that hate me. Let not the water-fIood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up”. In the Psalms the Hebrew deity is he who sitteth on the waters. “The Lord sitteth on the flood; yea, the Lord sitteth as king for ever”. “He hath founded the earth upon the waters and established it upon the floods” (Ps. XXIV.2). “Even the Lord upon many waters”. This is the picture of Osiris in Amenta sitting on his throne of the waters as lord of all the earth. The earth itself is imaged by the lotus rising from the water as the mount arose from out the Nun, and the water springs up and flows from underneath the seat which is the throne of the god. The representation in the great hall of judgment is precisely the same as that described in the book of Revelation: “And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God” (Rev. xxii. I ). The action of the god throughout nature is imaged as a welling and a flowing forth of water from its secret source. Іhuh the Lord is described by Jeremiah as “the fountain of living waters” (ch. xvii. 13). When it is said that the Lord sitteth on the flood (Ps. xxix. 10, II), or that “Ouranos (Ουρανδς)is the throne of God” (Matt. v. 34, 35), the imagery is Egyptian, with certain features defaced. The Ouranos is heaven as the celestial water, upon which the lord has been left sitting without the solar boat. The lord as Іhuh is one with Atum-Huhi or Ra, who is described as making his voyage nightly on the Urnas = Ouranos, leaving the trail of other-world glory in the river of the Milky Way. It is the same solar deity that rode through the deserts of the underworld, but again the modus operandi is omitted In this way the Egyptian imagery has been divorced from the natural phenomena which it was intended to portray. In the Ritual the waters are described as bursting forth in an overwhelming deluge; “Knowing the deep waters is my name”, exclaims the sinking manes ( ch. 64). “Do thou save me!” he cries to the Lord. Then he exults in not being one of those who drown. “Blessed are they that see the bourne. Beautiful is the god of the motionless heart (Asar), who causeth the stay of the overflowing waters. Behold! there cometh forth the lord of life, Osiris my support, who abideth day by day. I embrace the sycamore, I am [Page 484] united to the sycamore”. The tree is a type of stability and safety in Amenta. In Sheol the refuge of the sinking soul is depicted amidst the waste of waters as the everlasting rock, but both have one and the same significance as the means of safety from the flood.
The mummy sleeping in Amenta as the god or as the manes waits the resurrection there. Horus wakes the manes in their coffins for the coming forth, when they are freed from the cerements, which he rends asunder. This resurrection is attained in Sheol when the speaker says, “I will extol thee, O Lord, for thou hast raised me up. Thou hast loosed my sackcloth and girded me with gladness, to the end that my glory (the khu) may sing praise to thee and not be silent” (Ps. xxx.). In the Kamite resurrection there was a change from the earthly body. The bandages of burial were cast aside and the sahu mummy was invested in the robe of immortality. In fact, to be invested thus was to become a spiritual being. The “glory”, as one of the Egyptian seven souls called the khu, was now attained by the Osiris in the course of his being reconstituted. Salvation for the Egyptian was being saved from the fate of the irredeemably wicked, the doom of the second death, which was annihilation. Salvation was continuity of life hereafter, and this was only attainable by the righteous - those who did the right and acted justly, those who effected the truth of the word in their own life and pursued it through Amenta. They attained eternal life by personal, not by imputed, righteousness. Hence the deceased pleads his righteousness; before the lord of righteousness in the great hall of righteousness. He pleads not what he believes, but what he has done. “I have done that which maat (the law) prescribeth, and that which pleases the gods. I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, a boat to the shipwrecked”. “I am one of those to whom it is said, Come, come in peace, by those who look upon him” - that is, the divine company of the gods. He passes in peace, and is invested with the robe of the righteous on account of his own righteousness. This is the doctrine of the Ritual, and it is likewise the doctrine of the Psalms. “Answer me when I call, O God of my righteousness”.
(Ps. iv. I). “Judge me, O Lord according to my righteousness and to mine integrity” (Ps. vii. 8). “As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness” (Ps. xvii. 15). “The Lord rewardeth me according to my righteousness” (Ps. xviii. 20). This is not Christian doctrine, but it is Jewish, because it was Egyptian.
Personal righteousness is pleaded in the Psalms, the same as in the Ritual. “Judge me, O Lord.. according to my righteousness” (Ps. vii. 8). “The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness” (Ps. xviii. 24). In the Kamite judgment hall the speaker says, “I have done the righteousness of a lord of righteousness. There is not a limb in me which is void of righteousness” (ch. 125). This, as we interpret the Hebrew version, is the position of the speaker in Sheol who is awaiting judgment amidst the trials and the terrors that beset the manes in the caverns of Sut, through which he has to grope his way. On arriving at the judgment hall the Osiris says, “Hail to thee, mighty god, lord of righteousness. I am come to thee, O my Lord; I have brought myself that I may look upon thy glory”. He pleads in presence of those whose natural [Page 485] prey is the souls of the wicked, “devouring those who harbour mischief and
swallowing their blood, upon the day of searching examination in presence of the good Osiris. Behold me; I am come to you void of wrong, without fraud; let me not be declared guilty; let not the issue be against me. I subsist upon righteousness. I sate myself with uprightness of heart. I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I am come, and am awaiting that inquisition be made of righteousness” (ch. 125). In the Psalms “God is the judge” .(Ps. vii. II). “Righteousness and judgment are the foundations of his throne” (Ps. xcvii. 2, xcviii. 2). “Thou sat test in thy throne judging righteously” (Ps. ix. 4). “The Lord sitteth as king for ever. He hath prepared his throne for judgment, and he shall judge the world in righteousness” (Ps. ix. 7, 8).
In one form of the mythos Sut and Osiris, in the other Sut and Horus, are born twin brothers. Sut becomes the adversary of Osiris, the Good Being. This conflict of the two opponent powers reappears in the Psalms as well as in the book of Job. “Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me (Ps. xli. 9-11). But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon me, and raise me up, that I may requite them. By this I know that thou delightest in me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me”. “It was thou, a man mine equal, my companion and my familiar friend. We took sweet counsel together, we walked in the house of God with the throng”. “He hath put forth his hands against such as were at peace with him; he hath profaned his covenant. His mouth was smooth as butter,
but his heart was war; his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords” (Ps. Iv.20, 21).
Nothing could more aptly reproduce the figure of fact as a figure of speech than the quotation from the Psalmist to the effect that he. the intimate friend and very brother, had “lifted his heel against” the Christ, the Lord's anointed. In the double figure of Horus and Sut they are twinned together back to back and therefore heel to heel. David and the adversary are equivalent to Osiris and Sut, or to Horus and Sut in another phase of the mythos, the twin brothers being characters in both.
When Sut and the Sebau had compassed the death of Osiris, a day of dissolution followed the great disaster. There was an overthrowal of the pillars - the tat-pillar at the centre of all, and the four supports at the four corners. Then Horus came as the avenger of his father and as the judge of the wicked, who after trial were annihilated on the highways of the damned. The tat was re-erected, and the four pillars (posts or flagstaffs) were set up once more “on the night of setting up the pillars of Horus and of establishing him as heir of his father's property”. This was at the time when Horus, as Har-Tema, came to judge the adversaries of his father Osiris (Rit., ch. 18). A fragment from this would seem to have strayed into the 75th Psalm, like many other wandering words that have lost their senses. “When I shall find the set time, I will judge uprightly. The earth and all the inhabitants thereof are dissolved. I have set up the pillars of it” - which looks as if the Osiris deceased in Sheol were speaking in the character of Horus who re-erected the pillars. In the Ritual the dissolution and re-establishing of the earth by setting up [Page 486] the pillars, immediately follows the battle with the Sebau, the Apap, and Sut; and in the preceding psalm (lxxiv.) the war with the dragon is described. “Thou breakest the heads of the dragons in the waters”.
“Thou breakest the heads of leviathan in pieces; thou gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness”. The dragons in the psalm are the evil crocodiles in the Ritual.
A profound study of the Ritual reveals the fact that the wisdom of Egypt was the source and fountain-head of the books of wisdom assigned to Moses and David, to Solomon and Jesus; and also proves the personages or characters to have been Egyptian.
It is chiefly the wisdom bf Egypt that gives a value to the Hebrew writings, as will be indubitably demonstrated. In Psalm xxiv. there is a glorification of the coming king of glory:
7. Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
And be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors;
And the King of Glory shall come in.
8. Who is the King of Glory ?
The Lord strong and mighty,
The Lord mighty in battle.
9. Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors;
And the King of Glory shall come in.
10. Who is the King of Glory ?
The Lord of Hosts,
He is the King of Glory.
This king of glory was the sun-god in the astronomical mythology. The Hebrew repeats the king of glory, the gates, and the doors, but omits the astronomical foundation; and in this way the wisdom of Taht was deprived of its scientific value. But who is this king of glory? and what are the gates that are called upon to open and let him in ? As the “Lord of hosts” we know him for Іao-Sabaoth, lord of the seven great spirits; therefore he is the solar god; but we must turn to the Ritual to understand the nature of the gates.
There are thirty-six altogether, corresponding to the thirty-six decans of the zodiac. At the same time the gates are thirty-six doors in the great house of Osiris. Chapter 145 is devoted to the passage of the sun god through twenty-one of these celestial gates. The sun-god is the king of glory in the Ritual. In “the book that was made on the birthday of Osiris”, in which “glory is given to the inviolate one”, Taht, the Kamite psalmist, sings, “Opened be the gates of heaven! Opened be the gates of earth! Opened be the gates of the east! Opened be the gates of the west! Opened be the gates of the southern and of the northern sanctuaries! Opened be the gates and thrown wide open be the portals as Ra ariseth from the mount of glory, the swift of speed and beautiful in his rising, and almighty through what he hath done”.
“Glory to thee, O Ra, lord of the mount of glory”. (Rit., ch. 129.) The gates and doors are those that open as the solar god comes forth at dawn. He is the king of glory; these are the gates of glory that were opened on the mount of glory “at the beautiful coming forth of his powers”. “It is the gate and the two doors and openings through which Father Atum issueth to the eastern horizon (or mount) of heaven”.
(Rit., ch. 17.) That is Atum-Huhi= Іhuh. The mythology is absolutely [Page 487] necessary all through for us to understand the eschatology, whether in its Egyptian guise or Hebrew disguise.
When the Psalmist says, “The Lord is my shepherd”, it has become a mere phrase. The Egyptians presented the portrait. Horus was the lord as leader of the flock and guardian of the fold, because he represented the first who rose again from the dead, though not at any particular historic date. Amsu-Horus, with his crook in hand, shepherded the flocks of Ra beyond the grave. After the resurrection in Amenta he says to his first four followers, who are called his children, “Now let my fold be fitted for me as one victorious against all those adversaries who would not that the right should be done to me, the only one” (Rit., ch. 97). He is the “master of the champaign” and “of the inundation”, and therefore of the green pastures and the still waters of life. Horus, the son of god, came into the world as shepherd of his
father's sheep, to lead them through the darkness of Amenta to the green pastures and still waters of the final paradise upon Mount Hetep in the heaven of eternity. It was not supposed that he came to secure the Jew his cent. percent., or the Christian capitalist the power to rob the workers of the fruits of their labour, or the Boers and Belgians to eat up the aborigines and lie down as loafers in the still pastures of their stolen lands.
Psalm xxiii. contains a description of the green fields of pasture and the still waters that run through that paradise of plenty, peace, and rest:
The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:
He leadeth me beside the still waters.
He restoreth my soul:
He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death (Amenta or Sheol),
I will fear no evil: for thou art with me;
Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me.
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:
Thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:
And I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.
The staff of Amsu was a symbol of Osiris who rose again as Horus. It was buried with the deceased, and is found in the oldest coffins together with other weapons that were interred with the dead as types of a protecting power. “The Osiris receiveth the Amsu staff wherewith he got round the heaven” (Rit., ch. 130.). This elsewhere is called the palm of Amsu. It was the support of the Osiris in life and in death.
This psalm is one of those that have been least denuded of the original object-pictures. The valley of the shadow of death is the Ar-en- Tet or valley of the dead in the Ritual, where those who suffer the second death are buried for ever (Rit., ch. 19) by the great annihilator Seb. Horus in one character is the good shepherd, but the lord, as leader in the green pastures, is the bull of the seven cows, who are the providers of plenty. He is called the lord of the pastures, or fields of the bull, the green meadows of Aarru.
He also says, “I am the bull, the lord of the gods”. This answers to “The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want”. “He maketh me to lie down in green pastures”, says the Psalmist. The speaker in the Ritual says, “I take my rest in the divine domain”. “I sail upon its stream, and I range [Page 488] within its garden of peace”. The speaker sings for joy, it may be, in the Psalms of Taht. He exclaims, “I utter my praise to the gods who are in the garden of peace”. The “still waters , are in Hebrew the “waters of rest”; these, in the Egyptian, are the waters of Hetep = the waters of rest or peace. The departed rests beside these waters in the green fields where Hetep, as the god of peace, is “putting together the oblations” for the spirits of the just made perfect. “Thou preparest a table before me”, says the Psalmist. The table likewise was prepared upon Mount Hetep, and piled with heaps of imperishable food. Hence the Osiris says, “I rest at
the table of my father Osiris” (Rit., ch. 70). Mount Hetep was itself the table-land of the oblations. The “house of the lord” is designated by the speaker in the Ritual “the mansion where food is produced for me”, the mansion that was lifted up by Shu, the paradise of Am-Khemen. Two paths led up to it, called the “double path”. These are the “paths of righteousness”. The deceased in the Ritual is seen ascending the mount with the supporting rod or staff in his hand. Where the Psalmist says, “He restoreth my soul”, the speaker in the Ritual says rejoicingly, “My soul is with me”. This in Egyptian is the ka, that was ultimately attained in the garden of peace. The ka is the final form of the soul restored to the departed when they are perfected in the assembly or congregation on the mount. The speaker in Hetep says,
“There is given to me the abundance which belongeth to the ka and to the glorified”. It was in Amenta that the lord's anointed was begotten: one mode was by the transformation of Horus the mortal into Horus the beloved Son. In the Hebrew Psalms the same transaction is repeated in the place of the “wicked” who rebel and rage against the Lord and his anointed. The son begotten by the father is born to become the ruler over them, and to effect the triumph of the father over all his adversaries on the day of judgment, the same as in the Ritual ( ch. I ). The Lord himself that sitteth in the heavens “shall have them in derision”, yea, he has also set the son as king upon the holy hill of Zion, the mountain of the Lord.
Here it may be remarked that the change from Horus the human youth with the side-Iock to Horus the divine avenger would lend itself to the euhemerists for the conversion of David the shepherd boy into the solar hero who made war upon the giant and slew the Philistines.
The Jews, we are told, believe in a twofold kind of immortality, the one being in a state immediately following death, the other in the resurrection from Sheol at the judgment-day. These two aspects of continuity after death are to be explained by the Egyptian eschatology. The Hebrew Sheol is the Egyptian secret earth of eternity, the divine nether-world. In death the manes passed into the Amenta as a bodysoul that survived the body and became a ghost or shade with power to reappear as an apparition on the earth. After passing through purgatory and all the other places and modes of purification, and making the necessary transformations as an Osiris, or human Horus, the manes rose from Amenta to the paradise of spirits perfected in the likeness of Horus the divine. The immortality that was previously potential for the human Horus or manes was established in Tattu and assured by the resurrection of the glorified spirit
[Page 489] from the Akar (Rit., 30, A). The manes in the Ritual says of himself, “After being buried on earth I am not dead in Amenta”. He is there “reunited to the earth on the western side of heaven”, to become a “pure spirit for eternity” (ch. 3, A). This is the original doctrine of a body, soul, and spirit - a body on earth, a manes soul in Sheol, and an immortal spirit in the resurrection on high. Horus was incarnated in the human body on earth. He died and rose again in Amenta as a sahu or soul in a rarer but corporeal form.
This was a resurrection from the first death. Then he made his transformation into Horus the pure spirit, and ascended to his father in heaven, hawk-headed or dove-headed, from the mount of Amenta or the double earth. These things were visibly portrayed upon the walls and in the papyri of Egypt, not to be lost sight of there; but, away from Egypt, the pictures were no longer present, and the Jews lost their living memory of Amenta. They had only words, without the means of verification in the representative signs which had given a palpable reality to the most ancient mysteries in the chambers of Egyptian imagery; and gradually Sheol dwindled to the dimensions of the grave, as we find it continued in the Old Testament. In the mythology the messianic resurrection from Sheol was the annual re-arising of the
Horus-sun at Easter. In the eschatology it was the resurrection of Horus divinized as son of Ra the holy spirit who ascended with his followers to the fields of peace in the upper paradise of the celestial Aarru.
And just as the colours in Egyptian tombs remain at times as fresh as if the paint had never dried, so do the pictures and portraits survive in the mythology and eschatology, unfading in colour and imperishable in form, after they had grown dim and dead for the Hebrews and Greeks, to be counterfeited as historic for the Christians, who had no means of detecting the imposition by any reference to the prototypes, that are as living to-day as the hues in which the imagery was painted by Egyptian scribes, whose drawing was a means of bringing on and on the most ancient wisdom down from the days of gesture-language, when there was as yet no possible registry in words, to the time of the Egypto-gnostics.
There is plenty of proof that the same fundamental matter belonging to the wisdom of Egypt, in which Osarsiph of On was an adept, appears thrice over in the Hebrew writings. It is mythological in the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Joshua. It is eschatological in the Psalms. And in the later books it is converted into matter of prophecy. All three phases were Egyptian. With this difference: the sole possible fulfilment of prophecy was astronomical, not humanly historical. To illustrate two of these phases: the land of bondage - in the book of Exodus is the Amenta of the solar drama, the lower Egypt of the double earth, the scene of the never-ceasing battles between the powers of light and darkness, the sun-god and the Sebau, Ra and the dragon, or Horus and Sut; Amenta in the mythology becomes Sheol in the Hebrew eschatology. The land of bondage, then, is the place of suffering souls that seek deliverance from the
desert of darkness, the prison-house of death and hell. It is the sufferer in Sheol, the Osiris of the Ritual, who says, “Thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thy beloved to see [Page 490] corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life” (Ps. xvi.10, I I). That thy beloved may be delivered, save with thy right hand and answer us” (Ps. Ix. 5). There is the same assimilation of the manes to the suffering Horus, or Osiris, as in the Ritual. There is also the same mixture of the mythical and eschatological. This especially marked in the I8th Psalm, which purports to contain the words that were spoken by David on the day the Lord delivered him from all his enemies.
According to the Egyptian wisdom, whoever the speaker may be in the Hebrew Sheol, it is the suffering Osiris or the Osiris in Amenta; and the god appealed to by him in his trouble is the god who was Ra the father in heaven as Atum-Huhi in the Egyptian and Іhuh in the Jewish cult. Also it is the solar god alone that will account for the imagery. Not only are the ground-plan and total scheme Egyptian, the mythology and eschatology can be followed in innumerable details. It looks at times as if the scribes were directly citing the earlier scriptures, from which the mythos is quoted and converted into prophecies, chiefly concerning the coming judge and avenger, who in the Egyptian original is the avenger of Osiris-Un-Nefer, and his followers, the chosen people, or the glorified elect, who suffer in Amenta from the persecution of Sut and the Sebau, his co-workers in iniquity.
Let the 34th and 35th chapters of Isaiah be compared with the Hymn to Osiris. (There are two versions of this hymn in the Records of the Past, first series, vol. iv, and 2nd series, vol. iv., that by Mallet being much the closer rendering.) “Seek ye out the book of the Lord and read”, exclaims Isaiah in his description of the coming one - The day of vengeance for long-suffering had obviously been foretold in this book. And at the advent of the Lord who was to bring deliverance to his people, it is said, “The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose”.
“They shall see the glory of the Lord, the excellency of our God”. “Behold, your God will come with vengeance: he will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped”. The dumb are to break forth into singing, and the lame to leap for joy. Waters are to well forth in the wilderness, streams in the desert, and the mirage on the sands is to turn them to a pool. All this belongs to the mythical representation of the advent in the earth of eternity which was celebrated in the mysteries as occurring once a year. And it is this coming of Messiah as Horus the prince of peace on earth and the avenger who makes Osiris triumphant over his adversaries in Amenta or Sheol that is described in the Hymn to Osiris. When he has gone forth in peace by the command of Seb (that is, as the human Horus born of Seb, god of earth), the divine company of the gods adore him, the inhabitants of the Tuat prostrate themselves to the ground, the loftiest bow the head, the ancestral spirits are in prayer. When they behold him, the august dead (in the nether-world) submit to him.The two lands (of the double earth) unite in one to give him the glory, marching before his majesty: glorious, noble (or highest) among the sahus, from whom proceeds all dignity, who establishes supreme authority; excellent chief of the divine company of the gods [Page 491] with beautiful aspect, beloved of him who has contemplated him, extending his terror through all countries that may proclaim this name before all others. The great prince, eldest of his brothers, the chiefs of the divine companies, who establishes the
truth in the double land, who seats the son (himself) upon the throne of his father, the favourite of his father Seb, the beloved of his mother Nut (heaven, one of whose names is Meri). Very valiant, he overthrows the impious; strong of arm, he immolates his adversary (Sut=Satan); breathing terror upon his enemies, conquering the distant frontiers of the wicked. Firm of heart, his feet are vigilant. Flesh (or heir) of Seb! Royalty of the double earth! (Horus of the royal countenance). Seb contemplates his benefits (the benefits of his advent to the earth); he has ordered him to govern all countries to assure their prosperity. The desert carries its tribute to the son of Nut; Egypt is happy when it sees him appear upon his father's throne. The author of evil (Sut) pronounces magical words and displays his power in his turn,
but the son of Isis makes his way to him and avenges his father, sanctifying and honouring his name.
The paths are cleared, the roads are opened, evil flees away. He has caused the authority of his father to be recognized in the great dwelling of Seb - that is, of earth. In this abstract the advent of Horus, which was annual in Egypt, whence he was the king of one year, is hymned in various phases of his pre- Christian character. He comes by order of Seb, the foster-father on earth, as his favourite of the brothers, who were five in number when Horus is counted as one. He comes in peace, but also brings the sword as a terror to the workers of iniquity and as the immolator of his adversary Sut. He comes also as Horus of the inundation; and thus the desert is made to blossom, and to carry its tribute to the son of Nut, who has conquered Sut, the cause of drought and sterility, in his contest with the devil in the wilderness in
which Horus vanquishes his adversary and avenges his father.
Again, the following might have been designated a song of Har-Tema, who is Horus the fulfiller at his second advent. “The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the poor. He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and the opening of the eyes to them that are blind; to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord's good pleasure and the day of vengeance of our God” (Is. Ixi. 1,2). Horus in his second advent came hawkheaded in the likeness of Ra as the anointed and beloved son. The divine hawk was his sign that the spirit of the Lord was upon him. He brought good tidings for the poor and comfort for the oppressed. He is Horus the compassionate. One of his titles is “the Comforter”. In one passage of the Ritual he says, “I have been produced to repulse the evil powers” - literally those who grovel on their bellies.“I come as the forerunner or messenger of the Lord, as councillor of Osiris”. He goes forth from the state of the disk to bring light and liberty to the manes who are darkling in their prison cells. He solaces those that mourn, he wipes away the tears from those who weep, and opens the eyes of those who are breathless, bound, and blind.
At the same time he was the stern avenger of injustice. The judgment day and dread assize were annual, in accordance with the [Page 492] natural fact, and there was a time of terrible vengeance once a year.
The “acceptable year of the Lord” was based upon this judgment and readjustment, the setting of the captives free and punishing the guilty once a year; and both the first and second advents of Horus were of annual occurrence in the year of “the Lord's good pleasure”.
The fundamental doctrines and the imagery of the book of Job are also Egyptian. These include the Amenta or secret earth of eternity (the hidden place) (xI. 13), which is the land of darkness and the shadow of death (x. 21). The sufferer in Amenta, the redeemer from the dust of earth, the resurrection of the righteous and annihilation of the wicked (xix.25-26, xviii. 5). The house of the prince (Hat-Saru) (xxi. 28). Stretching out the heavens (ix. 8). The day-spring on high ( xxxviii. 12). The group of the glorious ones, the sons of God, including Sut or Satan, the adversary (i. 6). The Lord as a lion in his terrible majesty (x. 16). The serpent pierced by the hand of God (xxvi. 13). The nest and the phoenix (xxix. 18).
The papyrus plant (viii. II). The pyramid tombs (iii. 14). Leviathan, the crocodile-dragon (xli. I), and the rephaim beneath the waters. These are one and all Egyptian.
That which is non-human as matter of the mythos becomes inhuman when retailed as history, and it is inhuman in the one phase because it was not human in the other. This criterion is infallible. For example, the persecution of Job by Satan the adversary repeats the treatment of the good Osiris by the evil Sut.
This of itself suffices to show that the drama was non-human in its oldest form. The Osirian drama unfolded in the mysteries of Amenta likewise furnished matter for the book of Job. The land of darkness described as Sheol by Job is one with Amenta in its secret un-illumined parts. It is the land of darkness and the shadow of death, a land of thick darkness, as darkness itself, a land of the shadow of death (Job, x. 21,22). This is the Ar-en-Tet of the Ritual (ch. 19), the valley of darkness and death, whose unmitigable gloom conceals the secrets that are absolutely unknowable, and where those who died the second death were buried for ever in their mummied immobility. This is the condition threatened in the book of Job (xlix. 19) for the wicked: “He shall go to the generation of his fathers; they shall never see the light”. This region of impenetrable darkness becomes the whole of Sheol, or Sualu, in this version of Amenta. Sheol is especially described as the land of shade, which suggests a Kamite origin for the name. As Egyptian, the root-word “shu” signifies shade, shadow, to be destitute, dark, void. Thence, the void, the hollow, the land of shade, is the land of Shual or Sheol as a Semitic place-name. The book of Job has been described as the most profound and wonderful drama of humanity ever written, yet those who so described it could not have told us what it is actually about. Fundamentally Egyptian, it has been readapted without the wisdom of Egypt. All has been changed by making the sufferer Job a human personage on this earth; and when we know the true nature of mythical characters like those of Job or Samson, David or Jonah, or Jack the Giant Killer, it lessens the interest we might otherwise take in them as human heroes. We must resort to the original. The drama of Job and Satan contains a euhemerized version of the [Page 493] ancient conflict betwixt the prince of darkness, Sut, and Osiris or Horus, who suffers from the adversary in Amenta. The Hebrew Satan was the Egyptian Sut, who became the evil one of the later theology as an anthropomorphic rendering of Apap the serpent of evil. Sut was one of the seven sons of the old First Mother, the goddess of the Great Bear in the astronomical mythology. He was not one of “the sons of god”, as there was no god extant when he was born. Sut was brought forth twin with Horus, and first born as the adversary of his brother Osiris. In a truer version of the mythos the conflict was in phenomena that were physical, not moral. There are no morals in mythology, when the
characters are non-human, and when the mythical heroes and monsters have been represented as human characters we need to know the mythology once more. The Bible is full of such characters, and Job is one of them. In the Ritual Sut is the adversary of Osiris, or, still earlier, the opponent of Horus. He undoes what the Good Being does. He is the malicious destroyer; the author of disease. He is permitted to persecute Horus or Osiris to the death. In his character of the adversary, the power of darkness, he says, “I am Sut, who causeth the storms and tempests, and who goeth round the horizon of heaven, like one whose heart is veiled” (Rit., ch. 39). Which is equivalent to saying, “I am black-hearted”. Sut is here the prototype of Satan, who “goes to and fro in the earth”, and of whom it is elsewhere said, “Your
adversary the devil walketh about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour” (I. Peter, v. 8). So Satan the destroyer plays the devil with the person, the possessions, the belongings of Job, who answers to the suffering Osiris in this development of the ancient drama, in which Horus or Job was no more a human personage than is Sut or Satan. They can be studied in the Ritual without disguise or falsification of character, and without a long series of disputations, lamentations, and sermons taking the place of the primitive mystery. The “parable” taken up by Job is the battle of Sut and Osiris in the mythical representation. Job the afflicted one is the suffering Osiris who passed into Amenta as the victim of the power of darkness, Sut the tormentor, the tempter, the desolator, the destroyer. Amongst other devilries,
Sut flung his ordure at Horus (Rit., ch. 17); he also pierced him in the eye; but. where Osiris suffered dumbly and opened not his mouth, Job laments his lot, and takes to cursing the day of his birth and wishing that he had been addled in the egg. The character of Job is fathomlessly inferior to that of the good Osiris, called the motionless of heart.
The suffering Horus transforms in “the west” and becomes the bennu Osiris or the phoenix. Job does the same, or expects to do so, when he says, “I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix”. The phoenix was the emblem of the solar god who died to resuscitate in the nest of Amenta.
He enters the nest as a hawk and issues forth as a phoenix (Rit., 13, 1 ). When the battle with Sut is over and Horus rises again triumphant over all his trials that were inflicted on him by the adversary, his property is doubled; he is crowned with the double crown as conqueror and king of the double earth. This is puerilely represented by the Lord restoring to Job two-fold of all he had before and overwhelming him with material wealth. [Page 494]
The drama in the mysteries of Amenta was a stupendous representation, true to nature; but when the chief character has been turned into a human personage covered with putrefying sores, when the adversary is made equally personal, and the Lord commissions the Devil to try to torment and to tempt this poor human sufferer because he was a perfectly just, good, and upright man, the drama becomes a stupendous misrepresentation not only of divine justice, but of the original setting forth and rendering of the mythos. The name of Job is commonly taken to signify “the assailed one”, which perfectly describes the type of the suffering Osiris. He is the assailed one, and Sut is the assailant. How the good Osiris was assailed by the evil Sut and his sami, the Apap-dragon and the sebau, may be seen through all the mysteries of Amenta or of Sheol.
Sut the prototypal adversary is the evil one personified in Amenta as opponent of the deliverer Horus; he is the keeper of the prison-house for death, to which Horus comes as lord of life and liberty. The speaker in the Ritual cries to Ra, “O deliver me from the god who seizes souls. The darkness in which Sekari dwells is terrifying to the weak”. This god is Sut (the Hebrew Satan), and darkness is the breath of his domain. In this darkness the Osiris suffers, supplicating Ra for light. Job sitting in the ashes, covered with boils from head to foot, and scraping himself with a potsherd, is a gross physical rendering of the manes in Amenta, who is scraped to get rid of the impurities and uncleannesses with which the soul from this world finds itself afflicted in the other life. The querulous, complaining Job is but a poor portrait of the
speaker in the Ritual, and the Egyptian wisdom has to be restored before the genesis of the drama can be understood.
Osiris was the great god in matter as source or well-spring of life. He rested as the perfect one in Amenta, without sign of breath or beat of heart, but as the fount of motion and the fulfiller of existence in the nether earth, where he suffered in his death and burial, though not directly. Deity could not die nor suffer in itself and this part of the character was represented by the human Horus. He was the sufferer in various natural phenomena; and being portrayed in human guise as the mortal, this led the way to the later euhemerizing of the mythical representations and the reproducing of the drama as human history. It was the human Horus who was pierced and tortured by Sut in death when it was his time to triumph and he became the king and conqueror in his turn. The suffering Horus only conquered Sut when he transformed and became the god in his turn and made his resurrection from Amenta. Job is this fearfully afflicted Horus or Osiris, suffering every evil that could be let loose on him by his adversary. But the scene is in Sheol, not on earth. Job is the “servant”, like the suffering Messiah described by Isaiah, and like the human Horus, who was maimed and deformed, dumb and blind, as An-ar-ef in the land of darkness. When Job “takes up his parable” he is the sufferer in Amenta, the Hebrew Sheol. He goes blackened where there is no sun. He is a brother to the jackals in the paths of darkness, and a companion to ostriches which furnish the feathers of Mati in the Egyptian judgment hall. He is cast into
the mire of the pit. He exclaims, “Why do ye persecute me as a god, and are not satisfied with my flesh?
And after my skin hath been thus destroyed, out of [Page 495] my flesh shall I see God” (Job, xix. 22, 26).
A skin for the body is an expression peculiarly Egyptian. The god who is called the divine soul in the Ritual (ch. 165, A) is addressed as the “concealer of skins” - that is, a hider of the body of those who rise again transformed in the divine likeness of a soul eternalized. In the judgment scenes a second skin = a second body is the sign of re-embodiment after death, as a sahu or divine mummy. That is the shape in which Amsu-Horus rises from the tomb as vindicator and avenger of Osiris and the buried dead, the naked who become the clothed in the hew body. In the case of Job, it seems that the Lord has taken the skin or body of flesh, but is not satisfied. Job is a manes in Sheol. Nevertheless his resurrection from the pit is assured. Hence his exclamation, “I know that my vindicator liveth, and that he shall stand up at the last upon the earth. And after my skin hath been thus destroyed. yet from (or without) my flesh shall I see
God” - for himself, and not vicariously by means of another (Job, xix. 25-27).
There is an imposing picture in the book of Job (ch. xxvi) which is purely Egyptian. “The dead tremble beneath the waters, and the inhabitants thereof in the presence of the deity. Sheol is naked before him, and Abaddon hath no covering. He stretcheth out the north over empty space and hangeth the earth upon nothing. He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds, and the cloud is not rent under them. He closeth in the face of his throne and spreadeth his cloud upon it. He hath described a boundary upon the face of the waters unto the confines of light and darkness. The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at his rebuke. He stilleth the sea by his power, and by his understanding he smiteth Rahab.
By his spirit the heavens are established. His hand hath pierced the fleeing serpent”. The stretcher of heaven for covering was Atum-Ιu (or Ra) when he attained the solar sovereignty. He is addressed in this character by the manes, who is in dread of the deluge: “O thou great coverer of heaven, in thy name of stretcher (of the sky) grant that I may have power over the water and not be drowned” (Rit., 57). The heaven thus stretched over-head was represented as water, hence the greatness of the power that held it aloft in safety. The deceased beneath the waters are the manes in Amenta, where the waters are an image of the lower Nun, the sky as water below the horizon. Abaddon or destruction lurked below in the shape of the Apap-reptile, the destroyer, the great serpent in the waters of darkness, who was pierced and smitten through and through when he rose up in rebellion against Ra or Horus or Atum-Ιu= lahu.
Atum-Ιu the Lord, whom we shall identify with Іhuh, was the architect who finished the building of the heavens; and in the book of Job it is Іhuh the Lord who claims to have laid the foundations of the earth and says, “Declare, if thou hast understanding, who determined the measures thereof, or who stretched the line upon it. Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened, or who laid the corner-stone thereof when the morning stars sang and all the sons of God shouted for joy?” (Job, xxxviii. 4,7.) To “stretch the line” is an expression peculiarly Egyptian, used frequently as synonymous with laying the foundations of the temple. The last chapters of the book contain the chief zootypes belonging to [Page 496] the Egyptian astronomy. “The Bear with her sons” (ch. 38, 32) is a picture of the ancient mother in the celestial heptanomis with her seven sons. The first and foremost of these was Behemoth the hippopotamus of Sut (and his mother), who is described here as “the chief of the ways of god”. His fellow was the crocodile of Sebek-Horus, which is here called Leviathan. The foundations of the heavens were certainly laid in or by
the bear and her seven sons, the first two of which were the twins Sut and Horus, the hippopotamus and the crocodile; and it is equally certain that these foundations were laid in the Egyptian astronomy. This will show that the writer is employing the Egyptian wisdom, and therefore it may be that he refers to the course of precession, albeit vaguely, in the following allusion: “Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days began, and caused the dayspring to know its place, that it might take hold of the ends of the earth?” which looks like the equinox upon its travels, although treated as the “morning” and the visiting “dayspring” from on high that makes its all-embracing circuit in the great year of the world.
When Job “took up his parable” he found it in the Book of the Dead, and is himself the speaker as the manes in Amenta, where we obtain foothold once more in the phenomena of nature, which were represented sanely and scientifically by the Egyptian sages, who laid the ground so that the eschatological rendering could follow the earlier mythos. Names have been omitted, the prototypal figures effaced, wisdom turned into ignorance, and the remains of Egyptian mythology and eschatology have been foisted on the world as an original revelation given in the Hebrew tongue; whereas the fundamental subject-matter of the sacred writings and the very God himself who is supposed to have revealed the truth in them are non-original as biblical, and only recognizable as Egyptian. The prayer of Jonah in the belly of the fish shows him to be another form of the Afflicted One who is for three days and three nights in the lowermost depths at the time of the winter solstice. In this legend the belly of the fish is identical with the belly of Sheol, the womb of the under-world. In the ancient fragment quoted in the second chapter Jonah says, “I called out of mine affliction unto the Lord, and he answered me; out of the belly of Sheol cried I; thou heardest my voice. For thou didst cast me into the depth, in the heart of the seas, and the flood was round about me; all thy waves and thy billows passed over me. And I said, I am cast out from before thine eyes; yet I will look again towards thy holy temple (i.e., on the mount). The waters compassed me about, even to the soul. The deep was round about me; the weeds were wrapped
about my head. I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; earth with her bars (closed) upon me for ever; yet thou hast brought up my life from the pit, O Lord my God”. There is nothing whatever about the fish in this fragment. On the contrary the speaker is in the belly of Sheol, which is the Kamite Amenta. In this nether-world he is at the roots of the mount of earth which stands in the waters of the abyss. The womb of Sheol might be represented as it was by the water-cow or a great fish. A great fish in the form of a crocodile was one of the types of the ancient mother who brought forth Sebek-Horus from the Nun as her young crocodile, just as she [Page 497] brought forth Sut as her young hippopotamus. The sufferer in Sheol is the same here as in the Psalms and the book of Job, and both are identical with the suffering
Osiris in the mysteries of Amenta. We have now to take a backward look in the course of establishing the links between the Egyptian wisdom and the Hebrew writings.
Religion in Egypt first began in worship or propitiation of the primal providence that was figured as the Great Mother who brought forth the seven elemental powers called her children. These powers in Egypt were the seven Ali. In Phoenicia they are the seven Elohim, in Assyria they are seven forms of the Ili, and in Israel the seven Elohim, Kabirim, or Baalim. Sut was one of these, and Sut upon his mountain at the pole became EI-Shadai in his Hebrew form of Seth. The company of seven (with the great mother) passed into the astronomical mythology as the seven great spirits which were divinized as star gods with Anup, a form of Sut, at the pole. Under the figure of Israel, the abandoned female, later writers in the Old Testament denounce the pre-monogamous great mother as the harlot of promiscuous sexual intercourse.
Jeremiah rejoices furiously because “she that hath borne seven languisheth”, ashamed and confounded, and hath given up the ghost” (ch. xv. 9). When the one god had been “lifted up” as Ra in the solar mythos and Huhi the eternal in the eschatology by both the Egyptians and the Jews, or by the Egyptian Jews, the previous divinities called the ancestors of Ra were superseded, or their powers were absorbed in or blended with the one great power, who was now the all-one as Neb-er-ter.
“When the children of Israel did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord” (Іhuh), and served the Baalim and Ashtoreth (Judges ii. II, 14), they were returning to the worship of the most ancient great mother and her sons the Ali, the companions, the brothers in the first circle of the gods; the Baalim being one with the Elohim and the Kabirim. “Return (says Іhuh), O backsliding children (the two sisters Judah and Israel), for I am a husband to you ” (Jer. iii. 14). This backsliding, however, was itself a return to Israel's earlier love - “Israel”, that is, as a part of the “common, dim populations” of Syria, Phoenicia or Canaan, and Palestine. The change from Baal to Іhuh is indicated by Hosea (ch. ii. 16, also by Jeremiah iii.) when it is said to Israel, “And it shall be at that day, saith the Lord, thou shalt call me 'my husband', and thou shalt call me no longer Baal. For I will take away the names of the Baalim out of her mouth, and they shall no more be memorialized by name”. The Baalim, like the Elohim and Âbirim, were the Ali, companion gods
or powers, that were originally a group of seven, to whom El or Baal was added as the eighth or highest God. They existed in the time of the totemic matriarchate before the husband or the father could be known personally, whether as human or divine. In this passage the deity becomes monogamous, and Israel, as a feminine equivalent for the suppressed goddess, is to be his wife. The language of the “prophets” concerning the whoredom of Israel cannot be comprehended apart from the status of the woman in communal connubium. The whore of later language is the representative of the totemic woman, who might cohabit with seven or any other appointed number of consorts. The harlot in mythology was the great mother, [Page 498] whose own children were her consorts in the beginning.
When the fatherhood was divinized the god became the husband, the one instead of the seven or eight, who were the Ali, Illi, Elohim, Âberim, or Baalim. Israel had consorted with the Baalim, and therefore cohabited promiscuously. And after the one god was made known to her as a father and a husband, she still went a-whoring after the earlier gods. Hence the denunciations of Israel as the whore who would not truly play the part of wife.