A STUDY

OF

BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH

Laura Watson Benedict

Bagobo Index Part IV continued:

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Songs of the medium, 195 et seq.
Sores, 213, 224.
Soul, Left-hand, Characterization of, 58-61.
Diseases caused by, 223, 227-229.
Exploits of, 58-60, 228, 248.
Fate at death, 60-61, 63.
References to, 12, 30-31, 50, 62, 186, 225.
Sign of death given by, 246.
Soul, Nature of, 269-270.
Soul, Right-hand, Beliefs concerning existence of, after death, 55-56, 265.
bathes on entering lower world, 54-55.
Characterization of, 50-58.
communicates with the living, 51-53, 246.
dissolves under sun's rays, 56.
References to, 12, 186, 190, 191.
Travel outfit for, 53-54, 190.
Souls of animals, 64-65, 270.
of inanimate objects, 53-54, 55, 64-65, 81, 89, 270.
of man, 45-64.
Number of, 49-50, 270.
Sources of ceremonial and myth. Problem of, 250-282.
Sowing, 6. See also under Rice-sowing.
Spanish conquest, 4, 251, 277.
influence, 4-5, 189, 267, 279.
missionaries; 166, 189, 250, 265, 274, 275.
records, 250-251, 256-258, 269.
Spear as ikut, 205, 236.
Gift of, to priest, 184.
shaft of Malaki t'Olu k'Waig, 119.
thrusts, Distribution of, at sacrifice, 271.
Spears, Ceremonial use of, 82, 89, 103, 127, 136, 159, 162, 163, 168, 181, 182-183.
Spells, see Magical spells and usages.
Spirit scarers, 113, 116.
worship, 272, 274.
Spiritual essence of food, etc., 53-54.
Spoon, Ceremonial, 80, 142, 143, 176, 272.
Squatting posture, 190, 195.
Squirrel, Dance named for, 86.
Metamorphosis of, 71-72.
Stare, Fixed, directed on corpse and bier, 188, 190.
directed magically on foe, 220.
Stars, Myths of, 46-48.
Devotions to, 44, 93, 265.
Steel, Arrow points of, 199.
Bird with claws and beak of, 47,74.
Sternberg, Leo, cited, 1 33-134, 282 (bibl.)
Stevens, H. V., cited, 33.
Stone images, 264.
implements supplanted by iron, 6.
Tigbanua of the, 119.
Stones, metamorphosis into, 45, 71.
Stories, see Bagobo stories.
Straits Settlement, Tribes of, see Peninsular Malay.
Streams, God at source of the, see Malaki t'Olu k'Waig.
Stroking and rubbing, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234.
Substitution, Charms by, 104, 205, 208-213.
Idea of, in human sacrifice, 169.
of fowl for man, 97, 103, 271.
of lavation at home for Pamalugu, 124.
Sugar-cane, 55, 67.
liquor, see Ceremonial liquor.
Suge, Kaba's wife, 105, 175, 176.
Suggestion, Mental, 205, 213-217, 273.
Sumatra, Home of Filipino in, 267.
Myths of eclipse in, 47.
References to, 270-271, 276, 277, 278.
Sacred trees in, 33.
Sun, Black men at the door of the, 67.
Devotions to the, 265.
Dissolving of spirits by, 56.
Illumination of lower world by, 47, 55-56.
Myths of, 46-48, 67, 249.
Passage round earth of, 47.
Sundermann, H., cited, 49-50.
Sunlight, Demons dazed by, 274.
Sunrise, Gindaya sung till after, 158
Supreme god, 14-15, 16.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 305

Swettenham, Frank Athelstane, cited, 70, 272, 282 (bibi.)
Swords offered on agongs, 427, 130.
References to, 154, 168, 236.
Tabu, Discussion of, 235-244.
Malik instructed concerning, 198.
on breaking spray of bulla, 176.
On breaking roof of Long House, 135.
On earthen pots for sacred food, 271.
on grasping ceremonial poles, 148.
on holding Ginum in the dark fortnight, 111.
on laughing at reflection in the water, 58,
on lights at manganito, 261.
on reciting correct number of exploits, 149.
on ridiculing small animals, 45-46.
on sale of certain objects, 173, 212.
on uttering certain names, 39, 165,
References to, 12, 30, 77, 196, 197.
Sickness caused by breaking, 223, 224-225.
Tagal festivals, 95, 258-259.
literature, 267, 275.
mode of burial, 189, 263.
rites, myths and folklore, 33, 34, 37, 80, 166, 170, 193, 257, 258-259, 260, 261-263.
Tagamaling, a demon. Characteristics of, 35-36, 38.
Devotions to, 110.
References to, 24,31,107,201,255.
Tagaruso, demon, 29, 36, 37, 107, 110, 199, 201.
Tagasoro, demon, 26, 110, 226.
Taguan, receptacle, 100, 103, 106, 137.
Tagubum, Point, 4.
Takawanan, see Soul, Right-hand.
Taliduma, marriage ceremony, 181-185.
Talun, Bagobo district, 5, 6-7, 8, 18, 89, 96, 98, 111, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 162, 194, 195, 196, 201, 216, 230, 231, 243.
Talun, Ginum at, and Tubison compared, 153-155, 156, 157-158.
Tambara, bamboo prayer stand, a primitive shrine, 88.
at blacksmith's forge, 27-28, 89,
at Pamalugu, 120, 126, 127, 129.
characterized, 87-90.
described, 16, 87-88,
Functions of, 21, 87-89.
for god of fire, 24.
for guardian spirit, 28.
ka langit (in the sky), 17.
made by Malik, 124, 125, 130.
put up third day, 102.
References to, 16, 154-155, 168, 174, 203, 237, 253-254, 269.
Tambayang, a rare form of embroidery, 22, 69, 208.
Tangos, an island mentioned in song, 165.
Tankalu, warriors' kerchief, displayed on frame at Ginum, 101.
offered to gods, 91.
References to, 155, 224, 253, 254, 264.
removed at Pamalugu, 121.
Uses of, cloth, 241.
worn at dances, 85, 86.
worn by brave men, 10, 25, 83,
Tanung, Account of the ceremony of, 113-116.
Main, 113, 115-116,
Preliminary, 113, 114-115.
References to, 98, 102, 103, 104, 110, 111.
Tap-tap, tool for striking agongs, 84, 222.
Tarabume, god of the crops, 92-93.
Characteristics of, 22,
References to, 11, 14, 44, 172,174.
Tattooing, 264-265.
Tawney, C. H. (tr.): Katha sarit
SAGARA, see Somadeva.
Temple among Filipino, 261.
Textile, Arraying of dead in, 187.
Display of, at Ginum, 136.
Gift of, to priest, 184.
Magical ceremony over, 209-210.

306

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Textile, Offering of, to gods, 179, 268.
References to, 42, 67, 68, 74, 99, 100, 101, 127, 156, 164, 172, 186.
Tabu on sale of unfinished, 224, 240.
Thatch, 67, 96, 100.
Theft, 221, 222, 264, 270.
Thickets, Sacred, 92, 108, 115-116, 254, 261.
Thirst, 130, 273.
Thunder, 39, 44, 48, 49, 196, 245, 270.
god, see Kilat.
Thurston, Edgar, 282.
Tigbalag, demon of Filipino, 261.
Tigbanua, Bagobo demon. Characteristics of, 34-35, 38.
Classes of, 35.
Devotions to, 108, 110, 116, 119, 120, 125.
not functioning as anito, 194.
References to, 18, 19, 31, 44, 61, 92, 105, 107, 229, 255, 261.
Tigyama, god of the home, 11, 19-20, 90, 119, 121.
a hanging altar, 20, 90, 181, 183, 184, 229, 230.
Tikus, a fiber legband, 196, 207.
Timbalung, mythical animal bringing disease, 39, 227.
Tingoto, charm figures, 103, 112-113.
Tiun, female deity, 16, 17.
Tobacco, 53-54, 89, 163, 192.
tube, 190.
Toddy from the cocoanut palm, 218.
Tolokai, Headhunters among, 161.
Tolus, a class of gods, 11, 26-28.
Tolus ka Balekat, Characteristics of, 27.
Ginum celebrated for, 94, 131, 138, 142-144.
Human sacrifice for, 94.
References to, 158-159, 161, 166, 199, 200, 202.
Ritual performed for, 15, 91.
urges Ginum to be hastened, 99.
Tolus ka Balekayo, female divinity, 27, 202.
Tolus ka Kawayan, god of the bamboo. 27, 99.
ka Talegit, god of the loom, 27, 198, 201.
Tongkaling, Datu, 5, 95, 148, 167.
Toradja, tribe of Celebes, 66, 90, 107.
Torch, 70, 128, 202, 237, 258.
Torches to be extinguished at manganito, 195 et seq, 238, 261.
Tortoise shell as medicine, 217, 232.
Totemic origin for tabu not found, 243.
Tradition, 56, 65-74, 266, 267, 274.
Trance, 59, 156-157, 269.
Transmission of myth and cultural elements, 257, 266, 277, 278.
Trap, 191, 228.
Travel outfit for the soul, 53-54, 190.
Tree burial, 192.
Charm laid on stump of, 214.
Chaste woman like a, 71.
Falling of, an omen, 60, 246.
Haunted, 33, 60, 254, 261-262, 270.
houses, 192.
Metamorphosis into a, 71.
Women appear from, 273.
Trial marriage, 181.
Trousers, 183, 187.
Tual, Lansium domesticum (lansonis), 164, 218.
Tuban, Bagobo village, 8, 165.
Tubison, Bagobo mountain village, 5,
8, 18, 24, 28, 127, 153-158, 164, 239.
Ginum at, 153-158.
Tuglay, god of marriage, 29.
old man of myth, 65-67, 69, 72-74, 192, 249.
Tuglibung, goddess ever virgin, 29.
old woman of myth, 47, 65-69, 73-74, 192.
Tulung, mythical bird, 40, 227.
Tungkaling, son of Kaba, 8, 73, 202.
Tungo, a god, 154, 164.
See also Duma Tungo.
Uan, son of Kaba, 8, 29.
Ubog, a god, 197, 199.
Ubnuling, divine hero of myth, 16, 17.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 307

Ulit, mythical romance, 70-74, 464, 166, 275, 278.
Underworld, see Gimokudan.
Unfinished articles, Tabu on sale of, 240.
Ungayan,Obars daughter, 187-188, 190.
United States. Bureau of the Census, cited, 24, 25, 282 (bibl.)
War Department, cited, 167, 282 (bibl.)
Yampire, 270, 274.
Variation, 266, 278.
Vedas, 20, 34, 221, 272, 273.
Velarde, Murillo, Map by, 251.
Vendidad, 231, 272.
Yenison, 87, 147, 183.
Venturillo, Manuel Hugo, 282.
Vestigial performance, 162.
Virgin, 181, 208, 242.
Virtue, 71, 273.
Visayan beliefs, myths and customs, 33, 46, 47, 166, 185, 187, 255, 257-259, 265, 277.
demons, 34, 39, 40, 42-43.
influence, 4, 185, 266.
literature, 267, 275.
mode of burial and obsequies, 62-63, 99, 189, 263.
priests and shrines, 10, 92, 95, 260.
textiles, 6, 126.
Visayas (archipelago), 62, 166, 257, 277.
Wail, Ceremonial, 187-188, 190.
Wak-wak, Fabulous crow, 40, 214-215.
Wake, 42, 187, 238, 270.
War cry and song, 17, 104, 133, 158, 162-163, 198.
expeditions, 159-160.
gods, see Mandarangan.
References to, 10, 257.
shield. Ceremonial and magical use of, 89, 168, 219-220, 236.
Warneck, Joh., cited, 47-48, 265, 279, 282 (bibl.)
Water flasks, 98, 101, 103, 124-125.
Water, Health-giving power of, 81-82, 121, 123, 273.
Offering to the, 119.
ordeal, 222-223.
Spirits of, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24-25, 125, 222.
sources, 249. See also Malaki t'Olu k'Waig.
Use of, in substitution ceremony, 210-212.
See also Pamalugu.
Wax moulds. Casting from, 6, 22, 69, 127.
Wealth secured by rites and offerings, 94, 125, 129.
shown in palm, 247.
Weaving, 6, 66, 68, 99.
White fowl for priestess, 202.
cloth as offering, 174, 269.
crockery, 88, 183, 184, 260, 278..
See also Ceremonial dishes, food, 176.
haired boy of the myths, 549.
monkey, 48, 245.
woman in the river, 202, 226-227, 230.
Wilken, cited, 49-50.
Wine in Filipino rites, 80, 259.
Winnower, 178, 207.
Witchcraft, 217, 219-221.
Women, Chanting of, at festivals, 77, 155, 259.
Clothing of, in pre-Spanish times, 66.
Dancing of, 85-87, 147.
Feast of, 175, 179.
Few, at Pamalugu, 124.
hunt for lice, 124.
Ideal, of the songs, 70-71.
Officiate or assist at ceremonies, 8-9, 10, 76-77, 105-110, 119-123, 155-156, 168, 173, 174-179.
officiate as mediums, 9, 10, 193-203, 259.
Myth and folklore about, 22, 37, 71, 203, 208, 227, 261, 273.
Rice to be pounded by, for Ginum, 100.

308

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Women, Sacred food tabued to, 79, 242.

See also Old women.
Wood, Tigbanua of the, 107, HO.
Wood, Bits of, as medicine. 215, 232, 233.
Word charms, 209-210, 213, 214-215, 218, 222, 232.
See also Ritual words.
World, see Earth.
Xavier, Saint Francis, Preaching of, 250.
Taksha and Yakshivi, Aryan demons, 34, 36.
Yalatandin, protector of women, 22,
Yama, Aryan god, 20.
Bagobo term for pet, 19-20.
Yellow skin, 224-225.
stain for sacred food, 139, 268.
Ylang-ylang as medicine, 234.
Young men, Ceremonial duties of, 9 76-77, 115, 138-142, 147.
Chanting of, see Ceremonial chant.
Effusion of, at Pamalugu, 122.
Office of medium taken by, 11.
Roof of Long House made by, 100.
Yting, Datu, 5, 8, 28, 29, 111, 129, 130, 148, 150, 151, 175, 176, 178, 179, 205, 209.
Zambales, 116, 170, 275.
Zamboanga, 4.
Zoomorphic demons, 29, 31,38-40,227.
Zuniga, Joaquin Martinez de, see Martinez de Zuniga, Joaquin, O. S. A.



Bagobo Ceremonial Magic and Myth

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