A STUDY

OF

BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH

Laura Watson Benedict

INDEX.

Names of Authors and other Persons in Heavy-face Type.
Titles of Papers in small caps.

Abaca, Musa textilis^ see Hemp.
Abbeville, Sanson d', Map by, 250-251.
Abog, god of the hunt, 23, 199.
Abuy, myth animal, 40, 62, 227.
Adolescence, Ceremonies of, 270-271.
Aduarte, Diego de, O. P., cited, 36, 39, 41, 80, 247, 248, 256, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 266, 279 (bibl.).
Esthetic interests, 72-73.
tabu, 243-244.
Agong altar, see Sonaran.
ceremonial, see Sonar, Rite of.
containing water, 126, 127, 128, 130-131.
used as unit of barter, 84.
Agongs, Description of, 83-84.
in marriage ceremony, 181-182, 183, 184, 185.
Illustration of, 146.
Agongs, Manner of playing, 84-85.
Names of, 133, 146.
References to, 77, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 117, 144, 163,164,175, 176, 222, 245, 253.
Agricultural offerings, 8, 11, 89, 226, 253, 272-273.
Alang, a charm, 204, 231.
Alat, a charm, 182, 183, 184, 204, 207.
All, Datu, References to, 4, 5.
Altar shelf, 77, 91, 103.
Altars, see Shrines and altars.
American government,Bagobo attempts to please, 97, 166, 186-187.
lady, First at Talun, 203.
Museum of Natural History, 208.
rites. Questions concerning, 110.
Americans ascend Apo without charms, 32.

^ * * Bagobo words used in this paper are accented on the penultimate unless an accent mark is placed on some other syllable. The stress is usually very slight. The vowels have in general their continental sounds {a as in ah, etc.), but n before a final m (ginum) is regularly short, as in English numb, and unaccented a before final n is almost lost. When marked short, «, e, t, o, u are broadly equivalent to the same short vowels in English.
As for the diphthongs, ai is sounded as in aisle; ei as in eight, au like ow in now.
Initial Y in proper names (Yting) is like / spoken rapidly and with little stress, or slurred over; medial y is like English y, but is kept well back in the throat. All final vowels are sounded. In regard to consonantal phonetic values, the surds t, p and k, and the sonants d, b and g are given much as in English, but k and b are uttered rather explosively.
Velars, while stressed and explosive, are not sounded very low down in the pharynx. An initial velar seems often to be cut off by stopping the breath. M and n follow the usual nasal type. The combination ng is like ng in wing; under no circumstances is it sounded like ng in single, unless a second g is added, as in the exclamatioa "Oh manggo!" ("Yes, indeed").
X is given from the tip of the tongue, and with stress. U tends to be trilled. S is as in the initial of silL W is soft, as in bower. No attempt is made in this outline to indicate by exact symbols the finer shades of Bagobo phonetics.

284

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Americans created by Pamulak Manobo, 105.
Labor demands of, 5.
not wanted at Giniim, 202.
protected by Bagobo gods, 21, 29, 200.
Amulets, 206, 207.
ancestors, Filipino beliefs concerning, 33, 63, 193, 194, 265.
Myths of Bagobo, 65-74.
Tabu on using names of, 239.
Animals, Death of, an omen, 98, 238, 246.
Domestic, 6, 41.
Fabulous,' 31, 38-40, 227.
Magical potency of, 41, 217.
Souls of, 64, 270.
Tabu relating to, 45-46, 64, 238, 243.
Animistic conceptions, 18, 43-45, 268.
Anito addressed in worship, 115-116, 123, 125, 129.
Characteristics of, 28, 193-194.
Filipino ideas of, 39, 193,194,261.
Head of all the, 15, 110.
References to, 39, 100, 102, 103, 126, 159, 170, 204, 264.
seance, see Manganito.
Ankermann, B., 67.
Ansig, Datu, 169.
Anthropomorphic forms of Buso, 29, 34-38.
Anting-anting, 216.
Antiphons, 82, 184-185, 253, 259. See also Ceremonial chant.
Antlers of Buso deer, Illustration and symbolism of, 113.
Apo, Mount, 25, 31-32, 34, 168, 251.
Archiyo general de India, Map in,

251.

Areca nut as medicine, 196, 231, 233.
buried with body, 53-54, 190.
Ceremonial use of, 11, 30, 53, 62, 77, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104-113, 119-120, 143, 151, 154, 168, 174, 177, 183, 184, 198, 209.
chewed by gods, 15.
Areca nut. Dead restored to life by, 62.
References to, 69, 165, 166. 
Spiritual essence of, 53-54.
Areca palm, Areca catechu, 80.
in lower world, 55.
Sprays of, used ceremonially, 88, 117, 120, 135, 159, 198.
Arrows offered to the god, 23, 197, 199.
Artieda, Diego de, cited, 170, 263, 264, 279 (bibl.)
Aryan elements in Bagobo myth, see under caption, Indian.
Ashes as cure, 231, 232.
Association, Charms by, 205, 208-217.
Asuang, Yisayan demon, 40, 42-43, 255, 261.
Ata tribe, 29, 86, 105, 150, 265.
Atharva Veda, Citations from, 34, 221, 273.
Avestas, Citations from, 20, 120, 189, 231, 272, 273.
Awas, Rite of, 62, 98, 102, 103, 104, 115, 198, 229.
Main, Account of, 111-113.
Preliminary, Account of, 105-111.
Supplementary, 105, 144.
Awi, 148, 149, 162.
Ayo, Datu, 78.
Babies carried in scarf, 86, 242.
grow tall magically, 72.
not found in time of the Mona, 66,
Sacral spots on, 218.
suckled in lower world, 56-57.
Tongue and eyelashes of, used for charm, 213-214.
Weaning and feeding of, 57, 164.
Bagani, brave men, 10, 132, 144, 145, 254, 255, 256, 264.
Bagobo culture, 3-6.
genealogies, 251-252.
history, 5, 161-162, 251-252.
intermarriage with other tribes, 185, 186.
literature, 13, 69-74, 273-274. 275,
277. See also Ulit.
Bagobo Myths, Citations from, see Benedict, Laura Watson.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEBEMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 285

Bagobo objects not to be sold, 199.
religion Characterization of, 6, 8-12.
Indo-Iranian elements in, 272-276.
Lines of development of, 252.
Polytheistic character of, 13-29, 44-45.
Sacrificial character of, 8. See also. Sacrifice, Human.
Similarity of, to Filipino religions, 257-267, 278.
Similarity of, to other wild tribes of Mindanao, 253-257.
songs, 17, 18, 23^ 69-71, 72, 164, 165, 192, 271, 273, 277.
See also Ceremonial chant; Chanting at seance, stories cited, 16, 31-32, 73-74.
References to, 7, 16, 35, 192, 277.
Typical features of, 69-73.
tradition, Dawn of, 73. See also Ulit.
Balanan, vessels for sugar cane liquor, 103, 149.
Balekat, hanging altar, 90-91, 104, 135, 137-138, 152, 163, 200, 201, 237, 272.
Balekayo, a variety of bamboo, 88, 99, 103, 114, 116, 120, 125, 126, 135-136, 149, 164.
Balinsugu, a demon, 29, 36-37, 199.
Baliti tree, Ficus, 33, 43, 48, 86, 254, 262.
Bamboo, Bmnhuso. (Bagobo Kawayan).
Boxes and rice cases of, 42, 209, 221.
Ceremonial poles of, 10, 27, 76, 82, 83, 103, 104, 131-135, 147, 149, 152, 158-159, 162, 164, 198, 237, 271.
Digging sticks of, 172-173.
Fence around shrine of, 174, 207.
Filipino ceremonial boats of, 63, 263.
Furniture of, 72, 100.
Sheath of, for writing, 267.
Bamboo, Trap of, 191, 228.
Use of, for shrine, 88, 269. See also Tambara.
Use of, in house construction, 67, 90, 96.
Varieties of, 27, 131-132.
Vessels of, for ceremonial food, 76, 79, 103, 138, 139, 141, 149, 271.
ta Water flasks of, 101, 124.
Bamboos, All-knowing One of the, 199.
Banana, Musa sapientum^ leaf a cure for stings, 228-229.
not used for ceremonial dishes, 81.
References to, 49, 63, 67,188,191.
trunk substituted for corpse, 32-33.
Bansag, 132, 147.
Bansalan, Bagobo town, 7, 95, 162, 203.
Datu of, 141, 148.
Bauua, the world, 255.
country of the dead, 54, 56-57.
Baranguy, 4, 258.
Baris, a plant, 198, 218.
Bark as medicine, 232, 234.
clothing, 66-67.
Barter, 84, 167.
Batak tribe, 47, 279.
Batatas edulis, see Camote.
Bathing (padigus), 183. For ceremonial lavation, see Pamalugu.
Bawi, medicine, 204, 231. See also Charms and magic; Disease and healing.
Bed for guests, 100, 152.
Bees, Myths of, 22, 23.
smoked out by Bagobo, 163, 233.
sought for as food, 22-23.
Souls of, 64.
Sting of, 213, 228.
Beeswax, 22, 69, 163, 215.
Bejuco, see Rattan.
Bells, Ceremonial use of, 172, 198, 258.
References to, 22, 69, 184.
Benedict, Laura Watson, cited, 7, 16, 17, 30, 33, 35-36, 39, 40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 54, 57, 58, 61-62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 74, 88, 181,192,199,208,213, 214, 217, 242, 249, 279 (bibl.)

286

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Benua, peninsular tribe, 234.
Berawan, tribe of Sarawak, 160, 171, 271.
Betel, Piper betel, box, 22, 53, 54, 176.
juice for embalming, 189.
leaf buried with body, 53-54, 190.
Ceremonial use of, 11, 30, 31, 53, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 103, 104-113, 119-120, 151, 154, 165, 166, 168, 174, 175, 176, 177, 183, 184, 191, 192, 198, 229, 261.
References to, 80, 117, 126, 188.
Ritual over, 80-81, 104, 153.
Spiritual essence of, 53.
Use of, in healing and charms, 196, 203, 218, 220, 231, 233.
Beyer, H. Otley, cited, 41, 45, 46, 47, 71, 267, 279.
» Bia, First boru daughter of the Mona called, 67.
Noble lady of the myths called, 69, 70, 73.
Senora called, 199.
Biaii nuts, 77, 100, 103, 139-140.
Bier, 189, 192.
Bikol tribe, 257.
Bila-an altar, 93, 173-174.
tribe, 46, 105, 118, 126, 150, 165, 185, 192, 242, 244, 250, 254, 256.
Bile of serpents as medicine, 213, 234.
Bird, Blood of a, to anoint the sick, 266.
dances, 86.
Metaphorical reference to, 71.
Nest of a, as medicine, 226, 232.
Rain called by a, 71.
Birds, as omens, 270. See also Limokun.
Fabulous, 31, 40, 47, 74, 214-215, 245, 274.
Souls of, 64.
Black magic, 213-214, 219-221.
men at the door of the sun, 67.
river of the lower world, 54, 55, 56, 59,
Blacksmith, Shrine at forge of, 27.
Blair, Emma Helen and Robertson, James Alexander, cited, 4, 10, 16, 19, 22, 26, 28, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 41, 49, 57, 58, 63, 66, 70, 80, 88, 92, 95, 116, 162, 167, 169, 170, 171, 175, 178, 179, 185, 188, 189, 192, 193, 206, 217, 220, 221, 223, 246, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 275, 276, 279 (bibl.)
Blood, Bia not of Bagobo, 199.
feud, 10, 264.
of a bird, 266.
offered to a god, 11, 161, 169, 241.
Spitting of, 221.
Blumentritt, Ferdinand, cited, 16, 19, 23, 29, 33, 37-38, 280 (bibl.)
Boas, Franz, references to, 134, 188, 228, 277.
Boat, in Yisayan rites, 63, 263.
shaped dishes, 81, 104, 106. See also under Leaf dishes.
Bobadilla, Diego de, S. J., cited, 57, 259, 274-275, 279 (bibl.)
Bohol island, 40, 170.
Bongat, a charm, 221,
Borneo, Myths and traditions of, 33, 37, 45, 65.
Rites and sacrifices in, 160, 171, 271, 278.
Sultan of, 266.
Tabu on names in, 239.
Taking heads in, 160, 161, 171, 271. See also Sarawak.
Borrowing of material objects, 182, 185.
of cultural elements and myth, 173-174, 256, 257, 277. See also Diffusion.
Bourne, E. G., cited, 267.
Bowls and plates used in Worship, see Ceremonial dishes.
Boy, Dead body of, left in the house, 192.
White-haired, appears in dream, 249.
Boys, Ceremonial food for, 138, 140-141, 150.
Digging stick used by, 173.
Filing teeth of, 271.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 287

Boys, Help given to Singan by, 1l7.
Part in sacrifice taken by, 77, 469.
Tabu on limokun for, 225, 241.
Bracelets of brass and shell as charms, 108, 206.
as offering or gift, 154, 174, 184, 236.
References to, 147, 199, 242-243.
Brass industry, 6, 27-28, 69, 73.
wire, 69, 198.
Brinton, Daniel G., 280.
Bronze, 6, 83-84.
Buddha, Statues of, in Luzon, 276.
Bulla leaf, 71, 77, 142, 156, 176, 218, 253, 255.
Bukidnon, Rites of the, 253, 255.
Bungoyan, 99, 238.
Burden basket, 176, 191.
Burial, Filipino modes of, 189, 263.
Place of, 189, 192.
Rites attending, 9, 186-192.
Burning of medicine, 232.
over of the ground, 6, 171-172, 254.
Buso, Charms associated with, 102, 116, 187, 206-209, 214.
Classes and characteristics of, 29-43, 187.
Diseases brought by, 123, 194, 223, 225-227.
Graphic representations of, 38.
Offerings and prayer to, 93, 104, 112, 116.
Presence of, endangering ceremony, 92, 94, 96, 98, 103.
References to, 9, 11-12, 24, 25-26, 27, 45, 48, 49, 59, 67, 70, 71, 92, 107, 110, 161, 163, 169, 186, 187, 192, 207-208, 255. See also Tigbanua.
Buso-child, 208.
Buso-deer, 113.
Buso-ghost, 60-61, 62, 63.
Buso-house, 30, 34, 80, 92, 108.
Buyo leaf, see Betel leaf.
Calamianes tribe, 22, 25, 58, 63.
Calamus, see Rattan.
Calcophaps indica, see Limokun.
Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits. Reports, 249.
Camote, Batatas edulis, sweet potato, 6, 55, 63, 191.
Campbell, William, 83-84.
Cannibalism, 170.
Carabao, 6, 41, 64, 243.
Mythical, 39, 73.
Cardinal points, 99, 110, 119, 173, 274. See also Directions, Prescribed.
Carrying bag, 53, 54, 188, 190.
Cartas de los PP. de la Compania DE Jesus, Citations from, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255.
Carving in the round, 187.
Cat, Folklore and myth concerning the, 31, 41, 64, 72.
Mantianak's voice like a, 37.
Tabus relating to, 45, 238.
Caves, Burial in, 192.
Filipino oratories in, 261.
Cebu, 28, 66, 170, 189.
Celebes, Bark clothing in, 66.
Ceremonial house in, 96.
Ritual usages in, 90, 107.
References to, 33, 161, 209, 271, 278.
Centipedes, charm against sting of, 234.
Ceremonial apparatus. Tabu on removal of, 237.
bamboos, see Bamboo, Ceremonial poles of behavior, 75-93.
chant, 9, 77, 101, 102, 104, 144, 147, 155, 156, 158, 169, 171, 183.
characterized as a ceremonial element, 82-83.
Types of, 162-166.
dishes, 87-90, 92, 120, 125, 126, 129-130, 137, 154, 168, 175-176, 177, 183, 184, 260, 269, 278.
elements, 78-87.
food, 76, 79, 91, 103, 104, 137, 138-139, 140-144, 149-150, 152, 153, 156, 176, 242.
Formal, 75-166.
General character of, 75-78.

288

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Ceremonial groups, 256, 257. house, 75, 151-153, 165. liquor, 77, 79-80, 91, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 126, 129-130, 136 137, 142, 145, 150-151, 179, 181, 183, 259, 272.
official, 9, 76, 77-78, 129-130, 142- 143, 178-179.
percussion music, 83-85.
reactions, 75.
seat, 102, 140, 141, 152.
spoon, 80, 272.
tabu, 236-238.
Ceremonies, Modification of, by inter-marriage, 186.
Detailed accounts of, 93-192.
Motive for, 12, 78.
Place and time for performing, 75-76.
Spoiling of, by presence of demons, 92, 94, 96, 98, 103, 114.
Variation in performing, 74. See also under names of ceremonies: Ginum, Rice sowing, etc.
Ceremony, A, as a magical method, 205.
Chanting at seance, 128, 195-203. For other types, see under Ceremonial chant.
Chao Ju-Kua, cited, 276.
Charms and magic, Discussion of, 205-221.
Healing by means of, 114-116, 208, 230.
References to, 12, 27, 30, 32, 34, 41-42, 53, 69, 163, 203-223, 245- 246, 258.
-Chastity, 70-71, 273.
Chicken as ceremonial food, 138-139.
Chickens, Washing of, to call rain, 205, 213.
Chief, Bagobo, see Datu.
Filipino, Mode of burial of, 170, 189.
Child born to Bualan, 201.
Killing of, to annoint sick with blood, 266.
marriage unknown among Bagobo, 180.
Child may have sores, 224.
unborn. Spirit of, 261.
Child's part in ritual with brass chain, 210-212.
Children, Boring ears and filing teeth of, 270-271.
Buso not to listen to noise of, 119.
Dead, under Mebuyan's care, 55, 57.
Drawings by, 38, 167.
get yellow skin from eating limokmi, 225.
Magic growth of, 273.
not born in days of Mona, 66.
Part of, in human sacrifice, 168, 169.
participate in ceremonial, 8-9, 77, 145.
Place of, in lower w'orld, 56-57.
wear figures as charms, 208-209, 226.
Children's ideas of death, 63.
Chills, Supernatural cause of, 196, 226.
China sea, 267.
Chinaman, Myth of a, 31-32.
Chinese as importers and traders, 84, 90, 260.
Influence of, 265, 278.
sources, 250, 276.
Chirino, Pedro de, S.J., cited, 39, 170, 189, 223, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 279 (bibl.)
References to, 33, 92, 261.
Christian natives in Mindanao, 250.
Christman, Irwin, 109, 146.
Cinnamon, 56, 234.
Circle, Magic, 41-42, 206-207.
Civet cat, 31, 243.
Clappers, 172.
Class tabu, 240-243.
Clay pots made by Miyanda, 99.
not used for sacred food, 79, 271.
Clifford, Hugh, cited, 238, 276, 280 (bibl.)
Clotet, Jose Maria, S. J., 253, 254, 255, 280 (bibl.)
Clothing, Decoration of, 73, 242.
Discarding of, at marriage, 181, 183.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH

289

Clothing, Fine, associated with virtue, 70, 273.
Metamorphosis caused by change of, 72.
of bark and sheath, 66-67.
offered at the altar, 125-131, 176.
worn at festivals, 86-87, 117, 118, 124, 126, 165.
Clouds, Myths of, 48.
Cock, Feathers of, for decoration, 172.
offered in sacrifice, 97, 103, 137, 253, 258, 271.
Soul of, in Gimokudan, 55, 64.
Cocoanut for festival and ceremonial food, 79, 87, 98, 102, 138-139, 147, 176, 177, 178.
leaves, to influence growth of rice, 174.
References to, in song and myth, 49, 55, 66-67, 69, 164.
shell for offerings, 88.
for pubic shield, 210.
for seed rice, 173.
Toddy from, 218.
Codrington, Robert Henry, cited, 204, 280 (bibl.)
Coffin, 42, 187-190, 209, 214.
Cogon, native name for any rank, coarse, high-growing grass, 22, 67, 173.
Cole, Fay-Cooper, cited, 14, 19, 22, 27, 29, 37, 49, 58, 84, 95, 161-162, 167, 169, 171, 175, 214, 280 (bibl.)
Colin, Francisco, S.J., cited, 193, 280 (bibl.)
Combes, Francesco, 248, 254, 280 (bibl.)
Complete East India Pilot, Map in, 251.
Conclusions, 277-279.
Constellations, 29, 75, 93, 167, 171, 175, 254, 262, 265.
Contact in cultures, 256-257.
Contagious magic, 205, 213.
Contiguity, Charms working through association by, 205, 213-217.
Continuation theory, 55.
Conventional episodes, 273.
Convergence, 278.
Corn, 6, 55, 101.
Coronel, cited, 170.
Corpse, 32-33, 186-192.
Corypha umbraciilifera, sago palm, 164.
Cosmogonic myths, 46-49.
Costumes for festival, 86-87, 146-147.
Cotton textiles, 176, 241-242.
Country of the dead, see Gimokudan.
Courtship, 180.
Cows in myth, 73.
Flesh of, not eaten, 243.
Crab shell as charm, 42, 217.
Crabs on ceremonial food, 177, 178.
Crawfurd, John, cited, 275-276, 280 (bibl.)
Creator, 11, 15, 44, 46, 65, 105, 272.
Crockery, see Ceremonial dishes.
Crocodile as charm pattern, 42, 187, 209.
Teeth of, 264.
Crooke, William, cited. 57, 281 (bibl.)
Crow, 214-215, 217, 262.
Crow's beak, foot and liver as medicine, 221, 228, 232.
Cultural center, 252, 256.
elements, Transmission of, 277, 278.
Culture, Limited possibilities in development of, 278; see Goldenweiser, A, A.,
Cuyo islands, 58.
Dance at ceremonies and festivals, 9, 23, 63, 77, 98, 101, 102, 103, 104, 126, 144-145, 147, 183, 271.
at human sacrifice, 168, 253, 256, 258.
Characterization of the, 85-87.
rDaraga, a virgin, 16, 70-71.
irDarago, identified with Mandarangan, 26, 162, 169. See also Darugo.
Darkness, Folklore and myth concerning, 33, 34, 61, 70.
Darmesteter, James, (tr.), 281. For citations, see AvESTAS.
wDarugo, god for women, 26. See also Darago.
Datu, 4, 9-10, 52, 78, 84, 104, 166, 290

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Davao, Gulf of, 4, 23, 197, 250, 251.
Village of, 42, 161, 166, 251.
Dead call friends by showers, 49, 246.
Cult of, and offerings to the, 62, 93, 104, 107, 125.
not summoned at Manganito, 194.
Place of the, see Gimokudan.
Return to life of the, 61-62, 266.
Tabu on names of the, 239.
Death and burial, Rites attending, 186-192, 254-255.
Cause and signs of, 50-51.
Myth and folklore concerning, 52, 60-61, 63-64, 67, 68, 255.
Omens portending, 52, 60.
Decorative art, 72-73, 86, 165, 172, 186, 241.
Deer, Charm to catch, 215.
Fabulous, 31, 39, 113.
Tagamaling protector of, 24.
Defense, Charms by, 205, 206-208.
Dega-dega, see Ceremonial seat.
Demons, Bagobo, see Buso.
Filipino, 42-43, 261, 274, 275.
in other Malay myths, 64, 68, 255.
Devotions for healing of sickness, 229-230. See also under Ceremonial.
Diaz, Fray Casimiro, cited, 34, 256.
Diffusion, 14, 17-18, 46, 51, 73, 256, 277.
Digas, a village, 100, 162.
Digging stick, 6, 172-173.
Dios, Use of word, 18-19.
Directions, Prescribed, 99, 173, 225, 237- 238. See also Cardinal points.
Disappearance of myth and records, 267, 275.
Disease addressed in prayer, 116.
and healing, 10, 169, 223-235, 266.
Ceremonial cure of, 9, 21, 88, 90, 93, 94, 104, 112, 121, 123, 171, 203, 273.
drawn into manikin, 208-209.
Magic branches set to influence, 114-116.
Prevention of, 79, 93, 94, 107, 112, 113, 154, 168, 182, 185, 190. See also Charms and magic,
shut up in leaf dishes, 107.
Disease strangled by Malaki t'Olu k'Waig, 21, 100, 123, 199, 203, 229.
Substitution charms against, 211-212.
Supernatural causes of, 8, 11-12, 29-30, 39-40, 50, 60, 67, 68, 78, 176, 199, 202, 223-229, 246.
Three methods of cure of, 229-235.
Warnings of, 27, 99.
See also Sickness.
Diseases, Spirits of, functioning as anito, 194, 196-197, 199, 202-203.
Dissemination of religious culture, 256, 257, 266.
Divorce, 264.
Diwata, a general term for the gods, 14.
Kilut the horse of, 48.
Lumabat becomes a, 15, 68.
of the nine heavens, 15-18, 28.
Offerings to, 89, 93.
References to, 63, 175, 194, 222.
riding the heavens, 17.
Shrines for, 87-92.
Tarabume called, 22.
term for creator, a, 19.
Uan's description of, 29.
Documents, Filipino, 266-267, 275.
Dog, Bahau tabu on ridiculing, 45.
domestic animal, a, 6.
Folklore concerning, 31, 41, 49.
Dogs of Ubog, 197.
Dowry, 264.
Doyle, Juan, S.J., 251, 252.
Dream-boy, 249.
Dreams, 50, 56, 58-60, 62, 248-249, 274.
Drugs, 230. See also Disease and healing.
Drums, 85, 253, 258.
Duma-tungo, a god, 21, 164. See also Tungo.
Duplicate, Substitution of a, 209-212.
Durian, Durio zibethinus, D. C, 164, 218.
Dyeing of bark in Celebes, 66.
of hemp and rattan, 6, 68-69, 74.
of patterns in bamboo, 172.
Dying persons attacked by Buso, 32.
Treatment of, 42, 186.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 291

Ear plugs, m, 224, 236, 274.
Ears, Boring of, 270-271.
Human, as trophy, 162.
Earth, Center of the, 197.
Creation of the, 11, 15.
Myth of the sky close to, 46-47.
Shape of the, 46.
Earthquake, 24, 44, 97, 103, 110, 111, 113, 194, 202, 237, 246, 270.
East Indies, 271, 275, 277.
Echo, 36.
Eclipse, 40, 47-48, 245, 254, 262, 270.
Eggs on altar food, 177, 178, 179.
Egianon, 8, 174.
Eight agongs played on by head performer, 85.
clusters of shavings on bamboo poles, 133-134.
clusters of shavings on garong, 141.
curves for altar fence, 174.
dishes for special guests, 148.
men go out to cut sacred poles, 131.
sticks run through sacred pole, 135.
swords offered at Sonar, 127,154.
times two pieces of betel on altar, 143.
years on journey in song, 165.
Embroidery, 22, 69, 100, 117, 118, 126.
See also Tambayang; Salugboy.
Emotional disturbance of Bagobo medium, 198 et seq.
of Filipino priestess, 224, 240.
Encarnado costume, 254.
Endogamy not found, 185-186.
Environment, Interpretation of physical, 43-49.
Epidemics, 194. See also Disease and healing.
Episodes in myth, 273, 278-279. See also Ulit.
Ethical factors, 264.
Ethnological material, how secured, 6, 7-8.
Exhortation to the newly married, 183.
Exhortation to the soul departed, 190-192, 270.
Exogamy not found, 185-186.
Exploit badge, 132, 241, 264. See also Tankulu.
dream, 248.
Exploits accomplished by a wish, 274.
Ceremonial recitation of, 76, 104,
148-149, 162, 163, 198, 271.
External application of medicines, 233-234.
Eyes, Bulging, of thief, 221.
Staring, at foe and at corpse, 188, 190, 220.
Facing backward, fixed position of, 238.
Family living next to grave house, 192.
relations, 13.
worship, 9, 261.
Famine, 244, 249.
Fast before feast, 87.
Favre, Paul, cited, 14, 281 (bibl.)
Feast as a ceremonial element, 87.
Eating of the, at Ginum, 148.
Preparation and serving of, 77, 98, 104, 140, 147-148, 164.
References to, 9, 63, 172, 181, 183, 191, 271.
Fees, Ceremonial, 10-11.
Fence around rice-altar, 174, 207.
Festivals, see under specific name of the festival: Ginum, Harvest, etc.
Fetish, 205, 219.
Fields, Cultivation of the, 6, 164,171- 174, 254.
Fighting brought into festivals by Buso, 114, 199.
Charms to use in, 219-220.
Figures of wood used magically, 76, 103, 104, 112-116, 209, 226, 264, 271.
See also under Tanung.
Filing of teeth, 264, 271.
Filipino ceremonial and myth, 41, 57, 72, 92, 257-267, 274-275.
ceremonial house, 95.
culture. Resemblance of, to Bagobo, 257-267, 278.

292

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Filipino custom of human sacrifice, 170-171.
mode of embalming and burial, 189, 263.
popular beliefs, 261-263.
records, Destruction of, 267.
sacred thickets, 116.
Test for theft used by, 222-223.
Pire, Spirit of, 24-25, 240.
stones, 72, 153.
worship not found, 24-25.
First fruits of harvest, 93, 177.
Fish, Charms to bait, 215-216.
Dried, 87, 98, 100.
placed on ceremonial food, 177, 178, 179.
traps, 163.
Flame, Discovery of lost things by, 262.
Wafting of, as cure, 233.
Floor, Structure of, in Long House, 151-152.
Prescribed height of, 189, 240.
Floral decoration of altar vessels, 142.
of brave men, 132.
of ceremonial poles, 134-135.
Flutes, 163, 183.
Folklore, 31-32, 65, 68, 208, 270, 277.
Food, Festival, 87, 98, 147-148, 152.
given to dead, 188, 190, 192, 263.
offered to spirits, 176-179.
See also Ceremonial food.
Oleng heaving no hunger for, 123.
Foot, Dead told to show, 191.
Pain in, 228.
Forbes-Lindsay, Charles H. A, cited, 51, 65, 281 (bibl.)
Foreman, John, cited, 33, 281 (bibl.)
Forest spirits, 36, 61-62, 107, 410, 261, 274.
Formula, Magic, see Word charms.
Fowls, Domestic, 41, 64.
Foxworthy, Fred W., 281.
Frazer, J. G., 205, 213.
Frog, 45, 159.
Fumes, Inhaling of, 231.
Funeral, Account of, 186-192.
customs in Malacca, 270.
References to, 60, 79.
Funeral wail, 189-190.
Furness, William Henry, cited, 114, 134, 160, 171, 271, 274, 281 (bibl.)
Gamo-gamo, water-gods, 23, 25, 222.
Gardner, F., cited, 72, 281 (bibl.)
Garments, see Clothing.
Garong, vessel for liquor, 104, 141, 149.
Garvan, J. M., References to, 41, 45.
Gayo, son of Kaba, 8.
Genealogies of gods, 259, 275.
of Bagobo datu, 251-252.
Ghost-bug, 51-53.
Ghosts, 9, 30-31, 37, 56, 60, 110, 216, 265.
Giddiness, 110, 226.
Gifts at marriage, 181, -184.
to gods, see under Awas; Offerings.
Gimokud of manufactured objects, 55, 210, 212.
Old and new, 107, 125.
ta-kawanan, see Soul, Right-hand,
t'ebang, see Soul, Left-hand.
Gimokudan, land of the dead, Description of, 54-58.
Illumination of, 47.
Man consigned to, 68.
Occupations in, 12, 50, 55-56, 63.
Offerings to persuade dead to stay in, 62, 107, 125.
References to, 12, 149, 186, 188, 190, 191, 239.
Soul starting out for, 52-53, 63, 64.
Gindaya, see Ceremonial chant.
Ginum, Chronology of, 98-104.
Delay in celebrating, 96-97, 99.
Detailed account of, 93-166.
Four main days of, 96, 101-104.
historically associated with head-hunting, 162.
Human sacrifice at, 93-94, 96-97,
Likeness of Tagal festival to, 258.
Meaning of word, 93.
Place for, 95-96.
Prayer to dead during, 62, 107, 125.
Preparation for, 96-101. 164.
Punctual performance of, 6, 27, 199.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEBEMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 293

Ginum, References to, 27, 78, 79, 81, 83, 87, 91, 92, 166, 194, 198, 200, 201, 208, 229, 237, 271, 272.
Time for, 75, 94-95, 153.
Value of, 94.
Girdles holding charms, 219, 233-234.
of brass links, 206-207, 210-212.
of hemp, 211-212.
"Girls and young women, Attitude of, toward young men, 180, 203.
Ceremonial duties of, 77, 147, 155.
Courtship of, 180.
Protection of, by charms, 208, 220.
Restrictions on, 125, 242.
Sowing of rice by, 77, 173.
See also Marriage.
Girls, little, Pubic shield for, 210.
Gisbert, Mateo, S. J., cited, 19, 26, 49, 88, 159, 161-162, 169, 175, 178, 179, 185, 188, 206, 221, 246, 247, 251, 252, 280, 281 (bibl.)
Goats, 73, 205, 213, 243, 244.
Goat's-hair, 86, 244.
Goat's-skin as magic neckband, 215.
Gods, Association of certain, with
human interests, 13-14, 18-29.
Classes and characterization of, 11, 13-29.
First draught of liquor given to, 129-130, 272.
Foreign origin of many, 14, 17-18.
Messages of, 196 et seq.
None of the, distinctly supreme, 14-15.
Worship of, 11, 19, 105, 129, 142-143, 272.
Gold, 69, 74, 264.
Golden ti-ee. Song of the, 164-165.
Goldenweiser, A. A., cited, 278, 281 (bibl.)
Reference to, 204.
Graebner, F., cited, 67, 281 (bibl.)
Grave, Children's ideas of the, 63.
Depth and direction of, 189.
haunted, 30, 31, 60-61.
Objects put into, for soul, 53-54.
Opening of infant's, for charm, 214.
Passing of soul through, 54.
Grave, Petati laid in, 188, 189.
prepared for sacrificial victim, 168.
References to, 191, 192, 240, 270.
Great Country, see Gimokudan.
Greens, Magic, 81, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 182, 226, 232, 233-234, 269, 272.
See also Plants, Magical.
Grief, Signs of, 187-188, 190.
Griffith, Ralph T. H. (tr.) 281. For citations, see Atharva-Veda.
Ground, Burning and clearing of, 6, 164, 171-172, 254.
Spirits of, 18, 19, 24, 108, 110.
Group sacrifice, 271.
Growth, Magical acceleration of, in children, 72, 273.
Methods to secure magically, for rice, 174.
Guardian spirits, 26, 27-28, 149, 154.
Guests at Ginum, 101, 102, 124, 153.
Guianga tribe, 150, 253, 256.
Guitars, 163, 209.
Haddon, Alfred, C, 249, 282 (bibl.)
Hair, Appearance of, at lavations, 122.
Dressing of, for Ginum, 101.
Human, placed on altar, 162.
Ornaments for, 86.
Plaiting of, at marriage, 181, 183.
Trophy significance of, 162.
Halo round the head, 273.
Hanging altars, 90-91.
Hantu, 60, 64-65, 227, 268, 270.
Harvest ceremony, 9, 10, 28, 76, 79, 174, l79, 238.
Head hunting, Human sacrifice a vestige of, 161.
in Borneo and Celebes, 160, 161, 171, 271.
Problem of, 158-162.
Healing, see Disease and healing.
Hearth, 153, 195.
Heavens, Myth gods of the, 15-18, 19.
Hebe, Yting's wife, 8, 28, 176, 179.
Hein, Alois Raimund, cited, 113-114, 281 (bibl.)

294

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Hemp, Musa textilis (abaca), Barter in, 7.
Ceremonial dishes of, 80-81, 87, 98, 101, 105-106.
Needles on altar threaded with, 177.
Overlacing and coloring of, 6, 68-69.
Tarabume's care for growing, 22.
Heras, P., cited, 251.
Hindu influence, see under Indian elements.
Hinduism introduced into Java, 275-276.
Historic accident, 240.
origin different from native explanation, 235.
Hog, Sacrifice of, 171, 253, 258.
Hole for body of slave, 168.
for passage of sun and moon, 47.
in center of the earth, 197, 227.
in top of head for soul's exit, 51.
Homeopathic cure, 212-213, 228-229.
Horizon, Myths concerning, 16, 47, 68, 200.
Hornbill, 71.
Horse, 6, 41, 64-65, 101, 163, 215.
Fabulous, 39, 48, 73.
House altars, 16, 20.
See also Tambara; Tigyama; Balekat.
Burials under, 189, 263.
Corpse closed up in, 192.
Fabulous, of gold, 69.
Festival, 258.
See also Long House, forsaken after death in, 60, 192.
Haunted, 32.
Meager furnishings of, 72-73.
Regulations for building, 194, 240.
Woman's skirt laid on unfinished, 216-217.
Human interests, Gods associated with, 13-14, 18-29.
Human sacrifice, see Sacrifice, Human.
Hunger before Ginum feast, 148.
disappears on becoming deified, 273.
Oleng complains of lack of, 123.
Hunt, God of the, 23, 197, 199.
Hut shrine, 92-93, 108, 164, 259-260.
See also Buso-house.
Hypnotic suggestion, 214.
Idal, Datu, Trance of, 156-157.
Ido, Datu, References to, 8, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 108, 118, 122, 123, 124, 127-128, 129-130, 131-132, 137, 140-144, 150, 158, 212, 243.
Ifugao, Myths of the, 47.
Igorot, 192, 193.
Ikde, Oleng's wife, 105, 108, 110, 178, 179. 
Ikut, an old object devoted to the gods, 89, 184, 205, 212, 224, 236.
Illumination of Long House, 139-140.
of Gimokudan by the sun, 47.
of the person, 70, 273.
Ilokano, 257.
Images, Filipino, 264, 274.
Bagobo, see Figures of wood.
Imbal, Datu, 5, 8, 18, 94-95, 153, 155, 156, 239.
Imitation, 277.
Inao, shaved sticks of the Ainu, 133-134.
Incest, 245.
Independent development, 46, 252, 256, 266.
India, Great Mothers of, 57.
Indian archipelago, 270-271, 275, 288.
elements in Bagobo ceremonial and myth, 68, 73, 272, 277, 278.
empire in the East Indies, 275-277.
magic, 205.
Indirect suggestion, 205.
transmission, 274, 277.
Indo-Iranian elements in Malay ritual and myth, 20, 25, 55, 120, 272, 278.
measurements for grave, 189.
use of spells, 231.
Indonesian problem, 276-277.
Industrial arts, Gods of, 11, 22-23, 27-28.
Inherent virtue, Charms by, 205, 217-221.
Inhibition, 235. See also Tabu.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 295

Inok, son of Oleng, 118, 139, 141,144.
Insect, Chirp of, a sign of death, 246.
Insects, 45, 64, 124, 191.
Intoning at seance, 195-203.
Iranian, see Indo-Iranian.
Iron industry, God of, 27-28, 89.
Iron, Supplanting of stone implements by, 6.
Islam, 3-4, 268, 276, 277, 278-279.
Islao, 7-8, 59, 106, 181.
Ivory ear plugs, 236, 237, 242.
pillars in myth, 69, 74.
Java, 33, 275, 276, 277.
Jayne, K. G., cited, 276.
Jenks, Albert Ernest, cited, 193, 281 (bibl.)
Jesuit missions, Establishment of, 250.
Jolo island, 66.
Journey, abandoned or postponed, 247.
Manganito held before, 194.
Soul goes on, to lower world, 52-53, 63, 64.
Jungle fowl, 6, 31, 40.
Kaba, 8, 29, 73, 101, 111, 112, 115, 116, 124, 175, 176, 202.
Kadeyuna, a female god, 17.
Kalagan tribe, 29.
Kamagi, precious necklace, 68, 73, 127.
Kamana of Madagascar, 204.
Katha. sarit SA.GARA, sec Somadcva.
Kaw'anan, see Soul, Right hand.
Kayan tribe of Borneo, 134, 160, 162, 239, 271.
Kenyah tribe of Borneo, 239, 271.
Kerchief for warriors, see Tankulu.
Kilat, Thunder spirit, 39, 45-46, 48-49, 238.
Killing by magical power, 70, 274.
Justifiable forms of. 10.
Recital of exploits in, 148-149.
Kingfisher, Metamorphosis of, 71-72.
Kitchen, 112, 152-153.
Knives protecting pregnant women from Buso, 208.
Ritual use of, 154, 177, 178.
Korokung, River woman called, 38.
Disease named 100, 202, 226.
Kramat of Malaysia, 204, 269.
Kruijit, Alb. C, 107.
Kulaman tribe, 29, 41, 105, 150, 165, 228, 244, 250.
Landor, A. Henry Savage, cited, 25, 170, 281 (bibl.)
Lanzone, Lansium domesticum (lansonis, Bagobo tual), 164, 218.
Lapisut, a small, green, thin skinned and extremely acid fruit borne on a tree wdth a tall slender trunk and leaves like mammoth maiden's-hair ferns. The fruit grows low, projecting directly outward from the trunk, only four or five feet from the ground, 218.
Laufer, Berthold, References to, 250, 281 (bibl.)
Laughing, Tabu on, 45, 58, 61, 225, 238.
Lavations, see Pamalugu; Purification.
Lay a, a variety of bamboo. Frame of, for agongs and textiles, 101, 103, 136.
Reference to, 164.
Thatch secured by, 100.
Vessels for liquor made of, 103.
Leaf dishes, Diseases drawn into and shut up in, 21, 107, 229.
Drawing of, 109.
Festival use of, 147, 152, 164.
Process of making, 77, 98, 101, 102, 106.
Ritual use of, 62, 93, 104-113, 176, 177.
Spirits of the dead enjoy, 56.
Leaves, Ceremonial cluster of, see Greens, Magic.
laid under sacrificial food, 139, 140-141.
See also under names of leaves.
Left-hand side of path, 116, 247.
soul, see Soul, Left-hand.
Legaspi expedition. Chronicler of, cited, 170, 189, 259.

296

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Legbands, 147, 206, 207.
Lemon tree, Age at death determined by, 68.
Lemons as charms, 44-42, 48, 207, 245.
Lemur, Flying, 217, 226, 228, 232.
Leper opens ceremonial chant, 101.
receives pamalugu, 123.
Leprosy, 231, 233.
Life after death, 263. See also Gimokudan.
Lightning, 48, 49, 69, 74.
Lime for betel, 80, 99, 143, 179.
Lime tube, 53, 54, 80, 143, 179, 190, 192.
Limokun, omen pigeon, Description and snaring of, 246.
Nest of, used for medicine, 226, 232-233.
References to, 164, 223, 243, 246, 247, 254, 262.
Tabu on eating, 225, 241.
Lines in palm, 191, 247-248.
Linug, god of the ground, 24.
Liver, Crow's as medicine, 234.
Eating of human, 170, 215.
Lizard, 45, 238, 262, 270.
Loarca, Miguel de, cited, 95, 223, 259, 262, 263, 279 (bibl.)
Loda, 101, 127, 131.
Logan, J. R., cited, 57.
Lohez, Ventura Fernandez, 281 (bibl,)
Long House, 75, 89, 92, 94, 95-96, 99, 102, 106, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 132, 140, 163, 164, 165, 195.
Arrangement of, 151-153.
Loom, 72, 164.
God of, 27, 198.
Lost articles, 215, 262.
-Love charm,. 220-221.
Lubu, old name for Santa Cruz, 4.
Lukka, probably bread-fruit, Artocarpus, 218.
Lulub, washing of water flasks, 102, 124-125.
Lumabat, mythical hero and divinity, 14, 15, 16, 23, 40, 56, 58, 62, 68, 71.
Luzon, 80, 166, 193, 257, 266, 275, 276, 277.
Lygodium scandens (nito), 178.
Mabanisan, Mount, 32.
Magani, brave men, see Bagani.
Magellan voyage, 257, 260.
Magic and medicine, Overlapping of, 231.
Filipino, 262-263.
flight, 273.
Suggestive, 214-215.
Terms for, 203-204.
See also Charms and magic.
Magical function of tattooing, 264-265.
groupings, 213.
growth of children, 273.
potentiality, 203-204, 205, 274.
spells and usages, 230, 246, 265, 266, 268, 273, 279.
Magnet as charm, 216.
Malaki, hero of myth, 19, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 166, 229.
Lunsud, 17.
Lisu Karan, 22.
t'Olu k^Waig
Addressed in worship, 107, 110, 115, 119, 120, 123, 125.
Characteristics of, 11, 20-21.
Etymology of name of, 20.
Human sacrifice for, 94, 198.
Little sister of, 49, 196.
Mythical episode of, 17.
speaks at seance, 100, 128, 196 et seq.
Sickness strangled by, 21, 100, 123, 199, 229.
Malaria, 194, 226.
Malay area, 271, 277, 278.
ceremonies and customs, 97, 179, 189, 190-191, 253, 273.
folklore, see under Folklore,
heritage, 73, 274, 277.
magician, 143.
psychic complex, 149.
Malaysia, Tribes of, see Peninsular
Malay.
Malik, l02, 124, 130, 141, 196, 198.
Manama, a god, 19.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 297

Manangid, a plant bearing fragrant leaves, 80, 129-130, 186.
Mandarangan, Characteristics of, 11, 25-26, 139, 147, 149, 253, 255.
Good heart of, 162.
not identical with Buso, 25-26.
Ritual and sacrifice performed for, 15, 91, 125, 127, 129, 130, 161, 166, 168, 252.
Mandaya beliefs, ritual and myth, 37, 150, 155, 214, 253, 254.
Manganito a ceremonial element, 87.
Different concepts of, in the Philippines, 193.
Gods speaking at, 194, 203.
References to, 94, 97, 154, 179, 259.
Time and occasions for calling, 128, 194-195.
Value of, 9.
Women as leaders and mediums at, 10, 76, 91, 92, 195.
See also Anito.
Mango, Mangifera indica, L. (Bagobo manga), 164.
Manikin, 196, 205, 208, 209, 269-270.
Manila, m, 266.
Manip, Datu, 161-162, 251.
Manobo tribe, 41, 45, 46, 47, 254.
Mansilatan, Mandaya god, 151, 253, 255.
Mantianak, demon of childbirth, 37 261, 270.
Mantra, Myths and folklore of, 46, 47, 65, 227.
Manufactured objects. Offering of, 81, 89, 91-93, 102, 126-129, 175.
Oracle in regard to selling, 199.
Souls of, 64-65, 81, 89.
Manuscripts discovered in Negros, 267
Marks on exalted persons, 273.
Marriage by purchase, 180-181, 185.
Filipino, 263-264.
gifts and dowry, 84, 180-181, 184.
in Malaysia, 269.
References to, 9, 76, 229-230.
rites, 180-186.
Marsden, William, 281.
Martin, Rudolf, cited, 33, 37, 46, 55, 57, 60, 64, 65, 190-191, 207, 227, 234, 267, 281 (bibl.)
Martinez de Zuniga, Joaquin, O. S. A., cited, 258, 261, 263, 280 (bibl.)
Marummas, see Rice sowing ceremonial.
Mateo, Father, see Gisbert, Mateo, S. J.
Materia medica, Native, 230.
Material culture, 6, 267, 279.
Mati, Bagobo village, 6-7, 8, 96, 102, 112, 114, 116, 150, 227.
Matolus, having magical power, 26, 69, 204.
Matutun, Mount, 25.
Maxfield, Berton, L., cited, 47, 281 (bibl.)
Maxwell, Sir W., 269.
Maying, Oleng's daughter, 100, 140.
Measles, 208-209, 225-226.
Measures calculated on human body, 172-173, 189, 215-216, 240, 270.
Mebuyan, Dead children under care of, 55, 56-57.
Left-hand soul checked by, 59, 62.
Myths of, 54, 68.
Medicine, 204-205, 231, 234, 269.
See also Charms and magic.
Medium, Behavior of, at seance, 193-203.
Persons acting as, 9, 11.
References to, 28, 194-203.
See also Anito; Manganito.
Melanesia, 67, 204.
Men, Ceremonial food for, 138, 140-141, 150.
Dances of, 85-86, 144-145.
Digging stick wielded by, 173.
See also Old men; Young men.
Mendoza, J. Gonzalez de, 0. S. A. cited, 193, 262, 264, 265.
Merar, Mount, 6-7, 96.
Mermaid, 23, 226-227.
Metal, 6.
point for writing, 267.
rings, 201, 206.
Metamorphosis, 71-72, 274.
Meteoric stones, 48-49.
Milk given to infants in lower worlds 56-57, 298

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Millington, W. H., cited, 47, 281 (bibl.)
Minahassa, Bark clothing in, 66.
Hero gods of, 15.
Rites and customs of, 75, 94, 161, 223, 271.
Mindanao, Home of Bagobo ancestors, 65, 267.
References to, 166, 171, 186, 250, 266, 277.
Rites and popular beliefs in, 248, 253-257.
Mindoro, 267.
Minokawa, mythical bird, 40, 47-48, 74, 245.
Mintera tribe of Malaysia, 57,
Mirrored beak of mythical bird, 74.
doors and walls, 69, 74.
Missionaries, Spanish, 166, 250, 274, 275.
Miyanda, 8, 99, 101, 105, 107-112, 118, 123, 126, 144, 195, 196 et seq.
Modigliani, Elio, cited, 37, 49-50, 64, 281 (bibl.)
Mohammedanism, see Islam.
Mona, fabulous ancestors of the Bagobo, 65-70, 73-74, 249.
Monitor lizard, 31, 244.
Monkey, Magical power of, 213, 217-218.
Mythical episodes of, 31, 39, 42, 48, 65, 68, 71, 235, 239, 244.
Resemblance of, to man, 235, 244.
Tabus concerning the, 45, 235, 238, 244.
Monogamy, 264.
Montano, Joseph, 281.
Montero y Vidal, Reference to, 251.
Moon, Bagobo myths concerning the, 40, 46, 245, 249.
Batak myth of the, 47-48.
Devotional attitude toward the, 265.
Passage of the, around the earth, 47.
Phases of the, determining Ginum, 7, 63, 94, 99, 100, 111, 198, 237, 273.
Spots on face of the, 48, 245.
More, Quirico, S. J., cited, 251, 280 (bibl.)
Morga, Antonio, cited, 39, 66, 170-171, 193, 261, 263, 266, 567, 279 (bibl.)
Moro abhorred by wild tribes, 19, 29.
Conquests of, 3-4.
contact with Bagobo, 4, 73, 278-279.
created by Pamulak Manobo, 105.
music, 84.
myths, 51, 65, 73.
Province, 186-187.
References to, 185, 187, 236, 250, 251.
Mortar for rice, see Rice mortar.
Mosquitoes, 191-192.
Mothers, Daughters taught by, not to laugh at animals, 45-46.
Great, of India, 57.
Weaning of babies by, 57.
Motor habit in grasping an object, 173.
Mountain and coast Bagobo compared, 4-5, 279.
Bracing of the, 182-183.
Intermarriage of, Bagobo with Bila-an, 185-186.
Mati situated on a, 6-7, 96.
Tubison situated on a, 153.
Mourners, 187-188, 190, 192.
Mozo, Antonio, O. S. A., 280.
Miiku, Singan's brother, 137, 138, 141.
Mulberry, Paper, Broussonetia papyri- fera, 66.
Musa, see Banana; Hemp.
Music, see under Agongs; Ceremonial chant; Drums; Flutes; Guitars.
Myth gods, 15-18, 19.
Myth pattern, 44-45, 56.
Mythical ancestors, 65-74.
beasts and birds, 227.
characters, 17, 29, 47, 65-67, 69, 70, 72-74, 166, 192, 229, 249, 273.
romance, see Ulit.
situations, 273.
tabu, 238-240.
Mythological concepts, 13-74.
Naat, the buso-deer, 39, 113.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEBEMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 299

Names, Tabu on uttering, 223, 224, 239-240.
Natural phenomena, see Phenomena, Natural.
Nature myths and songs, 44-49, 71.
spirits, 11, 18-19, 21, 23-24, 33, 35, 43-45, 193, 229.
Navarrete, O. S. D., cited, 66.
Neckband, Magic, 207, 234.
Necklace, 176, 179, 231.
Negros, Discovery of manuscript in. 267, 275.
Myth bird larger than, 40.
Nias, Myths and rites in, 33, 37, 49-50, 64, 271, 278.
Nicols, N. N., Map by, 251.
(46' Nieuwenhuis, A. W., cited, 162, 282 (bibl.)
Nightmare, 50, 59-60.
Nine clusters of shavings on sacred pole, 133-134.
clusters of shavings on garong, 141.
effusions at Pamalugu, 122.
leaf dishes at last shrine, 109.
lulutan for rice at Ginum, 138.
million pearl discs, 164.
rows of sequins, 164.
saucers on harvest altar, 176.
shreds of bans, 135.
taps on agong to close Sonar, 131.
vessels of hemp at harvest, 176, 177.
Nipa fructicans, 7, 67, 173.
Nito, Lyg odium scandens, 178.
North, More records in the, than in the south, 257.
Tigbanua in the, 110.
Water to the, Betel offered to, 119.
Nosegays as medicine, 234, 235.
Nueva Segovia, 247, 248, 266.
Numbers, Magic, 124, 206-207, 225, 231.
Nunez, Jose, 257, 263, 280.
Obal, 189, 190.
Odal, priestess, 175-179.
Offerings, Classes of, 89-90.
Final disposition of, 81, 89-90, 91-92, 130.
Offerings of manufactured objects, 9, 27, 126-128, 130, 153, 154, 168, 174, 200-201, 259, 260.
Tabu on selling, 81, 89-90, 91, 236.
Ogan, lovi-voiced song, 82, 275.
Old men, Ceremonial duties of, 76, 141, 148-149, 150, 183-184, 272.
in myth, 65, 69, 72-74, 192, 249.
people
Betel ceremonially chewed by, 80.
Closed shirt for, 241-242.
women as mediums, 194.
as priest-doctors, 10, 228, 259.
Ceremonies conducted by, 10, 76, 102, 104-110, 175.
Mythical episodes of, 47, 65-70, 73-74, 192, 249.
Salugboy embroidered by, 242.
Oleng, Datu of Talun, celebrates Pamalugu, 118-124, 126.
celebrates Sonar, 129-130.
consults gods at manganito, 198- 202.
Diagram by, 113.
performs rites last night, 140-144.
performs Tanung rite, 114-116.
recites his exploits, 149.
References to, 5, 8, 37, 62, 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 102, 108, 110, 111, 126, 127-128, 132, 136, 137, 148, 150, 152, 158, 195.
Oleng, Yting's wife, 8, 176, 179, 209.
Olu k'waig, small water-gods, 21.
Omen bird, see Limokun.
Omens, 98, 254, 262, 270, 274.
and dreams, 245-249.
Omok, ceremonial red rice, 138, 139, 178.
Onong, soul's travel outfit, 53-54, 55, 188, 190.
Oracles, 195-203, 259.
Oral tradition, 267.
Ordeal, 221, 222-223, 262, 270.
Orientation, 81, 122.
Origin, Common, of rites, 266.
Non-Malay, of certain rites, 272, 300.

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Origins, Several, for same tabu, 235.
Ornaments as offerings, 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 127, 176.
References to, 73, 86.
worn at Ginum, 147.
Ortiz, Tomas, O. S. A., cited, 33, 37, 261, 262, 280 (bibl.)
Over-lacing, of hemp and rattan, 68, 224, 240, 241.
Owners of offerings, 81, 89-92, 127, 130.
Oyanguren, Conquest of Davao gulf by, 251.
Pain, Cause of, 50, 58, 60. See also Disease and healing.
Palakpak, digging-stick, 172-173.
Palawan, 267.
Palma brava, Corypha minor ML
Palmistry, 191, 247-248.
Pamalugu ceremony, Account of, 117-124.
at marriage, 182.
Characteristics of, 81-82.
in lower world, 54-55, 62.
Pieferences to, 9, 11, 76, 88, 94, 98, 102, 104, 111, 125, 128, 129, 181 182, 202, 229, 269.
Pamulak Manobo, the creator, 11, 14, 15, 19, 20, 44, 46, 47, 65, 105, 110, 121, 229.
Panacea, 233-234.
Panapisan, woman's skirt, discarded at marriage, 183.
Gift of, to groom, 184.
laid on roof, 216-217.
offered to gods, 126, 127, 179.
Patch in, as charm, 216.
Panay, Demons in, 34.
Paneyangen, divine protector of bees, 22-23.
Pangolan, shell bracelet, 199, 242.
Panguilan, Datu, 161-162.
Pangulili, mythical hero and divinity, 16, 17.
Pantheistic, Bagobo religion not, 43-44.
Pantheon, Bagobo, 13-29.
Parabunniiin, altar for rice-sowing, 92-93, 164, 173-174, 237, 254, 268.
Parayat, a disease, caused by black art, 219.
caused by selling over-laced work, 224.
Pardo de Tavera, T. H., Reference to, 4.
Fastens, Pablo, S. J., cited, 151, 171, 253, 254, 255, 280 (bibl.) 
Patanan ceremony, 162, 198, 199.
Patch as charm, 216.
Patulangan, Bagobo town, 156.
Pearl disc ornaments, 118, 165, 242.
Pebble, Magic, 165.
Peninsular Malay, Myths, rites and customs of, 10, 37, 47, 57, 88, 105, 120, 139, 174, 206, 238, 267-271, 272, 278.
Popular beliefs of, 49, 55, 60, 64-65.
Peppers, Red, as charms, 41, 163, 207, 215.
Perak, Shrines in, 269.
Percussion instruments, 9, 258. See also Agongs.
Perez, Domingo, O. P., 280.
Petati, mat, 89, 188, 189, 191.
Peterson, Peter (tr.), 282. For citations, see RiGVEDA.
Phenomena, Natural, 43-49, 245.
Philippine Islands, Ceremonies and sacrifice in, 166, 170-171, 257.
Cultural center in, 252, 256.
Peopling of, by Aryan stock, 276- 277.
References to, 14, 166, 193, 245, 257, 267, 278.
Pig hunt, 197, 199.
meat, 87, 147, 183.
skulls as trophies, 161.
Pigafetta, Antonio, cited, 66, 84, 257, 260, 262, 264, 280 (bibl.)
Pigeon, Omen, see Limokun.
Pigs, 24, 45.
Fabulous, 31, 40, 62.
Pintados, term for Visayan, 257, 259, 265.
Piper hetel, see Betel.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 301

Plants, Pamulak Manobo creator of, 19, 65.
Fabulous, 57, 69, 74.
Magical, 27, 88, 92, 102, 103, 108, 113-116, 164, 174, 186. See also Greens, Magic.
Plasencia, Juan de, O. S. F., cited, 37, 95, 167, 170, 189, 223, 258, 259, 261, 262, 263, 279 (bibl.)
Plough, not used, 6.
Poison, 60, 203.
Poles, Ceremonial, see Bamboo, Ceremonial poles of.
Polytheistic system, 5, 13-29, 44-45.
Popular beliefs, Filipino, 261-263.
in Malay area, 269-271.
in Mindanao, 554-255.
Possession, Signs of, 195, 197-198.
Pottery, 6, 79, 99, 101, 213, 260, 271.
Practice of medicine, 230.
Pregnancy, Articles to be eaten and avoided in, 218.
Precautions against Buso in, 208.
Premigration influences, 277.
origin of ceremonial, 257, 266.
Pre-Spanish culture of Filipino, 257-267, 278.
Preventive medicine, 206. See also Disease and healing.
Priestess, Bagobo, 10, 182-184, 194-203, 229.
in other tribes, 254, 259, 261.
Priesthood and priest-doctors, 9-11, 161, 182-184, 226, 230.
Priests, Catholic, Credulity of, 255-256.
Value of records of, 255.
Work of, in Philippine Islands, 166, 250-251.
Priests, Filipino, 274.
Problems for investigation, 161, 185, 277, 278.
Property, Means of discovering lost and stolen, 215, 222.
Settlement for, in divorce, 263.
Psychological associations, 213.
motives of charms, 205.
stimulus at Tubison, 157-158.
Pubic shield, 210, 211.
Punan tribe, 114.
Puntas, Santiago, S. J., 251, 254.
Purification in Indo-Iranian rites, 272.
in Malacca, 268-269.
Quirante, Alonzo M., 192.
Raffles, Thomas Stanford, cited 275, 276, 282 (bibl.)
Rain called by bird, 71.
charms, 205, 213.
Mythical causes of, 49, 53, 64, 196, 246.
Rakshasa, Aryan demon, 34, 35, 274.
Rancheria, 7, 95, 194.
Rattan, Calamus (Visayan bejuco)
Magic neckband of, 207, 234.
References to, 69, 74, 88, 90, 99, 100, 174, 189, 218, 234.
Tigbanua of the, 107, 110, 120, 125.
Recitation at funeral, 191-192.
Ritual, 155, 162, 168.
See also Exploits, Ceremonial recitation of.
Recollect Fathers, cited, 10, 22, 58, 62, 63, 116, 171, 220, 259, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 275.
missions, 250.
Reflection in water, 45, 58, 225, 238.
Religion, see Bagobo religion.
Renerungen, a mountain god, 24.
Resemblance, Association by, 208-213.
between Filipino and Bagobo religion, 257-267.
Influence of, on habit, 243.
Tabu associated with, 243.
Resin and wax as charms, 214, 216, 219.
Retana y Gamboa, Wenceslao Emilio, cited, 171, 282 (bibl.)
References to, 16, 19.
Retribution, Idea of, 58.
Rice, Ceremonial use of, 177-179, 271.
cooked in bamboo joints by steaming, 271.
culture in Malacca, 268.
field. Altars in, 92-93, 164, 175.
See also Parabunnian. 302

ANNALS NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Rice given to the dead, 53, 188.
mortar, Myth of, 68, 200, 201.
offered in the husk, 176.
Pounding of, 67, 100, 200-201.
References to, 6, 55, 57, 63, 77, 79, 87, 147, 164, 183.
sowing ceremonial, 9, 22, 77, 93, 95, 171-174, 238:
Spiritual essence of, enjoyed by soul, 53-54.
Sprouting of, 95.
winnower, 42.
Ridge pole, 135.
Right-hand side of way, 115, 247.
soul, see Soul, Right-hand.
RiGVEDA, citations from, 20, 272.
Rinsing of mouth, 264.
Ritual words, 82, 102, 108, 110, 112, 116, 119-121, 123, 129-130, 143, 155, 178-179, 183, 191-192.
See also Word charms.
River, Betel offered to the, 119.
Buso haunting banks of the, 119.
Ceremonies at, 117-125, 182.
spirits, 21, 23, 222.
Test for theft in, 222.
White woman in, 226.
Riivers, W. H. R., 249, 282.
Riwa-riwa, a demon, 37-38, 227.
Rizal, Jose, cited, 16, 193, 222-223, 261, 262, 264, 266, 267.
Robbery, Charm for success in, 213-214.
Robertson, James Alexander, 279.
See Blair, Emma Helen and Robertson for citations.
Romances, see Bagobo stories; Ulit.
Roof of Long House, 96, 100, 135, 165.
Rooms of Long House, 151-153.
Resell, Pedro, S. J., 280.
Roth, Henry Ling, 282.
Rubbing, see Stroking and rubbing.
avedra, A. de, Citations from voyage of, 28, 170-171, 259, 261.
"Sacral spots. Charm to produce, 218.
Sacrifice, Human, Account of, 167-169.
Characterization of, 78-79, 166.
Sacrifice, Human, Custom of, in Sarawak and Cebu, 28, 271.
Demand by the gods for, 94, 99, 143, 198.
Difficulty of offering, 96-97.
Filipino custom of, 166, 170-171.
Frame for fastening victim to, 168.
References to, 9, 10, 13, 74, 89, 162, 186, 198, 215, 259, 271.
Value of, 169, 273.
vestige of head hunting, a, 161.
Sacrifice of fowls, 9, 97, 103, 137,142, 253, 258.
of goats and swine, 253, 268.
Sacrificial character of religion, 8, 253, 272-273.
Sagas, Indian, see Somadeva.
Sagmo ceremony, 102, 126, 127, 128.
Sago palm, Corypha umhraculifera (buri), 164.
Salamiawan, a divine hero of myth, 14-17.
Salangayd, god of the sky, 23, 86.
Sail, Oleng's brother, 118, 143, 148.
Saleeby, Najeeb M., cited, 4, 282 (bibl.)
Saliman, Oleng's nephew, 23, 85, 118, 202-203.
Salingolop, Datu, 252.
Salugboy, 86-87, 128, 130, 225, 242.
Samal island, 23, 197.
Sambil, young woman of Talun, 8, 147.
San Agustin, Caspar de, O. S. A., 280.
San Antonio, Juan Francisco, O. S. F., 280.
San Nicolas, Andres de, 279.
Santa Cruz, 4, 5, 7, 8, 114, 150, 153, 175, 185.
Sarasin, Paul and Fritz Sarasin, cited, 15, 28, 66, 90, 107, 161, 209, 223, 282 (bibl.)
References to, 75, 94, 96.
Sarawak, Human sacrifice in, 171, 271.
Myths and rites in, 37, 271, 278.
Wooden figures for magic use in, 113-114.
Sarong, see Panapisan.
Sawyer, F. H., cited, 33.
Schadenberg, Alexander, 282.

BENEDICT, BAGOBO CEREMONIAL, MAGIC AND MYTH 303

Sea, God of, 24-25.
Seance, See Manganito.
Sebandal, a sky god, 23.
Sebayan, Ido's daughter, 147, 212.
Sekkadu, see Water flasks,
Selangor, 179, 213, 270.
Seligmann, C. G., 249, 282 (bibl.)
Semang, peninsular tribe, 60, 64.
Senoi, peninsular tribe, 60, 64.
Sefiora, mentioned at manganito, 197, 198, 199.
Sexes, Division of labor between, 76-77, 88, 103, 173, 187.
etiquette between, 203, 220.
Shadow, 50, 58, 61, 64, 214, 270.
Shavings, Ceremonial,133-134, 141-142, 144, 271.
See also Bamboo, Ceremonial poles of.
Shelf for sacred food, 77, 91, 103,137.
for water flasks, 103, 106.
Shell bracelet, 199, 242.
Shells, Calcining of, 80, 99.
Shirt, Ceremonial claret-colored, 223, 224, 241, 253, 254.
Shivering, 195, 228.
Shrine, Tigbanua of the, 108.
Shrines and altars, 11, 76, 77, 87-93, 106, 120, 253-254, 259-260, 265.
See also Balekat ; Buso-house;
Harvest altar; Hut shrine; Parabunnian; Sonaran; Tambara; Tigyama.
Shrines, Filipino, 269.
Siat, wife of Datu Imbal, 153, 155-157.
Sibulan, Bagobo village, 19, 27, 49, 148, 161, 171, 175, 251, 252.
Sickness that goes round the World, a mythical personality, 107, 116, 119, 196-197, 198, 199, 227, 241.
See also Disease and healing.
Tigo, Oleng's daughter, 105, 106, 118, 120, 123, 147.
Silver in myth, 73.
Sindar, a mountain god, 24.
Singan, priest-doctor and medium, 105, 106-112, 117-125, 128-130, 137, 144, 194-203.
Singapore, 84.
Sinkali, linked brass chain, 206-207, 210-212, 225, 236.
S'ning, wood demon, 36, 38, 61-62, 215, 249, 261.
Skeat, Walter William, cited, 10, 17, 33, 37, 40, 47, 49, 64, 65, 88, 117, 120, 174, 179, 206, 213, 227, 238. 243, 267, 268, 269, 270-271, 282 (bibl.)
References to, 139, 143.
Skin diseases, 202, 203, 224.
Skirt, Woman's, see Panapisan.
Skull, Human, 161.
Sky, Gods of, 23.
Myth of lifting of, 46-47, 67.
Red, an omen, 245.
Rim or root of, 199, 227.
Woman who lives in the middle of, 198.
Slaves buried alive by Filipino, 170.
Killing of, at death of a chief, 78, 170, 263, 271.
See also Sacrifice, Human.
Purchase and taking of, 167, 257.
Tingoto figures likened to, 112.
Sleep, Absence of soul in, 58-60, 269.
Lethargic form of, 224.
Oleng forbids, for four nights, 101.
Smoke, for medicine and magic, 215, 232.
Snake as omen, 262, 270.
bite, 213.
Dance named for a, 86.
Danger of killing a, 238.
Fabulous, 31, 39.
Meat of, not eaten, 244.
Somadeva: Katha sarit sagara, cited, 16, 20, 34, 35, 36, 40-41, 42, 47, 69, 70, 72, 74, 120, 167, 205, 208, 219, 248, 273, 274, 282 (bibl.)
Sonar, Account of rite, 125-131.
References to, 91. 94, 102, 104, 124, 153, 272.
Sonaran, the agong-altar. Characterization of, 91-92, 129.
Description of, 125-126.
Use of, at harvest, 175-176.
Songs, Bagobo, see Bagobo songs.
Filipino, 259, 275.

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Bagobo Ceremonial Myth and Magic

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