Laura Watson Benedict

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy in the Faculty of Philosophy of Columbia University

[Reprinted from the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,
Vol. XXV, pp. 1—308. Published 15 May, 1916.]

Printed by E. J. BRILL, Leyden (Holland).



Prefatory remarks 3

Introduction. General characteristics of the religious attitude of the

Bagobo 8

Part I. Mythological concepts 13

The Bagobo pantheon 13

Myth-gods of the nine heavens 15

Gods associated with human interests 18

The demons called buso 29

Interpretation of physical evironment 43

The souls of man and life after death 49

Characterization of the two souls 49

Right-hand soul or Gimokud Takawanan 50

Part I. Mythological concepts - Continued

Signs of death 51

Summons to the living 51

Onong or travel outfit for the soul 53

The one country of the dead 54

Manner of existence in Gimokudan 55

Topography of the one country 56

Idea of retribution 58

Left hand soul or Gimokud Tebang 58

Dream exploits 58

Fate at death 60

General considerations  61

Restoration of the dead to life 61

Cult of the dead 62

Ideas of death 63

Souls of animals and of manufactured objects 64

Traditions of mythical ancestors 65

Part II. The formal ceremonial 75

Typical ceremonial behavior 75

General character of ceremonial 75

Fundamental elements of ceremonial 78

Human sacrifice 78

Ceremonial food 79

Ceremonial liquor 79

Betel ritual , 80

Offerings of manufactured products 81

Purification 81

Recitation of ritual words 82

Ceremonial chant 82

Agoog music 83

Dancing and costumes 85

The feast 87

Manganito 87

Various types of altar 87

Bamboo prayer stands called tambara 87

Hanging altars 90

Tigyama 90

Balekat 90

Agong altars called sonaran 91

Hut shrines 92

Buis or buso houses 92

Parabunnian or rice-sowing altars 92

Ceremonies in detail 93

Festival of drinking called Ginum 93

Introductory remarks 93

Chronology of the preparation and of the four main days of the festival 96

First day of the Ginum 101

First night called tig-kanayan or the beginning 101

Second day 101

Second night called ta dua dukilum 102

Third day 102

Third night 103

Fourth and main day 103

Fourth and last night 103

Ceremony of Awas or offerings of areca-nuts to spirits 104

Part II Formal Ceremonial - Continued

Preliminary Awas 105

Main Awas Ill

Ceremony of Tanung or magic rites against Buso 113

Preliminary Tanung 114

Main Tanung 115

Ceremony of Pamalugu or purification 117

Ceremony of Lulub or washing of water flasks 124

Ceremony of Sonar or offering on the agongs of manufactured products 125

Offering of manufactured products to the gods 126

Ablutions called Sagmo 128

Visitation of Anito 128

Rites with balabba 129

Part II The Formal Ceremony - continuation

Ceremonies on the main day of Ginum 131

Arrangement of the long house 151

Festival of Ginum at Tubison 153

Question of head hunting 158

A few ceremonial chants 162

Rite of human sacrifice called Pag-huaga 166

Part II The Formal Ceremony - Final Continuation

Ceremonial at rice-sowing called Mariimmas 171

Ceremonial at harvest called Ka-pungaan 174

Marriage rites 180

Trial marriage 181

Formal ceremony called Taliduma 181

Rites attending death and burial 186

Part III. Every-day forms of religious response 193

Interviews with the gods called Manganito 193

Charms and magical rites 203

Charms by actual defense 206

Charms by substitution 208

Charms through association by contiguity 213

Charms having inherent virtue 217

Ordeal or test 222

Disease and healing in their supernatural aspects 223

Diseases that result from breaking tabu 223

Diseases caused by huso 225

Diseases caused by the left-hand soul 227

Methods of healing sickness 229

By an act of devotion 229

By magic 230

By native materia medica 230

Method of burning 232

Method of external use without burning 233

Method of internal use without burning 234

Method of wearing or of carrying medicine on the person 234

Part III. Everyday Forms of Religious Response - Continued

Tabu as a factor of the religious life 235

Ceremonial tabu 236

Mythical tabu 238

Class tabu 240

Esthetic tabu 243

Omens and dreams 245

Omens 245

Dreams 248

Part IV. Problem of sources of ceremonial and myth 250

Bibliography 279

Index 283

Index Continued

Oriental and Near East Section

Main Library