Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

ELIXIRS CONTAINING PEPSIN.

It has been shown by Prof. Emil Scheffer that pepsin is incompatible with alcohol. By an elaborate series of experiments Prof. Scheffer demonstrated that even the amount of alcohol which exists in sherry wine prevents the wine from dissolving pepsin from the mucous membrane of the pig’s stomach (Journal of Pharmacy, 1870).
In connection with this portion of our subject, we quote from Prof. Scheffer’s writings as follows: “After these experiments I do not hesitate to say that the so-called wine of pepsin does not contain any pepsin at all, and that all the medical virtue of it has to be attributed to the wine itself."
In continuance, 1872, the same author shows that solution of ammonio-citrate of bismuth is incompatible with pepsin, and hence he concludes that the benefit derived from the use of elixir of pepsin and bismuth was due to the alcohol or the bismuth salt. Notwithstanding these facts, it is well known that elixirs containing pepsin and bismuth associated are among the most popular. Let us now consider another phase of the subject. If hydrochloric acid is added to solution of
ammonio-citrate of bismuth, as is well known, a precipitate immediately results. Here we have an additional incompatible, for hydrochloric acid is usually employed in making solutions of pepsin, and we might be led to argue therefrom that both the pepsin and the bismuth are probably absent from elixir of pepsin and bismuth, and hence that the value of this elixir depends upon the alcohol only. We have been somewhat successful in overcoming the incongruities we have just named by substituting acetic acid for hydrochloric acid in the preparation of the pepsin liquid, thus permitting it to be mixed with the bismuth solution without precipitation of bismuth, and also the apparent solution of pepsin in the presence of ammonio-citrate of bismuth.
(It is by no means certain that such a solution of pepsin is injured, regarding its digestive power, by the substitution of acetic acid for hydrochloric acid. True it is that to dissolve albumen artificially hydrochloric acid is necessary, but the juices in the stomach may render it unnecessary. See elixir of pepsin.)
We use the term “apparent solution of pepsin,” for although the pepsin undoubtedly disappears, it does not necessarily follow that it dissolves and remains active pepsin. Perhaps it is so modified as to be devoid of digestive value and still remain dissolved. Upon the other hand, even if this is the case, it. is barely possible that such a pepsin is only paralyzed, and that its vitality will return when it is taken into the stomach. Were it not true that these combinations are demanded by physicians, we might even ignore them altogether.

205. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.

Pepsin, pure,.................................. 128 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Acetic acid,.................................. 2 fluidrachms.

Mix them together and shake occasionally during a period of not less than twenty-four hours. Do not filter unless absolutely necessary. The acid usually employed to effect the solution of pepsin (hydrochloric acid) is substituted in this case by acetic acid. We do this in order to obtain a simple elixir of pepsin more compatible with certain iron salts and with ammonio-citrate of bismuth. Hydrochloric acid may be necessary in connection with pepsin to effect the artificial
solution of coagulated albumen, but we are by no means convinced that it is a necessity when the pepsin is in the stomach. Indeed, the probabilities are that the gastric juice supplies the acid principle, even in very dyspeptic persons, and reports from those who use dry pepsin corroborate the inference.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of saccharated pepsin.
The formula first brought to our notice for elixir of pepsin appeared in the Druggists’ Circular, 1869. Fresh rennet was employed, with salt, wine, and aromatics. The formula we present contains the proportion of pepsin recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1873.

206. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND
BISMUTH, AND PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND QUINIA.)

Elixir of pepsin and ammonio
citrate of bismuth,..................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of quinine,..8 fluidounces.

Mix them together, and neutralize very carefully by means of acetic acid or ammonia water.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half grain each of saccharated pepsin, ammonio-citrate of bismuth, and phosphate of quinine. This elixir should be discarded, as it is uncertain, unstable, and made of incompatibles.

207. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND CINCHONIDIA.)

Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of cinchonidine,......................... 8 fluidounces.

Mix them together. If not of acid reaction, add a sufficient amount of acetic acid.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonidine.

208. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONIDINE
AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pepsin and phosphate of
cinchonidine,......................... 16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount to effect its solution, and then add the elixir. If not of acid reaction, add a sufficient amount of acetic acid.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of phosphate of quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

209. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND CINCHONIA )

Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of cinchonine,.............................8 fluidounces.

Mix them together. If not of acid reaction, add acetic acid in sufficient amount.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonine.

210. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN WITH PHOSPHATE OF CINCHONINE
AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pepsin and phosphate of cinchonine,.............................8 fluidounces.
Strychnine,.......................................1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect its solution, and then add the elixir.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of phosphate of cinchonine, and about one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

211. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND IRON.

The National Formulary prepares this elixir by adding five hundred and twelve minims of citro-chloride of iron to enough elixir of pepsin to make sixteen fluidounces. Each fluidrachm represents about one-half grain of chloride of iron and one grain of pepsin.

212. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS

The National Formulary makes this elixir by mixing three and three-quarter fluidounces of spirit of phosphorus, sixteen minims of oil of star anise, nine fluidounces of alcohol, and aromatic elixir enough to make sixteen fluidounces. The oil of star anise is added to the spirit of phosphorus, then the alcohol, and the mixture is shaken until it forms a clear liquid, after which the aromatic elixir is added in small portions. Agitate after each addition until a clear mixture results.
This elixir should be kept in a cool, dry place, in amber vials, and should not be made in large quantities. Each fluidrachm contains onefiftieth of a grain of phosphorus.

213. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND WAFER ASH.
(ELIXIR OF PTELEA AND PEPSIN.)

Fluid extract of ptelea,.............. 2 fluidounces.
Elixir of pepsin,..........................16 fluidounces.
Powdered wood charcoal,........a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of ptelea with powdered wood charcoal in amount sufficient to form a thick, pasty mixture, then gradually add the elixir of pepsin, and filter.
Each fluidrachm of this preparation represents such an amount of seven and one-half grains of the medicinal principles of ptelea as will dissolve in the elixir of pepsin, and two grains of saccharated pepsin. However, as the proper menstruum for extracting these principles from ptelea trifoliata is alcohol of specific gravity 0.820, the elixir is not a representative of the fluid extract of ptelea used in making it. We direct powdered wood charcoal instead of the
magnesium carbonate or magnesium phosphate, as the first would neutralize the acid of the elixir of pepsin, while the last would dissolve to a considerable extent.

214. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND PHOSPHATE OF QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN AND QUINIA.)

Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of quinine,..8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin and one-half grain of quinine.

215. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of quinine,.8 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect its solution, then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them together.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin, one-half grain of quinine, and onehundredth of a grain of strychnine.

216. ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, PHOSPHATE OF QUININE, STRYCHNINE,
AND CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
(ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, QUINIA, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)

Elixir of phosphate of quinine,.8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pepsin and ammonio-citrate of bismuth,.................................8 fluidounces.
Strychnine,...................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect its solution, and then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them together. If the elixir has an acid or an alkaline reaction, cautiously add enough ammonia water or acetic acid, as the case may demand, to render it neutral.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half grain each of saccharated pepsin, quinine, and ammoniocitrate of bismuth, and about one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.
This is an association of incongruities and should be discarded.

217. ELIXIR OF PEPTONE.

Peptone,....................................... troyounce.
Sugar,........................................... 2 troyounces.
Alcohol,.......................................1 fluidounce.
Port wine,....................................4 fluidounces.
Water,.......................................... 2 fluidounces.

Dissolve the peptone in the water, then add the wine and sugar, and after the sugar has dissolved add the alcohol.
(A. PETTIT )

218. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.

Phosphorus,..................................... 1 grains.
Ether,............................................3 fluidrachms.
Alcohol,.......................................1 fluidounces.
Essence of peppermint,............ 1 fluidrachm.
Glycerin,...................................... 2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................12 fluidounces.

Weigh the phosphorus carefully in a glass-stoppered vial, and then add the ether; agitate until the phosphorus dissolves, then add the alcohol and the essence of peppermint; now slowly add the glycerin, stirring well, and lastly the simple elixir.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains the one-hundredth of a grain of phosphorus. Elixir of phosphorus is liable to become milky, owing to the fact that phosphorus is insoluble in water. This formula is essentially that of Mr. J. G. Luhn, as published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1874.

219. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS.
(ELIXIR PHOSPHORUS AND NUX VOMICA. )

Elixir of phosphorus,................16 fluidounces.
Tincture of nux vomica,...........384 minims.

Gradually add the tincture of nux vomica to the elixir of phosphorus, stirring well during the process.
The elixir is also that of Mr. J. G. Luhn. Each fluid drachm contains one-hundredth of a grain of phosphorus and two minims of tincture of nux vomica.

220. ELIXIR OF PHOSPHORUS WITH QUININE AND STRYCHNINE.

Elixir of phosphorus,................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of phosphate of quinine,.8 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine with acetic acid in sufficient amount to effect its solution, and then add the elixirs.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half grain of quinine, one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and the two-hundredth part of a grain of phosphorus. This formula in substance was presented at the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 1881.

221. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.

Acetate of potassium,............... .... 640 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................15 fluidounces.

Dissolve the acetate of potassium in the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains of acetate of potassium.
In former editions of our work each fluidrachm contained four grains of acetate of potassium. We change the proportion in this edition of our work to conform to the strength established by the National Formulary.

222. ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF POTASSIUM.

Solution of arsenite of potassium
(Fowler’s solution),............... .256 minims.
Simple elixir,..............................a sufficient quantity.

Mix the solution of arsenite of potassium with enough simple elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two minims of solution of arsenite of potassium. Dose, one
fluidrachm (teaspoonful), which may be cautiously increased to twice that amount.

223. ELIXIR OF ACETATE OF POTASSIUM AND BUCHU.
Acetate of potassium,............... ... 640 grains.
Elixir of buchu,...........................a sufficient amount.

Dissolve the acetate of potassium in enough elixir of buchu to produce sixteen fluidounces.
Each fluidrachm represents five grains of acetate of potassium.

224. ELIXIR OF BUCHU, JUNIPER, AND ACETATE OF POTASSIUM.

This preparation is made by parties who have advertised and created a demand for it in certain sections of our country, and to whom the formula rightfully belongs. Through courtesy to these gentlemen we do not give a process for making it.

225. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM

Bromide of potassium,.............. 1280 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the bromide of potassium in twelve fluid ounces of simple elixir, and add to this solution enough simple elixir to bring the whole to the measure of sixteen fluidounces
Each teaspoonful of the finished elixir represents ten grains of potassium bromide, and is the same in strength as that adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.

226. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM

Iodide of potassium,................. ... 256 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the iodide of potassium in enough simple elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of iodide of potassium.

227. ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS.
(PARACELSUS’ ELIXIR)

Myrrh,..........................................3 troyounces.
Aloes,........................................... 3 troyounces.
Saffron,........................................ 3 troyounces.
Alcohol,................................................. 2 pints.

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate in the alcohol fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Supplement to London Pharmacopoeia, 1821,)

228. ELIXIR PROPRIETATIS CUM ACIDO.

To elixir proprietatis add of aromatic sulphuric acid an amount sufficient to render it fairly acid. The Supplement to the
London Pharmacopoeia, 1821, directs what in these days would be considered an unreasonable amount of acid. (See also our formula on page 8, which is Boerhaave’s original formula for making “Elixir Proprietatis with Distilled Vinegar.”)

229. RADCLIFF’S PURGING ELIXIR.

Jalap,.............................................7 troyounces.
Cape aloes,...................................5 troyounces.
Gentian,.......................................2 troyounces.
Canella alba,................................1 troyounces.
Orange peel, bitter,.................... .1 troyounce.
Grains of paradise,.........................3 drachms.
Scammony,.................................... 1 ounces.
Senna,.......................................... ... 1 ounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... ......... 16 pints

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, mix them with the diluted alcohol, and macerate fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Supplement to London Pharmacopoeia, 1821.)

230. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RASPBERRY.

Fluid extract of rhatany,...........1 fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cinnamon,...... fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cloves,.............. fluidounce.
Fluid extract of allspice,............ fluidounce.
Fluid extract of nutmeg,........... fluidounce.
Raspberry juice,..........................8 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium, ...... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts and triturate the mixture in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir—previously mixed with the raspberry juice—stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
The proportions of this elixir, essentially those we have given in our formula, were announced in the Druggists’ Circular, 1872.

231. RED ELIXIR. (RED SIMPLE ELIXIR. )

Simple elixir, or elixir of orange, any convenient quantity.
Color it with solution of carmine until of a distinct red color.
This elixir is incompatible with acids and certain metallic salts, which precipitate the coloring matter. Red elixir is used as a flavor.

232. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS FRANGULA.

Fluid extract of rhamnus
frangula,.................................. 2 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of rhubarb,...........2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts, and evaporate them, at a temperature not exceeding 150° F., until reduced to two fluid ounces. Triturate this in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims each of fluid extracts of rhubarb and rhamnus frangula.

233. ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.
(ELIXIR OF CASCARA SAGRADA )

Fluid extract of rhamnus
purshiana,...............................4 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents fifteen minims of fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana.
In former editions of our publication each fluidrachm of the elixir represented seven and one-half grains of rhamnus purshiana.
We have changed the proportion to accord with the strength established by the National Formulary.

234. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHAMNUS PURSHIANA.

Fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana,....................................... 2 fluidounces.
Tincture of cardamom,............ 30 fluidounces.
Ammoniacal glycyrrhizin,............ 30 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the mixed fluid extracts in a capacious mortar with ammoniacal glycyrrhizin and carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol, and dissolve in this the citrate of strychnine, and add the tincture of cardamom.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents about seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of rhamnus purshiana.

235. ELIXIR ROBORANS WHYTTII.

Yellow cinchona bark,..............3 troyounces.
Gentian,........................................1 troyounce.
Bitter orange peel,..................... .1 troyounce.
Alcohol,.......................................16 fluidounces
Cinnamon water,...................... 8 fluidounces.

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder and prepare a tincture by percolation, using a mixture of the alcohol and cinnamon water. This preparation is a modern tincture, although it was once classed with elixirs. The German Pharmacopoeia (1872) recognizes, under the above name, the compound tincture of cinchona.

236. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.

Fluid extract of rhubarb,...........2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium, ...... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of rhubarb in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of rhubarb.

237. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF RHUBARB.

Rhubarb,......................................20 troyounces.
Cloves,......................................... 8 troyounces.
Saffron,........................................ 8 troyounces.
Nutmeg,...................................... 20 troyounces.
Ether,............................................10 fluidounces.
Sherry wine,............................... 200 fluidounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 20 fluidounces.

Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the mixed alcohol and wine for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day; then filter, and add the ether.
This elixir is recommended as a vehicle for disguising the taste of castor oil, and was introduced by Mr. Bidone Carlo, who states that one part of this elixir will remove the taste and odor from three parts of castor oil. It was named “elixir of rhubarb,” but to avoid confusion with the regular and simple elixir of rhubarb we have added the word compound.
(See New Remedies, 1880.)

238. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND COLUMBO.

Elixir of rhubarb,........................5 fluidounces.
Elixir of columbo,......................5 fluidounces.
Simple elixir, 6 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents about two minims each of fluid extract of rhubarb and fluid extract of columbo.

239. ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND MAGNESIA.
(ELIXIR OF RHUBARB AND MAGNESIUM SULPHATE.)

Fluid extract of rhubarb,...........4 fluidounces.
Sulphate of magnesium,......... . 1024 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................32 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium, . a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of rhubarb with carbonate of magnesium until of a creamy consistence, then gradually add the
simple elixir, in which the sulphate of magnesium has been previously dissolved; permit the mixture to remain for a few hours in a closed vessel, then filter.
Each fluidrachm contains seven and one half minims of fluid extract of rhubarb and eight grains of sulphate of magnesium.
Under the name elixir of rhubarb and magnesia this elixir was noticed in New Remedies, 1877. Among the formulæ introduced by Mr. G. W. Gardner to the American Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting in Saratoga was an “elixir of rhubarb and magnesium acetate.”

240. ELIXIR OF SALICIN.

Salicin,......................................... .... 256 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................12 fluidounces.
Distilled water,...........................4 fluidounces.

Boil the water and dissolve in it the salicin, and mix this solution with the simple elixir. Filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of salicin.

241. SACRED.ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR SACRUM. TINCTURE RHEI ET ALOES.—Ed. Pharm., 1770.)

Rhubarb,..........................................5 drachms.
Aloes,........................................... ....3 drachms.
Cardamom,.....................................2 drachms.
Brandy,.........................................16 fluidounces.

Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the brandy for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)

242. ELIXIR OF SALICYLIC ACID.

Salicylic acid,................................... 128 grains.
Powdered borax,............................. 128 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.

Triturate the salicylic acid and powdered borax together, add the simple elixir, and when the powders are dissolved filter the liquid.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of salicylic acid.
In March, 1881, Dr. Wolff presented a formula for making this elixir to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, using salicylic acid, alcohol, and simple elixir. In our hands it failed, the salicylic acid crystallizing as soon as the simple elixir was added to the alcoholic solution. We have met with little success when we have endeavored to make an elixir of this acid without using some substance, such as borax, to act as a solvent. Of course, bicarbonate of sodium is not admissible, or other alkaline carbonate, or an alkali, for such will form salts of salicylic acid.

243. ELIXIR OF SCAMMONY.

Scammony,.....................................2 drachms.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 8 fluidounces.
Heat and set fire to the spirit, and add—
Sugar,........................................... 4 troyounces.

When it has dissolved, extinguish the flame and add—
Syrup of violets,.........................2 fluidounces.

(GUIBOURT.)

244. ELIXIR SALUTIS.
(ELIXIR OF HEALTH. (COMPOUND TINCTURE OF SENNA,)

Senna,.......................................... 2 troyounces.
Jalap,............................................. 1 troyounce.
Coriander,................................... troyounce.
Diluted alcohol,......................... .......3 pints.

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the diluted alcohol for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter. (Edinburgh New Dispensatory, 1818.)

245. ELIXIR OF SENNA.

Fluid extract of senna,.............. 2 fluidounces
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of senna in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir contains the medicinal principles of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of senna.

246. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SENNA.

Fluid extract of senna,.............. 4 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of taraxacum,......1 fluidounce.
Compound tincture of cardamom, fluidounce.
Simple elixir,..............................10 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts and tincture, and triturate with carbonate of magnesium until of a creamy consistence, then gradually add the simple elixir, and filter.
Each fluidrachm contains seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of senna and about four minims of fluid extract of taraxacum.
(See American Practitioner, 1875.)

247. SIMPLE: ELIXIR.
(WHITE ELIXIR.)

Oil of sweet orange,...................1 fluidrachm.
Oil of lemon,.............................. fluidrachm.
Distilled water,...........................41 fluidounces.
Alcohol,.......................................13 fluidounces.
Sugar,........................................... 32 troyounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... one two-ounce block.

Dissolve the sugar, without heat, in the distilled water, and then mix with this solution nine fluidounces of alcohol. Dissolve the oils in three fluidounces of alcohol, and slowly add the liquid, stirring constantly, to the solution of sugar. Then crush the block of carbonate of magnesium between the hands, permitting the powder to gradually scatter itself over the surface of the liquid and settle to the bottom of the vessel. After standing half an hour, stir it well and transfer the mixture to a well-closed vessel, and permit it to remain for six or eight hours, stirring it occasionally, and then filter it through a double filter paper, returning the first portion and until it passes clear, and then filter it. Lastly, add the remaining fluidounce of alcohol.
In reviewing the above formula it may seem to the reader that we are unreasonably precise regarding certain details. If necessary, the operator may hurry the operation, but it will be found advantageous in the long run to follow our directions. The suggestion to crush the magnesium carbonate between the hands, instead of grating it through a sieve or powdering it in a mortar, is made because we find that process advantageous. Permitting it to fall over the surface of the liquid facilitates the absorption of undissolved oils which may be present, especially if the oils of orange and lemon are sophisticated.
Simple elixir, as made according to the above formula, is very nicely flavored and acceptable. If the operator desires, he can substitute the simple elixir of the Pharmacopoeia or our elixir of orange.

248. ELIXIR OF ARSENITE OF SODIUM.
(ELIXIR OF ARSENIC. )

Solution of arsenite of sodium,.....256 minims.
Simple elixir,..............................a sufficient quantity.
Mix the solution of arsenite of sodium with enough simple elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful:) of the finished elixir contains two minims of solution of arsenite of sodium.
The dose is one fluidrachm (teaspoonful), which may be very cautiously increased if desirable. Use with care.

249. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF SODIUM.

Bromide of sodium,.................... 1280 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Dissolve the bromide of sodium in the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains ten grains of bromide of sodium.
In former editions of our publication the strength was two grains of bromide of sodium to the fluidrachm. We conform in this edition to the strength established by the National Formulary.

250. ELIXIR OF HYPOPHOSPHITE OF SODIUM.

Hypophosphite of sodium,..... .... 256 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. ....... 20 grains
Simple elixir,...................enough to make 16 fluidounces.

Dissolve the hypophosphites of sodium and the citric acid in the simple elixir by agitation. Each fluidrachm contains two grains of hypophosphite of sodium.

251. ELIXIR OF IODIDE OF SODIUM.

Iodide of sodium,...................... ... 256 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Dissolve the iodide of sodium in the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of iodide of sodium.

252. ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF SODIUM.

Salicylate of sodium,.................... 640 grains.
Simple elixir,.................enough to make 16 fluidounces.
Dissolve the salicylate of sodium in the simple elixir by agitation, and filter if necessary. Each fluidrachm contains five grains of salicylate of sodium.

253 . SQUIRE’S ELIXIR.

Opium,.........................................4 troyounces.
Camphor,.................................... .1 troyounce.
Cochineal,................................... .1 troyounce.
Oil fennel seed,.......................... 2 fluidrachms.
Tincture serpentaria,................ 16 fluidounces.
Spirit anise,......................................... 16 pints.
Water,.......................................... ........... 2 pints

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder. Having previously dissolved the oil of fennel seed in the spirit of anise and mixed this with the water, add the powdered drugs and the tincture of serpentaria.
Macerate fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia, 1821.)

The original formula in the above work contains six ounces of " aurum musivum " (sulphuret of tin), which we omit.

254. ST. HUBERT’S HUNTERS’ ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR DE ST. HUBERT POUR LES CHASSEURS.)

Carbolic acid,................................1 troyounce.
Alcohol,.......................................25 troyounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm contains about two and one-fourth minims of carbolic acid.
(CASSELLMAN, from New Remedies, 1878.)

255. ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.

Fluid extract of stillingia,.........2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounce.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of stillingia in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.

256. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF STILLINGIA.

Compound fluid extract of stillingia,....................................... 4 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the compound fluid extract of stillingia with carbonate of magnesium in sufficient amount to form a creamy
mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains fifteen minims of compound fluid extract of stillingia.

257. STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR STOMACHIC)

Gentian,.......................................2 troyounces.
Curaçao orange peel,..................1 troyounce.
Virginia snakeroot,................... troyounce.
Cochineal,................................... ..... 30 grains.
Brandy,................................................... 2 pints.

Mix the drugs and reduce them to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the brandy for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.

258. STOUGHTON’S ELIXIR

Gentian,.......................................2 troyounces.
Serpentaria,..................................1 troyounce.
Bitter orange peel,..................... 1 troyounces.
Calamus,...................................... troyounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... .......... 6 pints.

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the diluted alcohol for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.
(Supplement to the London Pharmacopoeia.)

269. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF STRYCHNINE.

Strychnine,......................................1 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Valerianic acid,.......................... a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine in a mortar and add two fluid ounces of simple elixir, and then enough valerianic acid to effect the solution of the strychnine. Lastly, add the remainder of the simple elixir.
The formula is essentially that presented by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl to the Louisville College of Pharmacy, excepting that we have made the proportion of strychnine conform to that established by the National Formulary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

260. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF SUMBUL.
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MUSK-ROOT.)

Fluid extract of sumbul,...........1 fluidounce.
Elixir of valerianate of ammonium, 9 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................4 fluidounces.
Alcohol,.......................................2 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of sumbul in a Wedgewood or porcelain mortar with enough magnesium carbonate to bring it to a creamy consistence, then gradually add the elixir of valerianate of ammonium and simple elixir, and filter; mix the alcohol with the filtrate.
(New Remedies, 1880.)
If this elixir is prepared as directed in the works where the writer has observed it, by simply mixing the liquid ingredients, an unsightly mixture results, providing the fluidextract of sumbul was made with alcohol and was not an aqueous infusion. Hence the directions we have given are for the purpose of producing a presentable liquid.
Each fluidrachm represents about four minims of fluid extract of sumbul and thirty-six minims of elixir of valerianate of
ammonium.

261. ELIXIR OF TAR

Pine tar,........................................5 troyounces.
Sugar,........................................... 15 troyounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 100 fluidounces.

Triturate the tar and sugar together, then with the alcohol, and filter.
This was suggested by Magnes Lahens in the Italian Chemical Gazette. In reality, it is solution of tar in diluted alcohol, and does not conform to the modern American elixir.

262. ELIXIR OF TAR COMPOUND.

Wine of tar,.................................16 fluidounces.
Syrup of wild cherry,................ 4 fluidounces.
Syrup of Tolu,........................... 4 fluidounces.
Methylic alcohol,.......................1 fluidounce.
Sulphate of morphine,..................... 4 grains.
Dissolve the sulphate of morphine in the wine of tar, and then add the other ingredients.
(Non-officinal formulæ in local use, compiled and published by the joint committee of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Associations of the District of Columbia.)

263. ELIXIR OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS.
(ELIXIR OF ARBOR VITÆ. )

Fluid extract of thuja occidentalis, 2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,.......................................2 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of thuja with carbonate of magnesium until of a creamy consistence, then gradually add the
simple elixir, filter, and add the alcohol. A formula for elixir of thuja occidentalis was proposed by Mr. W. H. Laws in New Remedies, 1877.
This is one of the class of substances which, in our opinion, cannot be satisfactorily exhausted by means of an aqueous menstruum. The characteristic principles of thuja are oily and resinous, and these are largely precipitated by any aqueous liquid.
Each fluidrachm of this elixir represents, less the substances precipitated by the simple elixir, seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of thuja occidentalis.

264. ELIXIR OF VALERIAN.

Fluid extract of valerian,..........2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of valerian in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of valerian such an amount as the menstruum is capable of dissolving.

265. MYNFICHT’S ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.

This ancient elixir has been modified, and deservedly, time and again, until, excepting the sulphuric acid, it scarcely resembles its former self. It was made by the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias, preceding 1770, as follows:

Cinnamon,......................................3 drachms.
Ginger,......................................... ....3 drachms.
Cloves,......................................... ....3 drachms.
Calamus,.......................................1 troyounce.
Galanga,....................................... 1 troyounce.
Sage,.............................................. troyounce.
Peppermint,................................ troyounce.
Cubebs,.............................................2 drachms.
Nutmeg,...................................... ....2 drachms.
Aloes,........................................... ...... 1 drachm
Citron peel,................................. ...... 1 drachm

Reduce these ingredients to a powder, to which add of—

Sugar candy,................................3 troyounces.
Alcohol,..............................................1 pints.
Oil of vitriol,...........................................1 pint.

Digest them together for twenty days, and filter the tincture for use.
The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia, 1770, improves upon this process, modifying it until the product resembles our former aromatic sulphuric acid (elixir vitriol), U. S. P., the proportion of sulphuric acid being reduced very considerably. Those who make “elixir of vitriol” at the present time will find in our Pharmacopoeia of 1882 a process which, in our opinion, is very much superior to any heretofore suggested, and this old formula is simply a curiosity.

266. SWEET ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.
(ELIXIR VITRIOLI DULCE.)

*Aromatic tincture,...............................1 pint.
**Dulcified spirit of vitriol,..... 8 troyounces

Mix them together.

(New Dispensatory, London, and London Pharmacopoeia, 1770.)

* AROMATIC TINCTURE.—

Cinnamon,....................................... .......6 drachms.
Cardamom seeds,.................................... 3 drachms.
Long pepper,...........................................2 drachms.
Ginger,............................................ ....... 2 drachms.
Diluted alcohol,.......................................... 2 pints.

Digest without heat, and then strain.—London Pharmacopoeia, 1770.

**DULCIFIED SPIRIT OF VITRIOL.—This was made by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and alcohol. Its substitute now is Hoffmann’s Anodyne, which even at that day the elixir was designed to imitate. We quote: " It is not essentially different from the celebrated anodyne liquor of Hoffmann."—New Dispensatory, 1770.

267. VIGANI’S VOLATILE ELIXIR OF VITRIOL.

Dulcified spirit of vitriol,.........32 troyounces.
Oil of peppermint,..................... troyounce.
Oil of lemon,.............................. 2 fluidrachms.
Oil of nutmeg,............................1 fluidrachm.

Gradually drop the oils into the spirit and mix the whole well together.
This preparation is a simplification of Vigani’s complex and quaint formula, and was accepted as a substitute by the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. Of it the New Dispensatory, London, 1770, remarks:

“A medicine of this kind was formerly in great esteem under the title of Vigani’s Volatile Elixir of Vitriol, the composition of which was first communicated to the public in the Pharmacopoeia Reformata.”

268. ELIXIR OF WAHOO.

Fluid extract of wahoo,.............2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of wahoo with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then
gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain the medicinal principles of such an amount of seven and one half minims of fluid extract of wahoo as can be retained in solution by the menstruum.

269. ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.

Fluid extract of yerba santa,.....2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of yerba santa in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
This elixir has been recommended as a vehicle for administering quinine, and is said to disguise its bitterness. A process was devised by Mr. Jas. S. McCleary whereby aromatics were added, and which we give in substance under compound elixir of yerba santa.
Yerba santa contains a peculiar sweet astringent principle which may precipitate the quinine, thus rendering it insoluble. Care should be taken that the mixture be not filtered after the addition of the quinine.

270. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF YERBA SANTA.

Fluid extract of yerba santa,.....2 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of sweet orange peel, fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cinnamon,...... fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cloves,.............. fluidounce.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Red saunders,.................................. 10 grains.
Carbonate of magnesium, . a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts, add the red saunders, and triturate in a capacious mortar with sufficient carbonate of magnesium to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. This preparation is used for disguising the taste of quinine. (See our remarks under elixir of yerba santa.)

271. ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF ZINC.

Valerianate of zinc,................... .... 128 grains.
Distilled water,...........................6 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................10 fluidounces.

Triturate the valerianate of zinc with the water, and then add the simple elixir. When solution of the salt results filter the liquid.
Should the valerianate of zinc refuse to dissolve, cautiously drop in a little hydrochloric acid, care being taken that only enough to effect its solution is added.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of valerianate of zinc.
In former editions of our publication the strength was onehalf grain of valerianate of zinc in each fluidrachm. We change in this edition to one grain in order to conform to the strength established by the National Formulary.





Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

Main Library