The Magic of Jewels and Charms

The Curious Lore of Precious Stones

By George Fedrick Kunz



Angels and Ministers of Grace  260 - 276

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in the glow that warms an Englishman 's heart when he reads the ringing words put by Shakespeare into the mouth
of Henry V:

And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by
Prom this day to the ending of the world,
But we in it shall be remembered.

It is related by Metaphrastus that when St. George was condemned to death by burning, his executioners (fearing
that the flames of the pyre might be extinguished because of his virtue) covered his body with a garment of amiantos
(asbestos); for it was believed that when this material began to bum the flame could not be extinguished. But all
precautions were vain, for as soon as the saint was placed in the flames the fire went out, contrary to the laws of
nature, and not a hair of his head was injured. This tale illustrates a curious but not unnatural misunderstanding of
the name asbestos, which really signifies inextinguishable, but was intended to mean that the substance would not
burn, and hence that no flame could be extinguished in it.18
In an unpublished manuscript written by Aubrey are quoted the following curious lines on the legend of St. George
and the Dragon: 19

To save a mayd, St. George the Dragon slew,
A pretty tale if all is told be true;
Most say there are no Dragons, and 'tis sayd,
There was no George; pray God there was a mayd.

The St. George thalers, coined by the counts of Mansfeld (Thuringen), enjoyed in bygone times a reputation as
amulets for soldiers. This belief is said to have originated from the actual preservation of a soldier's life by one of
these coins, which he had sewed up in the lining of his coat just

17 Aldrovandi, "Museum metallioum, Bononiae," 1648, p. 6S3.

18 Thorns, "Anecdotes and Traditions," London, 1839, p. 103 (Camden Soc. Pub.).

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over his heart for safekeeping. A bullet which struck him here and would otherwise have killed him, was diverted by
coming in contact with the thaler. Hungarian St. George thalers were regarded as amulets for sailors as well as
soldiers. These coins derived their name from bearing the design of St. George and the Dragon.
Among the wonder-working saints none enjoyed greater repute in medieval times than Sainte Foy, the virgin
martyr whose remains were taken from Agen to the abbey-church at Conques, a village on the hills of Aveyron,
Pilgrims came from far and near to the shrine of Sainte Foy, for she worked marvellous cures upon those who
appealed to her for help, even giving sight to the blind. Her grace appears to have been bestowed upon animals as
well as upon human beings, a fantastic legend relating that she had raised donkeys from the grave! Naturally the pilgrims must bring rich gifts, as otherwise the saint might turn a deaf ear to their prayers.
Many of these treasures may still be seen in this out-of- the-way church, wherein no one would suspect the
existence of the rich specimens of early goldsmiths' work that are carefully preserved in the treasury. The most interesting of these treasures is a statuette supposed to represent the saint. This is a seated figure, about 33 inches high and encrusted with an immense number of precious stones, uncut emeralds, sapphires and amethysts, as well
as with many cameos and pearls; all these having been offered at various times to the saint.
The figure — probably the representation of some ecclesiastic — is seated on an elaborate chair, originally
surmounted by two golden doves. The saint is said to have appeared in a vision to the Bishop of Beaulieu and
expressly directed this adornment; these doves have disappeared and have been replaced by crystal balls. The execution of the stat-

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uette — constructed of wood covered with gold plates — is stiff and conventional, but it is not unimpressive and
gives evidence of considerable skill on the part of the artist.
Nevertheless, it certainly has nothing of the youthful grace we would associate with a virgin martyr.20
The offering of precious stones to attract the favor of gods or saints is really a talismanic use of such gems and is intimately connected with the wearing of gems for their talismanic or therapeutic effect. The gift established a sort
of relation between the being whose help was desired and the petitioner, and the gem was the medium through
which the favor was bestowed.
The legend of the royal princess who was canonized by the Church as St. Enimie (d. 628 or 630 a.d.) contains an
account of a miraculous spring and also enshrines the popular view of the cause of the strange outlines of an
extensive mass of heaped-up boulders. This saint was a daughter of the French king Clotaire II ( d. 628) . Her most ardent wish was to devote herself exclusively to the service of Christ, but her royal parent insisted upon a marriage
with one of the great nobles. The princess, who was the fairest of the fair, put up an earnest prayer that the Lord
would destroy her beauty, even at the expense of some dreadful malady, so that she might cease to be an object of desire for men.
Her prayer was heard and she was stricken with leprosy which entirely blotted out her charms. Not long after this
an angel appeared to her in a dream and directed her to bathe in the Fountain of Boule, in the region of Gevaudan.
On doing so she was immediately cured of her leprosy, but as soon as she went away from the spring to return to the
royal residence, the malady returned. A second attempt had the same favorable and unfavorable results, and she

20 See plate in the present writer's "Curious Lore of Precious Stones," J. B. Lippincott Company, 191a, opp. p. 356.

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now recognized that she must remain near the spring. So after bathing there a third time and being again
completely cured, she erected a monastery on the spot and became the prioress. The institution flourished, but a
few years later the saintly prioress was horrified to see that the Devil was busy with her nuns. Once more she
sought for divine aid, and she was given authority to imprison the Evil One should she catch him in the monastery.
This she did, but the Devil was crafty enough to make his escape. Near the spot where the monastery stood was a
mass of heaped-up boulders, through which led a way called the Chasm Road which led to a rocky aperture of
unknown depth. This was fabled to afford egress and ingress to the Devil in his passage out of and back to the
infernal regions. Along this road he fled when he escaped from the monastery; St. Enimie fearlessly pursued, but
the agile demon was on the point of slipping back again into his own realm, when the saint made a supreme appeal
and called upon the rocks to help her. As she raised her arms in supplication, one of the largest boulders, called
"La Sourde," moved of its own accord and fell upon the Devil, pinning him fast to the ground beneath its
ponderous weight. In his rage and despair he made frantic efforts to free himself and his bloody claws left an
imprint on the rock. This mark, still observable a half-century ago, though it has now disappeared, was prosaically explained by scientists as a stain of iron-oxide.
The other boulders were in motion to assist in the good work, but when the Devil had been caught they stopped
short in their downward course, and this is supposed to account for the strange angles at which they stand.21 It
would be pleasant to fancy that His Satanic Majesty eventually failed

21 Mile. Marie Konig, " Poupees et ledgendes de France," Paris, n. d., pp. 77-80.

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to make his escape, but unfortunately the ever-recurring instances of his activity from the age of St. Enimie down to
our own time preclude this belief.
An heirloom in the family of Dom Pedro of Brazil is said to have been loaned to one of the pioneer aviators,
Santos-Dumont, by Dom Pedro's daughter, the Comtesse d'Eu. This was a medal of St. Benedict and had been long
regarded as a powerful talisman in the Braganza family.
One of its princely members had a striking proof of this virtue in 1705, when, after having worn the medal but two
weeks, he was saved from deadly peril by the timely discovery and consequent defeat of a plot. Santos-Dumont had
just experienced a terrible fall while experimenting with his new airship in the Eothschild park near Paris, and this it
was that induced the Comtesse d'Eu to loan him the talismanic medal, with the injunction that he should always
wear it on his person, and the assurance that if he did so no further harm could befall him. The talisman seemed to
do its work well, for although the aviator had many narrow escapes, he was always saved from serious injury.
Unfortunately, however, a thief picked it from the pocket of his coat while he was busily engaged in work on an
airship in a Paris machine-shop.22
While it was customary to close the shops of the goldsmiths on Sundays and feast-days, a special exception
permitted the "Confrerie de St. Eloi," the goldsmiths' guild, to open a single shop (not always the same one) on
each Sunday and feast-day, the profits of the sales being devoted to providing a dinner on Easter Day for the poor
the Hotel Dieu.23 This combination of commercialism and philanthropy has illustrations in our own day, and,

22 St. Louis Democrat, 1905.

23 De Lespinasse, "Les metiers et corporations de la ville de Paris," Paris, 1892, p. 11.

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may be the ulterior motives, some good results are certainly attained.

The Well of St. Cuthbert, near Cranstock, Newquay, England, long enjoyed the repute of miraculously curing the
ailments of infants. Not only were curative powers attributed to the waters of the well, but also to a perforated
stone alongside of it. As recently as 1868 a puny infant is said to have been passed through the orifice of this stone
with the firm expectation that this act would strengthen the infant and bring good luck to it.24
In the region of the Abruzzi, in Italy, more especially in the province of Teramo, wonderful virtues are attributed
to the intercession of St. Donato. So great is thought to be his power to cure those afflicted with epilepsy that in
this region the disease is called the malady of St. Donato. This saint, however, is credited with much more
extensive powers, for he is believed to cure hydrophobia, to prevent the ill effects of the Evil Eye, and in general to bring to naught the enchantments of witches. Such being his powers, it is not surprising that his image was added to many amulets, those figuring the lunar crescent being frequently surmounted with the bust of the saint. This type of amulet owes its supposed efficacy to the horn-like shape of the crescent, horns or substances having a likeness to a horn, like certain branches of coral, being regarded as a sure protection against the Evil Eye. A curious amulet
bears the bust of St. Donato surmounting a crescent moon within which is the dreaded number thirteen. This fateful number is considered to be a source of misfortune for those who do not wear it inscribed on an amulet; but it
becomes a source of good fortune and a happy life for those who possess such an amulet.25

24 Nature, vol. Ixxxvl, p. 429; Oct. 6, 1910.

25 Bellucci, "II feticismo in Italia," Perugia, 1907, pp. 113-119. Figures.

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A notable instance of the use of a saint's name to facilitate the perpetration of a crime is afforded in the case of the
poison known as Aqua Tofana. This appears to have been a preparation of arsenic and was concocted by a woman
named Tofana, a native of Palermo, in Sicily, who eventually took up her abode in Naples and devoted herself to
the preparation and sale of her poison in Naples, Rome and elsewhere. To divert suspicion she used vials marked
"Manna of St. Nicholas of Bari," and bearing the image of this saint. Most of her clients are said to have been
women who were anxious to rid themselves of their husbands, and she must have had a large practice in this
specialty, for so many husbands died in Rome in a mysterious manner that in 1659 the authorities finally took cognizance of the matter and instituted a searching investigation. This revealed the fact that there existed in Rome
a secret society entirely composed of women who wished to "remove" their husbands by poison. The leader of this society and many of the members were duly executed, but Tofana does not seem to have been molested.
Many strange superstitions as to the saints prevail among the Spanish-speaking inhabitants of New Mexico.
If a saint whose aid has been invoked fails to respond to the appeal, his image is shut up in some receptacle until he
vouchsafes to render the service desired. On the other hand, if the image of a saint falls to the ground, this is interpreted as a sign that the saint has performed a miracle. One means of forcing a saint to perform a miracle was
to hang the image head downward; this was especially recommended in the case of St. Anthony. All strangers who presented themselves on St. Anthony's day or St. Joseph's day were to be hospitably received and entertained, for
one of them might be the saint himself. Those who wished to read the future were instructed to put the white of an
egg in a glass of water

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on the eve of St. John's day; on examining the contents of the glass the next morning they would see written in
black characters on the white background a prophecy of what was to happen. On this saint's day women were
assured that if they cut the tip of their hair with an axe, or merely washed it, they would be blessed with an
abundant growth of hair.
A strange legend of angelic activity is that touching the miraculous transportation through the air (from Galilee
to Dahnatia) of the "Santa Casa," the house wherein the Virgin Mary dwelt. This event is placed in 1295, and the
reverse of an Italian medallion engra»ved in 1508, during the pontificate of Julius II, gives a representation of the journey to Dalmatia, two angels sufficing to bear the little edifice. The sea, over which the house is being borne, is
conventionally indicated by waves; but the fact that the medal-list has seen fit to show a relatively large figure of
the Virgin seated on the roof of the little structure and holding the Infant Jesus in her arms, scarcely adds to the
realism of the effect.
Quite naturally Catholicism could not be satisfied with the pagan idea that the constellations held sway over the
different parts of the human body, and the saints were substituted for the stars.
The saints of the Romanists have usurped the place of the zodiacal constellations in their government of the parts
of man's body, and so for every limbe they have a saint. Thus, St. Otilia keepes the head instead of Aries;
St. Blasius is appointed to govern the necke instead of Taurus; St. Lawrence keepes the baeke and shoulders
instead of Gemini, Cancer and Leo; St. Erasmus rules the belly with the entrayls, in the place of Libra and
Scorpius; in the stead of Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius and Pisces, the holy church of Rome hath elected
St. Burgarde, St. Rochus, St. Quirinius, St. John, and many others, which govern the thighes, feet, shinnes and

26 Pettigrew, "On Superstitions Connected with the History and Practice of Medicine and Surgery," p. 36.
(Quotation from Melton, "Astrologaster," p. 20.)

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When we consider how many beautiful and symbolic rites and observances have marked the celebration of saint's
days and holidays in the Old World, and how few of these have been preserved by the inhabitants of our own
country, we must find this most regrettable. Of late years there has been a marked tendency to increase the
number of holidays, and in a few cases to revive the celebration of old holidays, but the popular idea of the best
way to celebrate these occasions seems to be confined to making them carnivals of noise and disorder. This is
largely owing to a lack of intelligent guidance, for it is too much to expect that any people, above all those so
practical as our American people, can spontaneously evolve, at short notice, an emblematic expression of the idea underlying the festival. If, however, a beautiful and adequate symbolism were presented in a concrete form, the
masses of the people would grasp its significance quickly enough, and would thus gain a higher and better
conception of the historic anniversary or the time-honored festival they were called upon to celebrate.
The saint's days on which the summer and winter solstices fell were memorized by distichs. For instance:

St. Barnaby bright! St. Barnaby bright!
The longest day and the shortest night.

St. Thomas gray ! St. Thomas gray !
The longest night and the shortest day.

The former of the verses is probably the earlier, as St. Barnabas' Day is June 11, the day on which the summer
solstice fell in England for some time before the reform of the "Old Style" calendar, in 1752, replaced this date;
while St. Thomas' Day is December 21, the date of the winter solstice in our modern calendar.27
Writing of the origin of the rural superstitions in re-

27 Notes and Queries, 2d Series, vol. viii, London, 1859, p. 242.

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gard to the weather on certain saint's days, Wehrenfels quotes the distich:

If Paul's Day be fair and clear
It foreshows an happy Year.

and continues:

The contrary has happened a thousand Times, but however this cannot destroy the Rule. It once happened;
certainly, say they, these Rules of the Husbandmen are not to be despised; see how exactly they are made good by
Experience. Thus a great Part of Mankind reasons; which if one consider, he will neither depend much upon the
Content of the common People in these Things, nor wonder at so great a Number of most silly Opinions.28


January 25. Saint Paul's Day :

If the clouds make dark the sky.
Great store of people then will die;
If there be either snow or rain,
Then will be dear all kinds of grain.

(Robin Porby, "Vocabulary of East Anglia," London, 1830.)

Somewhat different in a Latin form :

Clara dies Pauli multas segetes nitant amni.
Si f uerint nebulae, aut venti, erunt proelia genti.

February 2. Candlemas Day:

If Candlemas day be fair and bright,
Winter will have another flight;
If on Candlemas day it be shower and rain,
Winter is gone and will not come again.

(John Ray, "A Collection of English Proverbs," 2d ed., Cambridge, 1678.)

February 12. St. Eulalia's Day:

If the sun shines on St. Eulalie's day.
It is good for apples and eider they say.

28 Wehrenfels, "A Dissertation on Superstition," p. 36; prefixed to "Occasional Thoughts on the Power of Curing
the King's- Evil," London, 1748.

29 Lean's Collectanea, vol. i, Bristol, 1902, pp. 373-384.

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February 14. St. Valentine's Day:
On St. Valentine's day
Cast beans in clay
But on St. Chad
Sow good or bad.
(Seed time of this Lenten crop limited between February 14 and March 2.)

February 24. St. Matthias' Day:
Saint Matthew (Sept. '21)
Get candlesticks new;
St. Mattheg
Lay candlesticks by

March 1. St. David's Day:

Quoth Saint David, " I'll have a flood."
Saith our Lady [Mch. 25] " I'll have as good."
(Referring to spring tides in Wales, from Poor Robin's Almanack, 1684.)

June 15. St. Vitus' Day:

If Saint Vitus' day be rainy weather,
It will rain for thirty days together.

(M. A. Denham, " Proverbs and Popular Sayings Relating to the Seasons," Percy Soc.1846.)

July 15. St. Swithin's Day:

St. Swithin's day, if thou dost rain,
For forty days it will remain;
St. Swithin's day, if thou be fair,
For forty days t'will rain nae mair.

(M. A. Denham, "Proverbs and Popular Sayings Relating to the Seasons," Percy Soc, 1846.)

July 15 : All the tears that St. Swithin can cry
Aug. 24 : Saint Bartholomew's dusty mantle wipes dry.
(R. Inwards, " "Weather Lore," London, 1893.)

July 20. St. Margaret's Day:
"Margaret's floods" (heavy rains).

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July 25. St. James' Day:

"Whoever eats oysters on St. James' day will never want money."
(M. A. Denham, "Proverbs and Popular Sayings Relating to the Seasons," Percy Soc, 1846.)

August 24. St. Bartholomew's Day:
St. Bartholomew
Brings cold dew.

(John Ray, "A Collection of English Proverbs," 2d ed., Cambridge, 1678.)

October 28. St. Simon and St. Jude:
Simon and Jude
All the ships on the sea home they do crowd.

Dost thou know her then?
Trap. As well as I know 'twill rain upon
Simon and Jude's day next.

(Middleton, "The Roaring Girl," Act 5, Se. 1.)

Now a continual Simon and Jude's rain beat all your feathers as flat down as pancakes!
(Idem, Act II, Sc. 1.)

November 11. St. Martin's Day:

Expect St. Martin's summer, halcyon days.

(Shakespeare, "I Henry VI," Act 1, Sc. 2.)

December 13. St. Lucy's Day:
Lucy [bright] light
The shortest day and the longest night
(For a long time, before the change of the calendar, St. Lucy's Day corresponded to our 21st of December.)

December 21. St. Thomas' Day:

St. Thomas gray, St. Thomas gray
The longest night and the shortest day.

December 27. St. John the Evangelist's Day:
Never rued the man
That lead in his fuel before St. John.

(Robin Forby, "Vocabulary of East Anglia," London, 1830.)

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Additional verses on Candlemas Day (Purification of the Blessed Virgin):
If the sun shines bright on Candlemas Day,
The half of the winter's not yet away.

In Latin:

Si sol splendescat Maria purifleante,
Major erit glaeies post festum quam ante.


Adrian. September 8. As also of his wife, Natalia. Anniversary of translation of his relics to Rome; anciently his
festival on day of his martyrdom, March 4, 306. Patron of soldiers in Flanders, Germany, and northern Prance;
also against the plague. Relics in Abbey of St. Adrian, Gearsburg, Belgium; and elsewhere.

Afra. August 5. Especially celebrated in Augsburg, of which city (her native one) she is patroness. Martyred Aug.
7, 304.

Agatha. February 5. Patroness of Malta, and Catania, Sicily. Died February 5, 251.

Agnes. January 21. Supposed anniversary of martyrdom in 304.

Alban. June 22. First English saint and martyr, died June 22, 303.
Present town of St. Albans upon site of martyrdom.

Amable. June 11. Patron of Riom, France. Died 475.

Ambeose. December 7. Patron of Milan. Died April 4, 397. Founder of church, now Sant' Ambrogio basilica
Maggiore, Milan, in 387. One of four Latin Fathers.

Andrew. November 30. Apostle, patron of Scotland and Russia.

Anne. July 26. Supposed anniversary of her death. Mother of the Virgin Mary. Patroness of Canada.

Anselm. April 21. Archbishop of Canterbury (1033-1109).

Anthony. January 17. Hermit (251-356) .

Anthony of Padua. June 13. Died June 13, 1231.

Apollonia. February 9. Martyred February 9, 250. Patroness of those suffering from toothache.

Athanasius. May 2. One of four Greek Fathers. Died May 2, 373.

Augustine. August 28. Died 430. Patron of theologians and learning.
Bishop of Hippo in Africa. One of four Latin Fathers.

Augustine. May 26. Apostle to England in 596. Died May 26, 604.

Babylas. September 1 (14) in Eastern Church; January 24 in Western Church (237-250). Bishop of Antioeh. Relics
said to have silenced the revived oracle of Apollo at Delphi, during reign of Julian the Apostate.

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Barbara. December 4. Patroness of Ferrara, Mantua and Guastalla, Italy, and of armourers and gunsmiths. Died December 4, 235 ( ?).
Barnabas. June 11. His birthday. One of the patrons of Milan. Apostle.
Bartholomew. August 24. Apostle.
Basil the Great, January 1, Eastern Church j June 14, "Western Church (328-380).
Bathilda. January 30 in France; January 26 in Roman Martyrology (died ca. 680).
BatoorBavon. October 1. Patron of Ghent (589-653).
Benedict. March 21. Founder of Benedictine Order (480-543).
Bernard of Clairvaux. August 20. Founder of Abbey of Clairvaux, one of the Fathers of the Church (1091-1153).
Bernard of Menthon. June 15. Founder of hospices in the Alps, "Great St. Bernard" and "Little St. Bernard"
(923-1008 ?).
Blaise. February 3. Patron of Ragusa, and of those afflicted with throat diseases. Bishop of Sebaste, Cappadocia
(died 316).
Boniface. June 5. Apostle of Germany (680-755).
Bridget OR Bride. February 1. Patroness of Ireland (450-521).
Bruno. October 6. Founder of Carthusian Order (1035-1101).
Catherine. November 25. Patroness of Venice and appealed to against diseases of the tongue.
Catherine of Siena. Patroness of Siena; lived in fourteenth century.
Cecilia. November 22. Patroness of sacred music (died 100).
Clement. November 23. Patron of farriers and blacksmiths (died 100).
COLUMBAN. November 21. Irish saint (543-615).
Crispin and Crispinian. October 25. Patrons of shoemakers (died 284).
CUTHBERT. March 20. Patron saint of Durham, England (died 687).
David. March 1. Patron saint of Wales (446-549).
Declan. July 24. First bishop of Ardmore, Ireland.
Denis. October 9. Patron of France. Living in 250.
DOMENic. August 4. Founder of Dominican Order (1170-1221).
Edmund. November 20. King of East Anglia and martyr (died 870).
Edward. March 18. King of England and martyr (962-978) .
Edward the Confessor. October 13. King of England (1004-1066).
Elizabeth of Hungary. November 19. Daughter of Alexander II, King of Hungary (1207-1231).
Elmo (Erasmus). June 2 (died 304),
Elot (Eligius). December 1. Patron of goldsmiths (588-659).
Emeric. November 4, Eldest son of St. Stephen of Hungary.
Engracia. 18

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Eric (or Henry). May 18. Patron of Sweden (died 1151).

Etheleeda (Audrey). October 17. Princess of Bast Anglia (died 679).

EUPHEMIA. September 16. Patroness of Chaleedon (died ca. 307).

Eelicitas. November 23. Patroness of male heirs (died 173).

EILLAN. January 9. Scotch saint (died ea. 649).

ETLOMENA (FiLUMiNA, Philomena). August 10. Supposititious saint.

Francis of Assisi. October 4. Founder of Franciscan Order (1182- 1226).

Francis Xavier. December 3. Patron and Apostle of India (1506-1552).

Feideswide. October 19. Patroness of city and university of Oxford, daughter of Sidan, Prince of Oxford
(died ca. 740).

Genevieve. January 3. Patroness of Paris.

George. April 23. Patron of England, of Germany and Venice, of soldiers and armourers (bom third century).

Giles. September 1. Patron of Edinburgh (ca. 640-).

Gregory the Great. March 12 (born 540).

GUDULA. January 8. Patron of Brussels (born middle of seventh century).

Helena. August 18. Wife of Constantius, mother of Constantine the Great (died 328).

Heney ov Bavaria. July 15. Patron of Bavaria. Emperor (Henry II) of Germany (972-1024).

Hilaey. January 14 (died 368).

Honoeatus. Bishop of Aries. Died January 6, 429.

HONOEATUS (Honobe). May 16. Patron of bakers. Bishop of Amiens. (Died 690.)

HUBEET OF Liege. November 3. Patron of the chase and of dogs (died 727).

Ignatius Loyola. July 3. Founder of Jesuit Order (1491-1556).

ISIDOEE THE Ploughman (Isidro el Labrador). May 15. Patron of Madrid and of farmers (born ca. 1110-1170).

James THE Geeat. July 25. Apostle; patron of Spain and of pilgrims to Jerusalem (died 42).

Januaeius. September 19. Patron of Naples (died 305).

Jeeomb. September 30. Patron of scholars. One of the four Latin Fathers (342-420).

John the Baptist. June 24, or Midsummer Day.

John the Evangelist. December 27 (died 101).

Joseph. March 19.

Juan Hospitatoe. January 9. Patron of hospitals (died 313).

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Justina of Padua. October 7. One of the patrons of Padua and Venice (died 303).

Kenelm. December 13 and July 17. Son of Kenulph, King of Murcia (812-820).

Keyne (Keyna). Comish saint (died 689).

KiLiAN. July 8. Irish saint (died 689),

Lawrence. August 10. Patron of Nuremberg, Genoa, and of the Escorial.

Leonhaedt. November 6. Patron of prisoners and slaves; in Bavaria, of cattle (died ca. 560).

Lucy (Lucia). December 13. Patron of Syracuse, and against eye-diseases.

Ludmilla. September 16. Patron of Bohemia. Queen of that country (died ca. 920).

Luke October 18. Patron of painters.

Macaire the Elder. January 15. (Fourth century.)

Macaire the Younger. January 2. (Fourth century.)

Malo (Maclou). November 15. Patron of St. Malo, France (died 627).

Margaret. July 20. One of the patrons of Cremona and of women in childbirth (died fourth century).

Mark. April 25. Evangelist (died 68).

Martha of Bethany. July 29. Patroness of cooks and housewives (died 84).

Martin of Tours. November 11, Martinmas. Patron of Tours and of beggars, tavern-keepers and wine-growers

Mary Magdalene. July 22. Patroness of Provence and of Marseilles as well as of penitent fallen women.

Matthias. February 24.

Maurice. September 22. Patron of Austria, Savoy, Mantua, and of foot-soldiers (fourth century).

Michael. September 29. Archangel.

Nicholas. December 6. Archbishop of Myra in Lycia, patron of Russia, and especially of serfs and serfdom
(died 342).

Olap. July 29. Patron of Norway. Not canonized but informally accepted.

Ouen (Ouine). August 24. Patron of Rouen (595-683).

Pantaleonb. June 27. Patron of physicians (fourth century).

Patrick. March 17. Patron of Ireland (born ca. 386).

Paul. June 29 (with St. Peter), and January 25.

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Peter. June 29; also August 1, St. Peter's Chains, and January 18, Chair of St. Peter.

Philip. May 1. Patron of Brabant and Luxemburg.

Philip Neri. May 26. Founder of Oratorian Order (1515-1595).

POLYCAEP. January 26. Bishop of Smyrna (died 167).

Quietus. (No day.) Bones in church of Our Lady of Grau, Hoboken, enshrined June 1, 1856, Archbishop Bailey officiating.

Roche (Roch, Roqxje). August 16. Patron of prisoners and the sick, especially the plague-stricken
(born ca. 1280-1327).

ROMAIN. October 23. Patron of Rouen (died 639).

ROMUALD. February 7 (956-1027).

Rosalia. September 4. Patroness of Palermo (died 1160).

Rumald (Rumbald). November 3. Patron of Brackley and Buckingham, England. Son of King of Northumbria.

SCHOLASTICA. February 10. Sister of St. Benedict (died ca. 543).

Sebald. Son of a Danish king (eighth century).

Sebastian. January 20. Patron of Chiemsee, Mannheim, Oetting, Palma,

Rome, Soissons, and of archers (fourth century).

Secundus. March 30. Patron of Asti (died 119).

Stephen. December 26. Patron of horses.

Swithin (Swithun). July 15. Patron of "Winchester (died 862).

Symphoeosa. July 18. Only in Greek Church. A Jewish martyr, the mother of the Maccabees (second century B.C.).

Theresa. October 15. Patron of Spain (1515-1582).

Thomas a Becket. July 7 (1117-1170).

Thomas Didymus. December 21. Apostle, patron of Portugal and Palma.

Urban. May 25. Pope and martyr (died 236).

Ursula. October 21. Patroness of young girls, and of educational institutions (died 383).

Valentine. February 14 (first century).

Veronica. Shrove Tuesday (first century).

Victor. Patron of Marseilles (fourth century).

Vincent. January 22. Patron of Lisbon, Valencia, Saragossa, Milan, and Chalons.

Vincent de Paul. July 19. Founder of Order of the Sisters of Charity.

Vitus. June 15. Patron of Bohemia, Saxony, Sicily, and of dancers and actors (third century).

Walburga. February 25 (died ca. 778).

William. January 10. Patron of Bruges (died 1209).

Winifred. November 3. British maiden of seventh century.

The Magic of Jewels and Charms

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