Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

ELIXIRS WITH PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON

Pyrophosphate of iron furnishes a line of combinations which are extensively used. It is not unpleasant to the taste, and is quite permanent, especially if in neutral or slightly alkaline solution.
However, an excess of mineral acids or certain mineral salts decomposes it, and the excess even of acetic acid causes its solution to gelatinize after a time. This difficulty can be overcome by adding to the gelatinized elixir enough ammonia water to restore the alkaline reaction.
Pyrophosphate of iron is incompatible with solutions of alkaloidal salts, unless the resultant liquid is neutral or can dissolve the alkaloid and have an alkaline reaction. If this fact is remembered the pharmacist may save some expense and inconvenience. If, for example, the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron and quinine has gelatinized from escape of ammonia, the cautious addition of ammonia water will restore it to the original condition. If, upon the other hand, the elixir has been made of alkaline reaction and the alkaloid has separated, the cautious addition of acetic acid will restore
the transparency.
Solutions of pyrophosphate of iron cannot be exposed to sunlight without decomposition, and the same, to an extent, is true even of daylight, without the direct rays of the sun. Those who have reason to associate pyrophosphate of iron, pepsin, and salts of the alkaloids will find that considerable skill is necessary to make presentable and reputable preparations, and often some of these combinations are very trying to the patience of the operator. The reader is referred to remarks under the head of pepsin and elixirs of calisaya bark and the alkaloids.

155. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON.

Pyrophosphate of iron,................. 256 grains.
Distilled water,...........................2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,...............................a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron in the distilled water by the aid of a heat not exceeding 180° F., and add to the solution enough simple elixir to bring the whole to the measure of sixteen fluidounces, and filter if necessary. If it has an acid reaction, neutralize, or even render it slightly alkaline, by means of ammonia water.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron. This process is essentially that adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association (1875). The formula for elixir of pyrophosphate of iron, adopted by the joint committee of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Associations of the District of Columbia (1867), contained three hundred and twenty grains of pyrophosphate of iron in twelve fluidounces of the finished elixir.

156. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH BISMUTH AND PEPSIN.
(ELIXIR OF AMMONIO-CITRATE OF BISMUTH WITH PEPSIN AND IRON.
ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND IRON. )

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,.8 fluidounces.
Elixir of citrate of ammonium and
bismuth with pepsin,........... 8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of pyrophosphate of iron and only one half grain each of pepsin and of ammonio-citrate of bismuth. The solution has an alkaline reaction, and the pepsin, under these conditions, is of uncertain quality.

157. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND CINCHONIDIA.)

Elixir of cinchonidine,..............8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,.8 fluidounces.

Mix them together, and then gradually add of ammonia water or acetic acid an amount sufficient to render the liquid of neutral reaction and transparent, then filter it if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of pyrophosphate of iron and one-half grain of cinchonidine.
The remarks concerning elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with strychnine are adapted to this preparation.

158. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH
CINCHONIDINE AND STRYCHNINE
(ELIXIR OF IRON, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA. )

Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonidine,................16 fluidounces.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine and gradually add acetic acid until it is dissolved, then mix with this solution the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonidine. Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, acetate of cinchonidine equivalent to one-half grain of cinchonidine, and onehundredth of a grain of acetate of strychnine.
The National Formulary prepares this elixir with phosphate of iron, citrate of potassium, sulphate of cinchonidine, and sulphate of strychnine. The finished product resembles that of our formula, the amount of iron, however, being twice as great.

159. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE,
CINCHONIDINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, CINCHONIDIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine,.................................... 8 fluidounces
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with
cinchonidine,.......................... 8 fluidounces
Strychnine,........................................ 1 grains
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Mix the elixirs, and add the strychnine previously dissolved by trituration with a sufficient amount of acetic acid. Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-fourth grain of cinchonidine and one-half grain of quinine as the acetates of these alkaloids, one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.

160. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH
CINCHONINE .
(ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND CINCHONIA )

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,.8 fluidounces.
Elixir of cinchonine,................. 8 fluidounces.

Mix them together, and then gradually add of ammonia water or acetic acid an amount sufficient to render the liquid of neutral reaction and transparent.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain each of pyrophosphate of iron and cinchonine. Our remarks concerning elixir of pyrophosphate of iron and strychnine may be applied with equal pertinence to this preparation.

161. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND QUININE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND QUINIA. )

Quinine (alkaloid),........................ 128 grains.
Pyrophosphate of iron,.................. 256 grains
Simple elixir, distilled water, diluted acetic acid,...................of each a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the quinine in a mortar, gradually adding the acetic acid until in sufficient amount to effect its solution. Dissolve the pyrophosphate of iron in two fluidounces of warm water, and add enough simple elixir to make ten fluidounces. To this add the solution of acetate of quinine, and then simple elixir until in amount sufficient to make the whole measure sixteen fluidounces.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this preparation contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron and the salt formed from one grain of quinine. The Newark Pharmaceutical Association (1871) adopted a formula which resembled the above, but which contained only one hundred and sixty grains of pyrophosphate of iron to the pint.
As two hundred and fifty-six grains is the accepted amount of the American Pharmaceutical Association, we employ that proportion.

162. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE
AND CINCHONIDINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND CINCHONIDIA.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine,8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonidine,8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and one-fourth grain of cinchonidine as the acetates of these alkaloids.

163. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE
AND CINCHONINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND CINCHONIA.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine,................................... 8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with cinchonine,.............................8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and one-fourth grain of cinchonine as the acetates of these alkaloids.

164. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE,
CINCHONINE, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, CINCHONIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine and cinchonine,...16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,................................a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with enough acetic acid to effect its solution, then mix this with the elixir.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains two grains of pyrophosphate of iron, and the equivalent of one-half grain of quinine and one-fourth grain of cinchonine as the acetates of these alkaloids, and one-hundredth of a grain of acetate of strychnine.

165. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH QUININE
AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, QUINIA, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron
with quinine,..........................16 fluidounces..
Acetic acid,..................................a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine and triturate it with sufficient acetic acid to effect its solution. Mix this with the elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with quinine.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine, one grain of quinine, and two grains of pyrophosphate of iron. It agrees in proportions with the formula adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
The National Formulary uses phosphate of iron, citrate of potassium, hydrochlorate of quinine, and sulphate of strychnine. The finished product, however, is similar to that made by our process, the difference being that each fluidrachm contains two grains of phosphate of iron instead of one grain of pyrophosphate.
The aforenamed work also prepares an elixir under the name elixir of iron, quinine, and strychnine, in which two fluidounces of tincture of citro-chloride of iron, one hundred and twenty-eight grains of sulphate of quinine, one and one-quarter grains of sulphate of strychnine, one-half fluidounce of alcohol, and enough aromatic elixir to make sixteen fluidounces are employed. The alkaloidal salts are dissolved in twelve fluidounces of aromatic elixir, then the tincture
and the alcohol are added, and finally enough aromatic elixir to make sixteen fluidounces. Each fluidrachm represents about one grain of ferric chloride, one grain of sulphate of quinine, and one-hundredth of a grain of sulphate of strychnine.

166. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH VALERIANATE
OF QUININE AND ACETATE OF STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF VALERIANATE OF QUINIA WITH IRON AND STRYCHNIA.)

Valerianate of quinine,............ .... 128 grains.
Pyrophosphate of iron,................. 128 grains.
Strychnine,......................................1 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces
Acetic acid,....................................a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in amount sufficient to effect its solution, then add the valerianate of quinine and four fluidounces of simple elixir, and triturate until the valerianate is dissolved. Should the valerianate of quinine fail to dissolve after a moderate time, add a little acetic acid. Lastly, dissolve the pyrophosphate in the remainder of the simple elixir and mix the solutions.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain each of the valerianate of quinine and pyrophosphate of iron, and one-fiftieth grain of strychnine.
This formula corresponds, regarding proportions, with one offered by the Druggists’ Circular, 1871, excepting that ours contains half the amount of pyrophosphate of iron.

167. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND PEPSIN. FERRATED ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,...8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pepsin,................................8 fluidounces.

Mix them together, and, if not neutral or of slightly alkaline reaction, cautiously add ammonia water until it will change blue litmus paper to red.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain each of pyrophosphate of iron and such a modification of pepsin as can exist under the conditions necessary to form the elixir.

168. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN,
BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, PEPSIN, BISMUTH, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, BISMUTH, STRYCHNIA, AND IRON. )

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,...8 fluidounces.
Elixir of ammonio-citrate of bismuth and pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Strychnine,14 grains.
Acetic acid,....................................a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid sufficient to dissolve it, and then add the elixirs, having previously mixed them together.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains (subject to remarks which follow) one grain of pyrophosphate of iron, one-half grain each of ammonio-citrate of bismuth and of pepsin, and one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine.
This mixture, like many others we have been led to consider in this work, reminds us of the polypharmacy of olden times, excepting that the constituents are new. In considering it we must accept that the pepsin has no value as a therapeutical agent, unless its action is simply suspended by the alkaline nature of the elixir.

169. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON WITH PEPSIN
AND STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON, PEPSIN, AND STRYCHNIA.
ELIXIR OF PEPSIN, IRON, AND STRYCHNIA.)

Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron with pepsin,............................16 fluidounces.
Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Acetic acid,.................................a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the strychnine in a mortar with acetic acid in sufficient amount to effect its solution, and then add the elixir of
pyrophosphate of iron with pepsin.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain each of pyrophosphate of iron and of pepsin, and about onehundredth of a grain of strychnine as the acetate of that alkaloid.

170. ELIXIR OF PYROPHOSPHATE OF IRON AND
STRYCHNINE.
(ELIXIR OF IRON AND STRYCHNIA.)

Strychnine,....................................... 1 grains.
Elixir of pyrophosphate of iron,...16 fluidounces.
Acetic acid,.................................. a sufficient quantity.

Powder the strychnine and gradually add acetic acid and triturate until a clear solution results. Mix this with the elixir of
pyrophosphate of iron, and, if not of neutral reaction, add acetic acid or ammonia water to neutralization
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one-hundredth of a grain of strychnine in the form of acetate of strychnine, which is the proportion adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1875.
Our experience is decidedly in favor of acetic acid for making the salts of all alkaloids which are to be associated with pyrophosphate or citrate of iron. These preparations of iron are incompatible with most acids, and require to be neutral or alkaline if held in solution, while, upon the contrary, most alkaloids demand an excess of an acid.
Acetic acid may be added until the solution of the iron salt is even slightly acid, as shown by its action on blue litmus paper, and such a solution will generally remain clear, although it may gelatinize. Every aqueous or slightly alcoholic liquid containing strychnine in solution should have, if possible, an acid reaction, else the alkaloid may gradually separate, and danger of poisoning follow the administration of this sediment. Hence our directions to add enough acetic acid to overcome all alkaline reaction.

171 ELIXIR OF JUNIPER BERRIES.

Fluid extract of juniper berries,...2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Holland gin,...................................2 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of juniper berries in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the Holland gin.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of juniper berries. A formula for elixir of juniper berries was suggested in the Druggists’ Circular, 1878, which contained the ingredients upon which we have based our process.

172. ELIXIR OF JABORANDI.

Fluid extract of jaborandi,........1 fluidounce.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium, ...... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of jaborandi in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain the medicinal principles of three and three-fourth minims of fluid extract of jaborandi.
In former editions of our publication two fluidounces of fluid extract of jaborandi were used in making sixteen fluidounces of the elixir. The National Formulary recognizes one fluidounce, and we change our proportions to conform therewith.

173. KLEIN’S STOMACHIC ELIXIR.
(ELIXIR VISCERALE KLEINII.)

Extract of carduus benedictus,...1 troyounce.
Extract of erythræa centaurium,1 troyounce.
Extract of gentian,.......................1 troyounce.
Tincture of bitter orange peel,...20 fluidounces.
Malaga wine,.............................. 32 fluidounces.

Place the extracts in a mortar and bring them to a creamy consistence by trituration, with successive additions of small amounts of wine; then stir in the remainder of the wine and add the tincture of orange peel, and filter.
(From the Non-Officinal Formulary of the Dutch Society for the Advancement of Pharmacy.)

ELIXIR LACTOPEPTIN.

Lactopeptin is private property. Under this name a preparation has been introduced and extensively advertised, and
through courtesy to the rightful owners, who also make an “Elixir of Lactopeptin,” we refrain from interfering.

174. ELIXIR OF LACTUCARIUM.

Lactucarium,................................... 256 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.

Triturate the lactucarium with the simple elixir, allow the mixture to remain in a covered vessel for twenty-four hours, shaking occasionally, then filter it.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains the properties of two grains of lactucarium.

175. LAXATIVE ELIXIR.

Fluid extract of rhubarb,........... fluidounce.
Fluid extract of senna,.............. fluidounce.
Fluid extract of taraxacum,...... fluidounce.
Fluid extract of buckthorn bark, fluidounce.
Fluid extract of ginger,.............. fluidounce.
Rochelle salt,.............................. .1 troyounce.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... `a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extracts (having previously mixed them together) in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture; then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, dissolve in the filtrate the Rochelle salt.
This elixir is about like that of Mr. R. W. Gardner, as published in the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical
Association, 1880, excepting that we have omitted phosphate and bicarbonate of sodium.

176. LEROY’S PURGATIVE ELIXIR.

Scammony,..................................... 120 grains.
Turpeth root,.............................. ...... 60 grains.
Jalap,............................................. .... 480 grains.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 16 fluidounces.

Macerate the drugs (coarsely powdered) in the alcohol for twelve hours and in a warm location, and filter. Mix the filtrate with a syrup made as follows:

Senna, bruised,............................... 480 grains.
Boiling water,.............................4 fluidounces.
Sugar,........................................... 3 troyounces.

Infuse the senna in the boiling water, strain, and dissolve the sugar in the liquid. This formula was published in the Druggists’ Circular, 1875.
The above elixir must not be confounded with “Leroy’s vomito purgative elixir.”

177. LEROY’S VOMITO-PURGATIVE ELIXIR.

Fluid extract of senna,.............. 1 fluidounces.
Tartar emetic,............................. ...... 20 grains.
White wine,................................16 fluidounces.

Triturate the fluid extract of senna in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the wine, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, dissolve the tartar emetic in the filtrate. The original formula used senna leaves instead of the fluid extract of senna.

178. LETTSOM’S ELIXIR.

Opium,.............................................6 drachms.
Castile soap,................................ ....6 drachms.
Nutmeg,...................................... ..... 1 drachm.
Camphor,.................................... ....4 drachms.
Saffron,........................................ ....... 40 grains
Spirit of ammonia,....................9 fluidounces.

Mix and reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the spirit of ammonia for ten days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter.—Augustin.

179. BITTER ELIXIR OF LIFE.*

Aloes,........................................... .1 troyounce.
Cinnamon,..................................10 troyounces.
Calamus,......................................2 troyounces.
Angelica root,.............................5 troyounces.
Saffron,........................................ 6 troyounces.
Caramel,...................................... 10 troyounces.
Glycerin,...................................... 215 troyounces.
Alcohol,.......................................180 fluidounces.
Water,.......................................... 350 fluidounces.

Mix and reduce the drugs to a coarse powder, and macerate this in the mixed alcohol and water for fourteen days, stirring the mixture thoroughly each day, then filter, and to the filtrate add the glycerin and caramel.
(HAGER—New Remedies, 1878.)
*The German Pharmacopoeia, 1872, substituted compound tincture of aloes for this elixir.

180. ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF LIME.
(ELIXIR OF LACTOPHOSPHATE OF CALCIUM. )

Precipitated phosphate of calcium,......128 grains.
Simple elixir, lactic acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia water, distilled water,........................................of each a sufficient quantity.

Mix the precipitated phosphate of calcium with sixteen fluidounces of cold distilled water, and add enough hydrochloric acid to dissolve it. Filter this solution and mix with its bulk of cold water, and then add ammonia water until in slight excess. Transfer the mixture to a fine muslin strainer, and when the liquid has drained return the magma to the vessel, mix it with the amount of water before employed, and again transfer it to the strainer. As soon as the magma is again drained, transfer it to a mortar and dissolve it by the addition of a sufficient amount of lactic acid. Filter this, and add enough simple elixir to produce sixteen fluidounces.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of lactophosphate of calcium.

181. ELIXIR OF LICORICE.

Fluid extract of licorice,............2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of licorice in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of licorice. This preparation is used mainly to disguise the taste of quinine. Elixir of glycyrrhizin is an admirable substitute. The remarks concerning that elixir apply with equal pertinence to elixir of licorice.
The National Formulary authorizes the use of purified extract of licorice in making this elixir. The result is similar to that of our formula.

182. ELIXIR OF LICORICE (AROMATIC).

Fluid extract of licorice,............2 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of sweet orange,. fluidounce.
Fluid extract of coriander,........ fluidounce.
Fluid extract of angelica seed,. fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cinnamon,...... fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cloves,.............. fluidounce.
Simple elixir,..............................13 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extracts—having previously mixed them together—in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of licorice, together with aromatics.
This elixir is used to disguise the taste of quinine, which it accomplishes mainly by rendering it insoluble; hence we refer the reader to our remarks concerning elixir of glycyrrhizin, which may with equal pertinence be applied to this preparation.
Aromatic elixir of licorice was introduced through the Druggists’ Circular in 1879, although similar preparations had been employed previously, and the elixir of licorice of Mr. G. G. C. Sims (see Druggists’ Circular, 1874) was nearly identical with the above.
The National Formulary recommends fluid extract of licorice and oils of the aromatic drugs in making this elixir. The result is similar to that of our formula.

183. ELIXIR E SUCCO LIQUIRITÆ.
(PECTORALE ELIXIR.)

Purified licorice,.........................2 parts, by weight.
Fennel water,..............................6 parts, by weight.
Make a solution, and add of—

*Anisated spirit of ammonia,.2 parts, by weight.
*ANISATED SPIRIT OF AMMONIA.—Dissolve one part of oil of anise in twenty four parts of alcohol, and add five parts of ammonia water.

All the proportions are by weight.
It forms a cloudy, brown liquid, which must be shaken up before dispensing. It should be preserved in well-closed vessels.
(German Pharmacopoeia, 1870.)
This preparation is also called elixir pectorale Regis Danitae, or pectoral elixir of the King of Denmark.

184. ELIXIR OF BROMIDE OF LITHIUM.

Bromide of lithium,................. .... 640 grains.
Citric acid,........................................... 30 grains
Simple elixir,..................enough to make 16 fluidounces.

Dissolve the bromide of lithium and the citric acid in the simple elixir, and filter.
Each fluidrachm contains five grains of bromide of lithium.

185. ELIXIR OF CITRATE OF LITHIUM
Citrate of lithium,..................... .... 640 grains.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces

Dissolve the citrate of lithium in the simple elixir, and filter if necessary.
Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains five grains of citrate of lithium. This proportion was adopted by the joint committee of the National College of Pharmacy and the Medical Society of the District of Columbia.
In former editions of our formula we used two hundred and fifty-six grains of citrate of lithium, but the National Formulary established the proportions of six hundred and forty grains, which we adopt.

186. ELIXIR OF SALICYLATE OF LITHIUM

Salicylate of lithium,................ ... 640 grains.
Simple elixir,.................enough to make 16 fluidounces.

Dissolve the salicylate of lithium in the simple elixir, and filter.
Each fluidrachm contains five grains of salicylate of lithium.

187. ELIXIR OF LUPULIN.

Fluid extract of lupulin,...........2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of lupulin in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well; permit the mixture to macerate in a closed vessel for twelve hours, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of lupulin as will dissolve in the menstruum.
Elixir of lupulin was introduced by Prof. C. Lewis Diehl in 1872.

188. ELIXIR OF MALT.

Fluid extract of malt,.................8 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of this elixir represents thirty minims of fluid extract of malt.
If a teaspoonful of elixir of malt is mixed with a tablespoonful of starch paste made by boiling one part of starch with sixteen parts of water, the mixture will immediately become fluid at a temperature of 150° Fahr. In from ten to fifteen minutes the mixture will fail to produce a blue color when dropped into dilute solution of iodine (volumetric solution of iodine, U. S. P.).

189. ELIXIR OF MALT AND IRON.

Elixir of malt,..............................8 fluidounces
Elixir of phosphate of iron,..... 8 fluidounces
Mix them together and filter if necessary.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) contains fifteen minims of fluid extract of malt and one half grain of phosphate of iron.
New Remedies for August, 1883, contains a formula for this preparation which is essentially the same as that we give. We modify it somewhat, in order that it shall conform to the other preparations of our work of a like nature.
The National Formulary makes this preparation of extract of malt and phosphate of iron, the proportions being one grain of phosphate of iron and fifteen minims of extract of malt to each fluidrachm.

190. ELIXIR OF MALT AND PEPSIN.

Elixir of malt,..............................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pepsin,..........................8 fluidounces.
Mix them together. Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains one grain of saccharated pepsin and fifteen minims of fluid extract of malt.

191. ELIXIR OF MALTO-PEPSIN.

Malto-pepsin is private property. Under this name a preparation has been introduced and extensively advertised, and
through courtesy to the rightful owners, who also make an “Elixir of Malto-Pepsin,” we refrain from interfering.

192. ELIXIR OF MATICO.

Fluid extract of matico,.............2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of matico in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such part of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of matico as will dissolve in the menstruum employed in its preparation. We consider alcohol of specific gravity 0.820 to be the proper menstruum for exhausting the medicinal principles from matico, and the addition of water decreases its solvent power in proportion to the amount of water added. In consequence of this fact we object to an elixir of matico.

193. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MATICO.

Fluid extract of matico,.............3 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of buchu,..............1 fluidounce.
Fluid extract of cubebs,............. 1 fluidounce.
Simple elixir,..............................16 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts, and evaporate the mixture, at a temperature of about 150° F., to one-half its bulk. Triturate this with a sufficient amount of carbonate of magnesium to form a creamy mixture, then gradually stir in the simple elixir, and filter. The fluid extracts for the foregoing preparation should be made with alcohol of specific gravity 0. 820. The proportions and ingredients of this elixir, and upon which we have based our formula, were given in the Druggists’ Circular, 1880.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir will contain such an amount of the properties of about eleven minims of fluid extract of matico and three and one-half minims each of buchu and cubebs as will dissolve in the menstruum. Since, in our opinion, strong alcohol only will perfectly extract the medicinal principles of these drugs, the actual value of this elixir is very much less than that of an equivalent amount of the original fluid extracts, and its use by the physician must
be unsatisfactory.

194. ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
(ELIXIR OF PODOPHYLLUM. ELIXIR OF MANDRAKE.)

Fluid extract of May-apple,......2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of May-apple in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents such an amount of seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of May-apple as the menstruum can dissolve. Since resin of podophyllum is almost insoluble in water, we do not admire the above preparation.

195. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MAY-APPLE
(COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PODOPHYLLUM. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MANDRAKE.)

Fluid extract of May-apple,......1 fluidounces.
Fluid extract of senna,.............. 1 fluidounce.
Oil of anise,....................................10 minims.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the fluid extracts and triturate this in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture--having previously triturated the oil of anise with the magnesium carbonate—then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents (subject to conditions noted under elixir of May-apple) about five minims of fluid extract of May-apple and three minims of fluid extract of senna. A formula for this preparation was proposed by the Druggists’ Circular, 1872, containing in substance the foregoing ingredients. The remarks we make regarding elixir of May-apple apply to this compound also, although we have the advantage of the senna in this instance, which yields its medicinal principles to the menstruum composing the elixir.

196. COMPOUND ELIXIR OF MYRRH.
(ELIXIR MYRRHÆ COMPOSITUM.)

Extract of savin,...........................1 troyounce.
Tincture of castor,..................................1 pint.
Tincture of myrrh,.................... ........... pint.

Digest them together and strain. “This preparation is improved from one described in some former dispensatories under the name of Elixir Uterinum."
(New Dispensatory, London, 1770.)

197. ELIXIR OF NUX VOMICA.

Tincture of nux vomica,...........256 minims.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Alcohol,....................................... fluidounce.
Acetic acid,.................................. ...60 minims.
Powdered wood charcoal,........a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the tincture of nux vomica in a capacious mortar with powdered wood charcoal in amount sufficient to form a pasty mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir—which has previously been mixed with the acetic acid—stirring well, and filter. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the alcohol.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents two minims of tincture of nux vomica.
The foregoing is a modification of a formula suggested by Mr. E. J. Davidson in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1878. We use acetic acid to hold the alkaloids in solution should the charcoal be alkaline, and use charcoal since the menstruum is incompatible with both magnesium carbonate and magnesium phosphate.

198. McMUNN’S ELIXIR OF OPIUM.

This preparation has for several years enjoyed quite a reputation, and is still a favorite with many physicians. The original “McMunn’s elixir,” a proprietary preparation, was a denarcotized solution of opium. In connection with the history of this elixir, we find that Mr. Augustine Duhamel contributed to the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1846, as follows:
“A preparation much in vogue at the present time, and known as McMunn’s elixir of opium, is supposed to be a solution of meconate of morphine, obtained from a cold infusion of opium, to which wine has been added in sufficient quantity to insure its preservation."
In 1851 Mr. Eugene Dupuy, of New York, in a communication to the same journal, proposed as a substitute for McMunn’s elixir an aqueous solution of opium preserved with alcohol. Afterward (1864) the Medical and Surgical Recorder, of Philadelphia, published what we have every reason to suppose is the authentic formula. This was found among the effects of the late Dr. J. R. Chilton, who stated that he obtained it from Dr. John B. McMunn, the originator of the elixir. The process may be summarized as follows:
Exhaust gum opium with successive macerations in sulphuric ether. After the final decantation of the ether, boil the opium in water until all odor of sulphuric ether has disappeared, and then strain the solution, permit it to settle, decant the clear liquid, and add rather more than its bulk of alcohol.
It will be observed that the foregoing process produces simply a solution of opium from which the narcotine and opium odor have been removed by means of previous maceration with sulphuric ether, and the officinal (18883) deodorized tincture of opium may be considered a substitute.

199. ELIXIR OF ORANGE.

*Oil of orange, fresh and pure,....................... 30 minims.
Simple syrup,............................. 8 fluidounces.
Alcohol,.......................................4 fluidounces.
Distilled water,...........................4 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... troyounce.
*Pure oil of orange must be used in this preparation. Much of the commercial oil produces an elixir which has the odor and taste of turpentine, and sometimes only of turpentine. We will suggest that pure oil of orange can only be obtained by paying the price at which it can be sold, but it does not follow that all of the high-priced oil is pure.

Triturate the oil of orange in a capacious mortar with the carbonate of magnesium, then gradually add the simple syrup, stirring well, having previously mixed it with the water and one-half the alcohol, and filter it. Lastly, mix the filtrate with the remainder of the alcohol. This has an excellent flavor, and can be used instead of simple elixir, if preferred. Our simple elixir contains more oil than the foregoing, but it is more troublesome to make.

200. ELIXIR OF PANCREAS.

Take six pancreases and chop them into pieces, and macerate three days in a mixture of—

Water,.......................................... ........ 12 pints.
Glycerin,...................................... .......2 pints.
Hydrochloric acid,..................... 4 fluidounces.

Then strain and add two and one-half fluidrachms of oil of orange, glycerin in amount sufficient to produce twenty pints, and then filter.
This formula was announced in 1873, through the American Journal of Pharmacy, by Dr. R. V. Mattison, who states that one fluidrachm of the elixir will emulsify one-half of a fluidounce of codliver oil.

201. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA.

Fluid extract of pareira brava,.2 fluidounces.
Simple elixir,..............................14 fluidounces.
Carbonate of magnesium,....... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the fluid extract of pareira brava in a capacious mortar with carbonate of magnesium in amount sufficient to form a creamy mixture, then gradually add the simple elixir, stirring well, and filter.
Each fluidrachm of the finished elixir represents seven and one-half minims of fluid extract of pareira brava.

202. ELIXIR OF PAREIRA BRAVA AND BUCHU.

Elixir of buchu,...........................8 fluidounces.
Elixir of pareira brava,..............8 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

Each fluidrachm (teaspoonful) of the finished elixir contains such an amount of four minims each of fluid extract of buchu and fluid extract of pareira brava as will dissolve in the menstruum.

203. ELIXIR PAREGORICUM.
(CAMPHORATED TINCTURE. OF OPIUM.)

The formula of the London Pharmacopoeia, 1770, was taken from Le Mort, excepting honey, licorice, and potassium carbonate. It is stated in the New Dispensatory, published in London, 1770, that this preparation was originally known as “Elixir Asthmaticum.”

204. PECTORAL ELIXIR OF THE EDINBURGH Pharmacopoeia, 1770.

Balsam Tolu,.............................. 2 troyounces.
Balsam Peru,................................1 troyounce.
Benzoic acid,............................... troyounce.
Saffron,........................................ troyounce.
Alcohol,.......................................32 fluidounces.

Digest in a sand bath for three days, then filter. (It should be made by maceration instead of heat.—L.) The pectoral elixir of modern times is “elixir e succo liquiritæ,” to which the reader is referred.




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