Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

ELIXIRS OF CALISAYA OR CINCHONA BARK AND ITS ALKALOIDS

These include the most popular elixirs, and which are prescribed most freely by physicians. The original “cordial elixir of calisaya” contained all of the principles of the bark which were soluble in the menstruum used in making it, and, as a simple elixir of calisaya, is preferred by many physicians at the present day. When combinations of calisaya bark and the various iron preparations were introduced, a demand was created for an elixir of calisaya which could be mixed with certain iron salts without precipitation or inky discoloration, and this was followed by the introduction of “detannated
elixir of calisaya,” which would answer this purpose. However, in making the detannated elixir the natural combination of the alkaloids is destroyed and the cincho-tannic acid is separated, and we prefer to use the alkaloids of calisaya direct. The use of the alkaloids, by pharmacists, instead of the bark, will certainly give a more definite preparation, as variation in quality is thus overcome, and we do not know that the name “elixir of calisaya” is very inappropriate under
these conditions. Hence it is that we direct the “elixir of calisaya from the alkaloids” in this work; but if the operator prefers, the detannated elixir can be substituted.
It must be remembered that the alkaloids of calisaya are almost insoluble in a slightly alkaline or neutral aqueous menstruum, and, as a consequence, the elixir of these alkaloids should have an acid reaction. However, some outside combinations, especially with pyrophosphate of iron and ammonio-citrate of bismuth, will not admit of a strong acid reaction, and the operator should endeavor to have these associations as nearly neutral as it is possible and retain the
several ingredients in solution. With a little experience the skillful pharmacist will learn to associate many of these incongruities; but there is no doubt that oft times the filter paper is the real pharmacist, when some of the incompatibles we might name are supposed to be associated in a transparent, permanent condition, and that upon the filter paper may be found the bulk of the medicinal ingredients.

PREPARATIONS OF ALKALOIDS.

In following the directions for making elixirs by this work, it will be observed that we refer to alkaloid cinchonidine, and alkaloid quinine, as well as alkaloid cinchonine. The last is in general use, but the others must often be prepared extemporaneously. In reviewing the processes which have been heretofore recommended, we find considerable
trouble in manipulation. The plan of our Pharmacopoeia (1970) is that of dissolving the sulphate of the alkaloid in water, by means of sulphuric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia water, after which the precipitated alkaloid is washed with water. In following this process we find a very bulky, amorphous precipitate, and which requires a large amount of water before it can be thoroughly freed from ammonium sulphate. Again, when we attempt to dry this precipitate, if the weather is moderately warm, it runs together, agglutinates, and finally forms a transparent, horn-like mass which adheres closely to the paper. In order to overcome these troubles, the writer has devised the following process, which yields an alkaloid which answers every purpose required by the class of preparations under consideration:

ALKALOID QUININE OR ALKALOID CINCHONIDINE.
Sulphate of quinine or sulphate of
cinchonidine,1 ounce.
Distilled water,32 fluidounces.
Ammonia water,j fluidounces.

Mix the ammonia water with the distilled water, and having placed the sulphate of the desired alkaloid in a mortar, gradually triturate it with a sufficient amount of the liquid, so as to form a thin, creamy mixture, then add the remainder of the mixed waters. Permit this to stand half an hour, and transfer to a filter paper; then, after the precipitate has drained, return it to the mortar, and mix it again with a liquid composed of—

Distilled water,...........................32 fluidounces.
Ammonia water,.......................k fluidounces.

Permit this mixture to stand for half an hour, and then transfer it to a muslin strainer, squeeze. it until the liquid is expressed, and then dry it by hanging it in the atmosphere, without, however, removing the strainer.
The foregoing process offers several advantages over the old, not the least being the ready production of an alkaloid in a porous and finely divided form. If the strainer is permitted to remain during the process of drying, the liquid carries the dissolved sulphate of ammonium to the surface, as it evaporates, and deposits it upon the muslin.
This process is often followed by the writer with regard to other precipitates which contain coloring matters and impurities that ordinary washing seems not to separate. By spreading them in thin layers upon muslin, and pressing a
sheet of muslin upon their surface, the impurities are carried by the liquid to the surface.

70. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA (OR CINCHONA. See No. 71).
(CORDIAL ELIXIR OF CALISAYA. ELIXIR OF BARK.)

Calisaya bark,.............................. 4 troyounces
Fresh orange peel,..................... 2 troyounces.
Ceylon cinnamon,......................1 troyounce.
Coriander seed,.......................... .1 troyounce.
Fennel seed,................................ k troyounce.
Caraway seed,............................. k troyounce.
Cardamom seed,........................ k troyounce.
Cochineal,................................... k troyounce.
Brandy,.........................................40 troyounces.
Alcohol,.......................................16 troyounces.
Water,.......................................... 56 troyounces.
Simple syrup,............................. 40 troyounces..

Reduce the orange peel to a pulp by concussion in an iron mortar, and mix the pulp with the remainder of the drugs, having previously reduced them to a coarse powder. Mix the brandy, alcohol, and water, and moisten the powder with an amount sufficient of this menstruum to prepare it for percolation. Pack the moistened powder in a suitable percolator, and extract it by percolation with the remainder of the menstruum. Lastly, mix this percolate with the simple syrup.
This formula was furnished the American Journal of Pharmacy, January, 1859, by Mr. Alfred B. Taylor, excepting that the manipulation has been slightly modified by us. This process furnishes a very palatable preparation, and at one time it was popular under the name “cordial elixir of calisaya.” However, a slight precipitate occurs in it after standing, and, as a rule, pharmacists prefer an elixir made of the alkaloids. In our opinion, this elixir is often the preferable elixir of
calisaya, but out of respect to the demands of trade, and combinations to be made, we shall recognize under compounds of calisaya an elixir made with cinchona alkaloids, as follows:

71. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA.

The National Formulary uses the title Elixir of Cinchona instead of Elixir of Calisaya. That preparation is somewhat different from the typical elixirs that have been fashionable under the name elixir of calisaya, and we therefore give to the elixir of cinchona a separate position, although the distinction is not technically correct.
The formula of the National Formulary is essentially as follows:

Tincture of cinchona, U.S.P.,.. 2j fluidounces.
Aromatic spirits,........................2 fluidounces.
Syrup,........................................... 6 fluidounces.
Purified talcum,......................... .... 120 grains.
Water,.................................enough to make 16 fluidounces.

The liquids are to be mixed together, and, after having stood for twenty-four hours, the purified talcum is to be added and shaken therewith. The mixture is then to be filtered. Each fluidounces represents about fourteen grains of yellow cinchona.

72. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA ALKALOIDS.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK ELIXIR OF BARK.)

Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Quinine (alkaloid),.......................... 12 grains.
Cinchonine (alkaloid),............. ........ 6 grains.

Mix the alkaloids, and triturate them in a mortar with one fluidounces of simple elixir, and then gradually add acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect their solution; then add the remainder of the simple elixir. Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains alkaloids sufficient to represent four grains of officinal calisaya bark. The preparation is that adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875. The elixir has a distinct, bitter taste, and we have reason to believe that any substance which will overcome the bitterness will do so at the expense of the alkaloids, rendering them insoluble. Various plans have been recommended, from time to time, for detannating calisaya bark, usually by means of hydroxide of iron, first suggested by Mr. Meier, of New York, in 1867. These processes are
tedious, and the product presents little, if any, advantage over a simple solution of the alkaloids. For this reason we consider this formula a practical substitute for “detannated elixir of calisaya,” which follows.

73. DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK.
(DETANNATED ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK. DETANNATED ELIXIR OF BARK.

Calisaya bark,..............................24 troyounces.
Curaçoa orange peel,.................16 troyounces.
Coriander,................................... 4 troyounces.
Cardamom,.................................1j troyounces.
Ceylon cinnamon,.....................3 troyounces.
Anise,...........................................1 troyounces.
Cocoa (Baker’s),..........................8 troyounces.

Reduce to a moderately fine powder; displace with a mixture consisting of one part, by measure, of alcohol and three parts of water, until two and one-half gallons of percolate are obtained.
Meanwhile, prepare hydrated sesquioxide of iron from six pints of solution of tersulphate of iron, according to the
Pharmacopoeial process, measure it, and add to every four measures one measure of alcohol; then add of this sufficient to the percolate, obtained as above, to deprive it of its cincho-tannic acid. The absence of the latter is readily ascertained by the addition of a drop of tincture of chloride of iron to a filtered portion of the liquid in operation, which
should not be colored by such addition. Should coloration result, the intensity or faintness will serve as a guide to the further quantity of hydrated sesquioxide of iron necessary to completely detannate the preparation. As soon as this result is obtained, strain the mixture upon a muslin strainer, and when the liquid ceases to pass, wash the residue upon the strainer, with sufficient of a mixture of one measure of alcohol to three of water to make the strained liquid measure five gallons. Now triturate together oil of orange one-half fluidounces, carbonate of magnesium four troyounces. When thoroughly mixed, incorporate it with the strained liquid obtained as above, agitate well, and filter through paper; express the filter between muslin, filter the expressed liquid, and mix with the previous filtrate, in which dissolve fifteen pounds avoirdupois of sugar. If necessary, filter the elixir thus obtained; but simple straining will usually answer.
The above formula is that of Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, as presented to the Louisville College of Pharmacy, January 16th, 1872.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir represents about two grains of calisaya bark of the quality employed by the operator.
The first record we can find of detannating the percolate from calisaya bark by means of hydrated sesquioxide of iron, for the purpose of making an elixir, was the communication to the Druggists’ Circular, 1867, by Mr. Meier, of New York. He used solution of ferric chloride to prepare the hydroxide. Detannated elixir of calisaya was introduced to
supply a solution of the alkaloids of calisaya which could be mixed with iron salts without precipitation or inky discoloration. We are sure that pharmacists, generally, will meet with better success, regarding the quality if the product, by using an elixir directly from the alkaloids; hence we favor that form of “elixir of calisaya” in this work.
We cannot say that there is actually much difference in the finished preparation, since the natural combination of the alkaloids is broken when the cincho-tannic acid is removed, and all must admit that the calisaya barks of commerce are uncertain in quality. The elixir of the alkaloids is of definite strength.

74. DESLAURIER’S ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND COFFEE.

Yellow cinchona bark,..............2j troyounces.
Brown cinchona bark,.............. .1 troyounce.
Browned (slightly) coffee,........2 troyounces.
Sugar,........................................... 12j troyounces
Sherry wine,............................... 32 troyounces.
Citric acid,......................................... 150 grains

Reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and mix all the abovenamed ingredients. Allow the mixture to macerate for a few days in a warm location, then bring it to a boil, cool and filter it. Dissolve in the filtrate ten and one-half ounces of sugar, and add two fluidounces of alcohol. The above is taken from New Remedies, 1878, and is known as elixir Deslaurier’s toni-febrifuge au quinquina et café.

75. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA WITH LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM WITH CALISAYA.)

Elixir of Calisaya (alkaloidal),...................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of lactophosphate of calcium,......8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half grain of lactophosphate of calcium, and represents two grains of calisaya.

76. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON
WITH AMMONIUM CITRATE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON.)

Elixir of calisaya,........................ 15 fluidounces.
Solution of citrate of ammonium,j fluidounces.
Tincture of chloride of iron,............j fluidounces.

Mix the solution of citrate of ammonium with the tincture of chloride of iron, and add the elixir of calisaya.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about two minims of tincture of chloride of iron, and represents nearly four grains of calisaya. The addition of the solution of citrate of ammonium prevents discoloration of mixtures of this elixir, and substances containing vegetable tannates. To the fact that this mixture could accomplish the aforenamed result we are indebted to Mr. J. Creuse, who has written several interesting articles on the subject, and
we refer the reader to the back numbers of the Druggists’ Circular and Journal of Pharmacy, if particularly interested in the subject.

77. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, AND BEEF.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND BEEF.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON AND BEEF. )

Elixir of beef with citrate of iron,.......8 fluidounces.
Elixir of calisaya (alkaloidal),.............8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of extract of beef, one-half grain of citrate of iron, and represents two grains of officinal calisaya.
The remarks concerning elixir of beef and citrate of iron may be applied to this preparation.

78. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND CHLORIDE OF IRON WITH
AMMONIUM CITRATE AND GENTIAN.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND GENTIAN.)

Elixir of calisaya,........................ 8 fluidounces.
Tincture of chloride of iron,... fluidounces.
Solution of citrate of ammonium,.. fluidounces.
Fluid extract of gentian,........... fluidounces.
Distilled water, carbonate of magnesium,............................. of each a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of gentian in a mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a thick paste,
and then gradually add eight fluidounces of distilled water, filter, and bring the filtrate to the measure of seven fluidounces by addition of distilled water. Mix the solution of citrate of ammonium with the tincture of chloride of iron, and add to the gentian filtrate, and then add the elixir of calisaya.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains about one minim each of tincture of chloride of iron and of fluid extract of gentian, and represents about two grains of calisaya.
The remarks applied to elixir of calisaya and chloride of iron with ammonium citrate, are applicable to this preparation.
The National Formulary prepares this substance from tincture of citro-chloride of iron. The product is similar to that produced by our formula.

79. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, CITRATE OF IRON, BEEF, AND
STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, BEEF, AND STRYCHNIA. )

Elixir of calisaya, citrate of iron, and beef,...................................16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,........................................1k grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount to effect its solution; then add the elixir.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of extract of beef, one-half grain of citrate of iron, onehundredth grain of strychnine, and represents two grains of calisaya. It is not a permanent preparation, for explanation of which assertion see our remarks on elixir of beef with citrate of iron.

80. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF
PROTOXIDE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA AND PROTOXIDE OF IRON. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK
AND FERROUS CITRATE. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND PROTOXIDE OF IRON.)

Sulphate of iron, crystallized,..... 256 grains.
Bicarbonate of sodium,............ .... 200 grains.
Citric acid, distilled water, elixir of calisaya bark (alkaloidal),......................of each a. sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the sulphate of iron and the bicarbonate of sodium separately, each in sixteen fluidounces of cold, freshly distilled water, and mix the solutions. Pour the mixtures into a bottle, which must be filled to the stopper (using more distilled water if necessary), and permit it to rest for twenty-four hours. Decant the clear solution and refill the bottle with freshly distilled water, shaking well, and permit it to stand as before. After twenty-four hours decant the clear solution, pour the residue upon a fine muslin strainer and squeeze the liquid from it. Dissolve the precipitate by trituration in a mortar, with citric acid in sufficient amount, and then add enough elixir of calisaya bark to make sixteen fluidounces, and filter.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of citrate of protoxide of iron an amount which is equivalent to two grains of crystallized sulphate of iron, and it represents about three grains of calisaya bark.
The name (elixir of protoxide of iron) is a misnomer, if applied to a preparation like this, and all the processes we have seen give a solution of a salt of protoxide of iron. This fact has been repeatedly noticed in the Druggists’ Circular and other journals, and such authorities as Mr. Creuse, Prof. Diehl, and Prof. Oldberg have called particular attention to the misnomer. Notwithstanding all of which, we find physicians, and even pharmacists, insist on using the term, and we therefore place it among our synonyms.

81. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE
OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, PROTOXIDE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF BARK, PROTOXIDE OF IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, FERROUS CITRATE, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA AND CITRATE OF PROTOXIDE OF IRON.)

Elixir of calisaya with citrate of protoxide of iron,....................16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,........................................1k grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.
Triturate the strychnine in a mortar, cautiously adding acetic acid until it is dissolved, then mix with the elixir of calisaya and citrate of protoxide of iron.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains of citrate of protoxide of iron an amount which is equivalent to two grains of sulphate of iron and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and represents about three grains of calisaya bark. This preparation is unstable.

82. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
(ELIXIR OF CINCHONA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.
ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK AND IRON.
ELIXIR OF BARK AND IRON.
FERRATED ELIXIR OF CALISAYA.)

Elixir of calisaya (alkaloidal),.. 14 fluidounces.
Distilled water,...........................2 fluidextracts
Pyrophosphate of iron,................. 256 grains.

Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron in the distilled water, add the elixir of calisaya, and filter if necessary. If not neutral in reaction, bring it to a neutral condition by addition of either acetic acid or ammonia water.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron and represents about four grains of officinal: calisaya bark. The proportion is that recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
In 1862 Mr. James T. Shinn published (American Journal of Pharmacy) a process for making the above elixir, employing crude materials upon the principle of Mr. Taylor’s elixir of calisaya. In speaking of it Mr. Shinn uses the following language: “Among the pharmaceutical novelties recently brought to the notice of physicians, this preparation of iron, cinchona, and brandy is one of the most agreeable, and possibly may prove very popular with patients.” The
result proves Mr. Shinn’s surmise to have been correct, although the original preparations have been replaced with those more pleasing to the eye.

83. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF
IRON AND CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND BISMUTH.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND BISMUTH.
ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND BISMUTH.
FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK AND BISMUTH.)

Ammonio-citrate of bismuth,.... 128 grains.
Distilled water,...........................2 fluidounces.
Elixir of calisaya bark with iron, ....................................a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the ammonio-citrate of bismuth in the distilled water, cautiously adding ammonia water if necessary; then add elixir of calisaya bark with iron, sufficient to make sixteen fluidounces. Should a precipitate follow, the addition of either ammonia water or acetic acid, as the case may demand, to render the liquid neutral, will
redissolve it.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of ammonio-citrate of bismuth, about two grains of pyrophosphate of iron, and represents nearly four grains of officinal calisaya bark.

84. ELIXIR Of CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON,
CITRATE OF AMMONIUM AND BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.
ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.
FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK, STRYCHNIA, AND BISMUTH.)

Elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron, citrate of ammonium, and bismuth,.16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine and dissolve it in a sufficient amount of acetic acid, and mix this with the elixir.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of ammonio-citrate of bismuth, about two grains of pyrophosphate of iron, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and represents nearly four grains of officinal calisaya bark.

85. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON
AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.)

Elixir of calisaya with iron, . . 8 fluidounces.
Elixir of lactophosphate of lime, . 8
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-half grain each of lactophosphate of lime and pyrophosphate of iron, and represents two grains of officinal calisaya. An elixir similar to the above, which is also about the same as “Wheeler’s Elixir,” was introduced by Mr. G. F. Butler in 1881.
The National Formulary uses lactate of calcium, phosphoric acid, and elixir of cinchona and iron. The strength of the elixir, however, conforms to that of our publication.

86. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE
OF IRON AND PEPSIN.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA, IRON, AND PEPSIN. ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND
PEPSIN. ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON, AND PEPSIN.)

Elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron,..................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.

Mix them together and neutralize, or render slightly alkaline, if necessary, by means of ammonia water.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain each of pyrophosphate of iron and saccharated pepsin, and represents about two grains of officinal calisaya bark.

87. ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK WITH PYROPHOSPHATE
OF IRON AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF CALISAYA BARK, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF CINCHONA, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA. ELIXIR OF BARK, IRON, AND
STRYCHNIA. FERRATED ELIXIR OF BARK WITH STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron,.................16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine, dissolve it in a sufficient amount of acetic acid, and add the elixir of calisaya bark with pyrophosphate of iron, and, if necessary, ammonia water to neutralization.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron, about one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, and represents four grains of officinal calisaya bark. This preparation is that recommended by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
In former editions of this book (see page 17) the strength of this elixir was given as one-fiftieth of a grain of strychnia in each fluidrachm. In order to confirm the work of the National Formulary committee we have changed the proportion to one-hundredth of a grain.




Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

Main Library