Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

FLAVORING EXTRACTS, ESSENCES,
FLAVORED SYRUPS,
COLORING LIQUIDS,
AND OTHER
SODA-WATER APPLIANCES

INTRODUCTION.

Apprenticed in 1863 to W. J. M. Gordon & Brother, pharmacists, of Cincinnati, a goodly share of my time for a considerable period was devoted to the care of the soda fountain. As part of my duties, when I had advanced sufficiently, it devolved upon me to make the syrups and “charge the fountain”; and those who know Mr. Gordon recognize the fact that strict attention to business was a necessity with an apprentice in his charge. Neither expense nor pains were to be spared in details connected with the manufacture of his syrups, and neither excuse nor apology would prevent a reprimand when the boy was unlucky enough to need one. Necessity demanded, therefore, that as “soda boy” I should attend strictly to business; and, as I recall those days, I earnestly and heartily thank Mr. Gordon for his
good judgment in demanding of me what I considered at that time unnecessary exactitude in such little matters as attention to details of the soda fountain. This discipline extended and continued, step by step, until I reached and stood behind the prescription counter; and now in formulating this little monograph, as the formulæ recorded herein come successively to my mind, I seem to live over again those early days of “soda-water” apprenticeship.
Since that time I have continuously contributed to others formulæ learned in those days and thereafter, both for making
flavoring extracts and soda syrups, and have sought the experiences of others, but, so far as I can remember, this is the first appearance in print of any of the formulæ. I can say to the reader, therefore, that many of the formulæ of this work are such as were used successfully years ago and are now prized in numbers of stores; some of them came into my
possession during my apprenticeship, others I have formulated in after-years, and many have been given me by recent acquaintances and friends of the profession—for I have not been actively engaged as a dispenser for some years. Necessarily, however, there is a general similarity in formulæ of this description.
I may add that, when it became evident that this work was to be written, only a few days were at my command, and I had no opportunity to consult current literature on the subject. The remarks I make and the formulæ embraced herein are dictated to a stenographer, being such as are part of my laboratory processes or come to memory spontaneously; and yet, since a collection of such formulæ necessarily covers an experience of considerable time, their several values may be greater than though I should at tempt to collate from the printed work of others.

J. U. LLOYD.CINCINNATI, November 30th, 1891.

SODA-WATER APPLIANCES.

At a moderately distant day only, in the past, a good complement of soda syrups could be found in a dozen decanter-like bottles arranged beneath the counter. Now such a method of supplying syrups to a public would be viewed as a curiosity. Then a silver-plated urn as a fountain solicited not a little admiration; now a fortune is often invested in rare marbles, beautifully ornamented that for tastiness, richness of design, and elaborate finish can rarely be surpassed by costly
furniture in the mansions of those who have little to do but lavish their wealth on fine furniture. It may be safely asserted, we think, that in no direction connected with pharmacy has there been a greater degree of progress than in the elaboration of the soda-water fountain, as shown by its evolution from the simple nozzle and stopcock of former years to the magnificent designs of the present. It seemed as though manufacturers each year had certainly reached perfection, and yet each season witnessed the appearance of new designs and conveniences formerly unknown.
Some of us have ever considered such investments to be unnecessary; some of us still believe such adjuncts to be in excusable innovations on the apothecary shop; and yet the fact confronts us that those who strive to please the eye and the taste of the public by such modern conveniences as are embraced in rich fountains and pleasant surroundings, thrive better, as a rule, than others who adhere to cold, bare walls and the scant fixture accompaniments of former years.
The manufacture of soda fountains has evolved itself into a great industry. Manufacturers are amply able to suit the taste of any purchaser, and suggestions from our selves or other outsiders concerning styles and designs are superfluous. The manufacturers can help the purchaser to select to the best advantage, and they have a ripe experience
in this direction that enables them to say just what style and design promises to be most appropriate in each locality.
Of course business judgment is necessary to determine the possibilities of returns from such investments, and there are localities in which expenditures of this description cannot prove remunerative; and yet, in our opinion, it is conclusively shown that under favorable conditions a richly designed fountain and savory surroundings bring business to the store and largely add to the prosperity of its owner. The medicine trade only, including the prescription business, even in our large cities, is now seldom sufficient to enable an apothecary to pay the rent of central or prominent locations, and if the druggist proposes to succeed he must, however distasteful it may be, grasp the present and let go of the past.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS AND ESSENCES.
FLAVORING EXTRACTS.

The pharmacist is expected to make these preparations both for his own use and to meet a trade demand, and the artful blending of ethers and flavors in the form of pleasant soda-water syrups often induces a good business and is directly remunerative. Many pharmacists find the “soda water” trade to be an aid also to business professionally, introducing patrons and furthering an acquaintance that results in both pleasant social and monetary returns. In these days of close competition and shrewd business management, it behooves the apothecary to exert himself in every legitimate way to retain his business, and in many instances the addition of these side issues is a matter of self-existence, not of choice.
While all must admit that the undue prominence of a counter for dispensing “beverages” is not an ideal of the apothecary of the old school, and is distasteful to many who do not at present feel the business necessity of such a feature, we must also admit that the modern idea of a drug store is very different from that of the past.
The making of pills, powders, plasters, and many other pharmaceutical preparations and compounds has passed largely into the hands of manufacturers. The former profits on proprietary preparations and perfumes have disappeared in the rivalries of dry-goods houses, grocers, and “cutters,” who make leaders of such “hand-me-downs” and sell them at cost. These and other conditions that now confront the apothecary make it necessary that he should often deviate from
former methods, if he expects to thrive in the face of modern competition. Attention, therefore, to such subjects as the making of flavors, both for sale and for shop use, has come to be a part of the duties of most pharmacists. It is believed that the following pages will give information enough concerning the making of flavors and syrups to enable an inexperienced person to satisfactorily conduct a soda stand.

FRUIT ESSENCES.

We have included among our flavoring extracts such substances as are usually called for, as flavors, at the soda counter.
Some of them are also sometimes known as essences, and as examples thereof we may name raspberry, strawberry, and pineapple. We do not feel that these artificial flavors merit a separate classification, although perhaps the term essence may be more appropriately applied to such as are compounded of ethers and volatile oils than the term extract.
Various mixtures of ethers are made by experts, and denominated by such fanciful titles as essence or extract of pear, plum, quince, currant, etc., and are to be used as flavors in making syrups. We believe, however, that since the introduction of the popular commercial fruit juices these artificial flavors are being displaced in favor of the latter.
In our opinion the resemblance of many of them to fruits of the names under which they appear is highly imaginary, but as they are used generally when the fruit is out of season, and by a class of persons neither disposed nor qualified to be critical, there seems to be no complaint.
We will add that these essences may be purchased in the general drug market from dealers in essential oils, and those who propose to carry a full line of rare syrups can obtain these rare fruit flavors with less trouble than they can the ethers that are used in compounding them, and at as low a price as they can buy the ethers and mix them together.

S-1. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALLSPICE.

Oil of allspice,.............................2 fluidrachms.
Freshly powdered allspice,...... ......2 ounces.
*Alcohol,.................. a sufficient amount.

Rub the oil with the powdered allspice and pack the mixture in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours; then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.
*Much commercial alcohol is contaminated with fusel oil and other volatile impurities to such an extent as to impair the flavor of syrups and flavoring extracts. Whenever, with some exceptions, alcohol is directed to be used in this work, the operator will find it best to employ deodorized alcohol.
In some cases—as, for example, the harsh, penetrating flavors of almond, peach, sarsaparilla, etc.—this precaution is unnecessary, commercial alcohol of good quality answering every purpose.

S-2. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ALMONDS (PEACH).

This extract is made of oil of bitter almonds, but it should be remembered that it is a poison.

Oil of bitter almonds,................1 fluidrachm.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 15 fluidounces.

Dissolve the oil of almonds in one ounce of alcohol and add thereto the diluted alcohol. Shake well together.
This formula may be strengthened or weakened in accordance with the will of the pharmacist. There is no established proportion, that which we suggest being, in our opinion, suitable for most purposes. Extract of almond and extract of peach are identical.

S-3. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BANANA.

This is usually made extemporaneously of mixtures of other flavoring extracts, a satisfactory formula being as follows:

Flavoring extract of pineapple, fluidounce.
Flavoring extract of vanilla,.... fluidounce.
Flavoring extract of strawberry, un colored,................................... 15 fluidounces.

Mix them together, and if necessary filter through a little carbonate of magnesium, and then color to suit the taste with a mixture of cochineal color and tincture of curcuma.

S-4. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF BLACK PEPPER.

Recently powdered black pepper,..2 ounces.
Alcohol, water,...........................of each a sufficient amount.

Pack the powder in a percolator prepared for percolation.
Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours. Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction. The diluted alcohol may also be replaced with alcohol to advantage, if the question of economy is not a factor.

S-5. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CAPSICUM.
Fluid extract of capsicum,........1 fluidounce.
Alcohol,.......................................15 fluidounces

Mix them together and color with curcuma modified with cochineal, to suit the taste.

S-6 FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CELERY.

Celery seed,................................. .......2 ounces.
Alcohol,.......................................a sufficient amount.

Powder the celery seed in an iron mortar, and pack the mixture in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours. Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained.
The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.
This is one of the questionable recent additions, and has been introduced since the fashion of taking “nervines” and tonics came into vogue among patrons of the soda counter.
In our experience alcohol only should be employed in extracting celery seed, the use of diluted alcohol producing a
preparation that loses its brilliancy and casts a precipitate.

S-7. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CHOCOLATE.

Powdered chocolate,................. .......4 ounces.
Syrup, water,.......................of each a sufficient amount.

Rub the chocolate in a mortar with syrup gradually added, until reduced to a cream, then add syrup enough to bring to the measure of eight fluidounces, after which add one pint of water.
Pour the mixture into a pan and bring it to a brisk boil, and then allow to cool.
This extract is of uncertain quality, owing to the variation in commercial chocolates. It is never transparent and is likely to deposit considerable sediment. It will ferment in hot weather, and must either be made in small amounts or put into small bottles that are well filled and kept in a cool place.
Some persons flavor extract of chocolate with vanilla, but in our experience it is not always acceptable.

S-8. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CLOVES.

Oil of cloves,...............................2 fluidrachms.
Freshly powdered cloves,........ ......2 ounces.
Alcohol,.......................................a sufficient amount.

Rub the oil with the powdered cloves and pack the mixture in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty four hours. Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.

S-9. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF CINNAMON

Oil of cinnamon (Ceylon preferred),...2 fluidrachms.
Alcohol, diluted alcohol,.........of each a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the oil in eight ounces of alcohol, add enough diluted alcohol to produce a permanent cloudiness, and then bring to the measure of a pint with alcohol. Color with tincture of curcuma modified by a little cochineal color and caramel. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction. The diluted alcohol may also be replaced with alcohol to advantage, if the question of economy is not a
factor.

S-10. FLAVORIN EXTRACT OF COFFEE.

Freshly roasted Java coffee,..... .......8 ounces.
Alcohol and water mixed, in the proportion of alcohol 12, water 4,....a sufficient amount.

Powder the coffee coarsely, moisten with the mixed alcohol and water, and pack in a previously prepared, suitable percolator.
Cover the powder with the menstruum (about twenty ounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit and allow the coffee to macerate twenty-four hours, then continue the percolation until one pint is obtained.
The remarks we have made concerning the quality of chocolate will apply also to coffee. The process we commend produces an extract that represents the coffee very accurately, and in our opinion the addition of syrup and glycerin is undesirable.

S-11. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER.

Jamaica ginger, freshly powdered, 2 ounces.
Alcohol,.......................................a sufficient amount.

Pack the powder in a percolator prepared for percolation.
Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours. Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction. The diluted alcohol may also be replaced with alcohol.

S-12. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF GINGER (SOLUBLE).

Fluid extract of ginger (U. S. P.),.....4 fluidounces.
Magnesium carbonate, water, alcohol, ...........................of each a sufficient amount.

Evaporate the fluid extract to one fluidounce, add enough magnesium carbonate to form a creamy mixture, then water to bring to the measure of eight fluidounces, rubbing well together, and filter. To the filtrate add enough alcohol to make a total of sixteen fluidounces.
Color. if desirable, with caramel.
Some persons wish a hot peppery taste, and this is made by using a few drops of tincture of capsicum. The operator can determine the necessity for this addition and modify the extract to suit the whim of his patrons.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF LEMON.

The quality of these extracts is governed by the freshness and quality of the oil of lemon employed in making them, for, as a rule, the extract of lemon used in flavoring is made from the oil. If the oil be old, it is likely to acquire a turpentine-like odor; and even though of moderate age, it often loses its fresh lemon sweetness and becomes harsh. Oil of lemon, like vanilla beans, may be obtained in commerce of different qualities and at different prices. Those proposing to make
flavoring extracts of lemon from the oil should pay special attention to its quality. There is little economy in purchasing cheap oil of lemon.
At the present time it is possible to obtain this oil (hand-pressed is the best) of unquestionable purity. The pharmacist may, as a rule, depend upon the statement made by the jobbing druggist concerning the quality of the oil, and, if he is willing to pay the price demanded for a first-class oil, he can readily obtain it. We will add that it is not always possible (without great experience) to prejudge the value of oil of lemon by the odor. Upon the contrary, it is possible for an oil of lemon that has a very pleasant odor to produce an extract that shows evidence of turpentine, especially after having been mixed with syrup.

S-13. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON, GOOD (FROM THE OIL).

Oil of lemon,.............................. 1 fluidounce
Alcohol,.......................................15 fluidounces.
Mix them together, and after a few days filter if a precipitate forms. Then color to suit the taste with a little tincture of curcuma.

S-14. FLAVORING; EXTRACT OF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL) .

Oil of lemon,.............................. fluidounce.
Alcohol, diluted alcohol, ......................................of each a sufficient quantity.

Mix the oil of lemon with eight fluidounces of alcohol, then add diluted alcohol until a cloudiness appears, after which add of alcohol a sufficient quantity to make sixteen fluidounces. Then color to suit the taste by the addition of a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.

S-15. FLAVORING EXTRACT OFF LEMON, CHEAP (FROM THE OIL).

Oil of lemon,.............................. fluidounce.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 12 fluidounces.
Alcohol,.......................................a sufficient quantity.

Rub the oil of lemon in a mortar with carbonate of magnesium in quantity sufficient to form a cream, then add the diluted alcohol and filter. To the filtrate add enough alcohol to bring to the measure of sixteen fluidounces, and color to suit the taste with a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.

S-16. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON.

Grate off the outer rind of four lemons. Put this into a widemouth bottle and pour upon it a pint of alcohol, and add thereto onehalf fluidounce of fresh oil of lemon. Macerate, with occasional shaking, for four days, and filter. color the filtrate to suit the taste with a sufficient amount of tincture of curcuma.

S-17. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF LEMON (STRENGTHENED).

To a pint of any of the foregoing flavoring extracts of lemon add one fluidrachm of oil of lemongrass. This is a pleasant addition in some instances, as there are persons who find the mixture of lemon and lemongrass to form a gratifying flavor. However, in our opinion, the extract made with a prime quality of oil of lemon is not excelled.

S-18. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTAR.

This is one of the fanciful titles that have been given to a soda water syrup that is quite popular. The following formula produces a mixture that gives general satisfaction.

Flavoring extract of vanilla,....3 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of lemon,.....6 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of orange,.... 4 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of strawberry,3 fluidounces.

Mix these together, and, if necessary, filter through a little carbonate of magnesium.

S-19. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NECTARINE.

Flavoring extract of lemon,.....4 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of bitter almonds, 2 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of orange,.... 4 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of rose,......... 2 fluidounces.
Flavoring extract of vanilla,....4 fluidounces.
Cochineal color,.........................a sufficient amount.

Mix the extracts and color to suit the taste with cochineal color. The proportions of the ingredients of this extract may be varied, if the operator desires, for the combination is purely fanciful.

S-20. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF NUTMEG.

Oil of nutmeg,............................2 fluidrachms.
Nutmegs freshly powdered,...........2 ounces.
Alcohol,.......................................a sufficient quantity.

Rub the oil with the powdered nutmeg and pack the mixture in a percolator prepared for percolation. Cover with alcohol (using about twenty fluidounces), and when the percolate appears close the exit of the percolator and macerate for a period of twenty-four hours.
Then percolate slowly until one pint of percolate is obtained. The strength may be increased or diminished to suit the taste of the operator, the quality desired governing in this direction.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ORANGE.

All that we have said concerning oil of lemon may be repeated with reference to oil of orange. Indeed, oil of orange is the more delicate of the two, and it is more difficult to obtain a prime quality of oil of sweet orange than a prime quality of lemon oil.
However, the drug market. at the present time furnishes, for those who are willing to pay the price, a delicious oil of orange that in our experience can be used in the making of an extract of orange that will compare favorably with, or even be superior to, an extract made from the fresh rind of the fruit. It is altogether a question of quality, which may be determined by the price that the purchaser is willing to pay for the oil, as well as by the judgment of the jobber who furnishes him with it. In our experience there is no difficulty at the present time in obtaining an oil of orange of unquestionable quality, and we have reason to believe that this is possible in all parts of the country. Oil of orange, like oil of lemon, should be fresh, and purchasers should supply themselves with only enough to last a moderate period;
overstocks are dangerous by reason of the molecular changes that occur, resulting in the formation of turpentine-like odors.

S-21. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (GOOD).

Add one fluidounce of sweet oil of orange to fifteen fluid ounces of alcohol, and color the mixture to suit the taste with tincture of curcuma modified with a little cochineal color. The manipulator should bear in mind, in the making of flavoring extract of orange, that the demand is for an extract of a dark-yellow color, whereas in making an extract. of lemon the demand is for an extract of a much lighter color. The various shades can easily be made with different
proportions of curcuma tincture and cochineal.

S-22. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

Oil of orange,.............................. fluidounce.
Alcohol, diluted alcohol,.........of each a sufficient quantity.

Mix the oil of orange with eight fluidounces of diluted alcohol, shaking until a permanent milkiness results in the mixture.
To this add sufficient alcohol to bring the whole to a measure of sixteen fluidounces. Color with tincture of curcuma modified with cochineal color, to suit, and filter, after which allow the mixture to stand four days.

S-23. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

Oil of orange,..............................1 fluidounce.
The grated rind of four oranges.
Diluted alcohol,......................... a sufficient quantity.

Put the grated outer rind of the oranges into a wide mouth bottle and pour upon it twelve ounces of diluted alcohol. Then, having added the oil of orange to the remaining four ounces of diluted alcohol, mix this solution therewith. After four days filter the mixture.
Color the filtrate to suit with tincture of curcuma modified with cochineal

S-24. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ORANGE (CHEAP).

Cover the peelings of oranges with alcohol, and after eight or ten days filter the liquid. This furnishes an extract of orange that, while it is made from the fruit, is in our opinion much inferior to the extract of orange that is made from a good quality of oil of orange. The odor is not as grateful to the taste, and it will not give the satisfaction to patrons that the extract of true oil of orange does.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF PINEAPPLE.

Extract of pineapple is a favorite with some persons, although most people select one of the preceding flavors. It may be said that the majority prefer lemon, vanilla, and orange, but next, perhaps, to these comes pineapple. Extract of pineapple is not made from the fruit, neither is it made from the oil nor a product of the fruit It is an association of ether flavors which reminds one of the odor of pineapples. The base of the pineapple extract is butyric ether, to which are added other substances to modify its harshness.

S-25. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (STRONG).

Butyric ether ..............................2 fluidounces.,
Diluted alcohol, ........................ 14 fluidounces.

Mix them together and flavor to suit the taste with a little tincture of curcuma, and modify with enough cochineal color to overcome the bright yellow of the curcuma.

S-26. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (MODIFIED).

Butyric ether,..............................1 fluidounce.
Acetic,...........................................1 fluidounce.
Chloroform,................................1 fluidrachm.
Diluted alcohol,......................... a sufficient quantity.

Mix the ingredients and color with sufficient tincture of curcuma, and modify by the addition of enough cochineal color to remove the bright yellow of the curcuma.

S-27. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF PINEAPPLE (CHEAP).

Cheaper extract of pineapple may be made by diluting either of the preceding extracts with diluted alcohol.

S-28. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF RASPBERRY.

That which we have written concerning artificial flavoring extract of strawberry may be applied to the flavoring extract of raspberry. While some formulæ that we have seen are complex and demand the use of rare ethers, we have not observed that the products more nearly resemble the flavor of fresh raspberries than an extract made of cheaper ingredients. We have not as yet found any mixture that will more than remind us of the rich fragrance of the ripe, red
raspberry. Indeed, in the raspberry season the artificial imitations of this fruit are far from being satisfactory, although they may be used when the fruit is out of season. The formula for extract of strawberry is usually adopted, we believe, as that of extract of raspberry, the difference being that the color is intensified in the raspberry. However, we have found the following process to give satisfaction in a commercial way, and we therefore introduce it as a formula for
flavoring extract of raspberry:

Fluid extract of orris root,........2 fluidounces.
Acetic ether,................................ fluidounce.
Oil of cognac,.............................. ....... 10 drops.
Butyric ether,....................................... 5 drops.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 16 fluidounces.

Mix the ingredients, color to a dark red with tincture of cochineal, and after a few days filter if necessary.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF ROSE.

This preparation should manifestly not be designed as the flavor of a beverage. Although rose is a pleasant perfume, as a flavoring for food or of a drink it seems to be out of place. However, there is a demand for syrup of rose and also for flavoring extract of rose for making syrups. The quality of this extract will be governed by the fineness and amount of the oil of rose employed in making it, and the purer the oil the better the flavor. The nearer this preparation can be
made to resemble the finest quality of rose the more nearly it fulfills the object of its name. The following formula may be used in its preparation .
In this connection we will call attention to our remarks concerning the oils of lemon and orange, and add thereto that
commercial oil of rose may be obtained of various qualities and at as many prices. Those who use a fine quality of oil will naturally find their extract of rose superior to an extract made of the same quantity of inferior oils; and in this matter it may be said that the fixing of quantities in the formulæ that follow is to a considerable extent guesswork, owing to the differences in the oils of rose of commerce.

S-29. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (BEST).

Oil of rose,.......................................... 20 drops.
Alcohol,.......................................4 fluidounces.
Water,.......................................... 12 fluidounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 16 fluidounces.

Dissolve the oil of rose in the diluted alcohol and color with cochineal color to suit the taste.

S-30. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF ROSE (CHEAP).

Oil of rose,............................................ 5 drops.
Oil of rose geranium,....................... 10 drops.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 16 fluidounces.

Dissolve the oils in the diluted alcohol and color with cochineal color to suit the taste.

S-31. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF SARSAPARILLA.
Oil of wintergreen,.................... ....... ounce.
Oil of sassafras,........................... ....... ounce.
Alcohol,.......................................5 fluidounces.
Water,.......................................... 10 fluidounces.
Caramel,...................................... a sufficient quantity.

Triturate the mixed oils with magnesium carbonate enough to form a thick cream, then with the mixed alcohol and water, and filter. To the filtrate add enough caramel to color dark brown.
This extract is designed to represent the drug neither in flavor nor in quality, but, upon the contrary, is made up of flavors that have been adopted and affixed to the syrup or beverage sold under the name sarsaparilla, and is foreign altogether to the drug. It is used as a flavor for mineral water beverages and soda syrups, and is a mixture of wintergreen and sassafras, and its connection with sarsaparilla drug is imaginary.

S-32. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF STRAWBERRY.

Fluid extract of orris root,........ fluidounce.
Acetic ether,................................1 fluidrachm.
Oil of cognac,.............................. ......... 5 drops.
Alcohol,.......................................4 fluidounces.
Diluted alcohol,......................... 4 fluidounces.
Water,.......................................... 20 fluidounces.
Cochineal color,.........................a sufficient quantity.

Mix the ingredients well together. Color to a bright strawberry red with the cochineal color, and after a few days filter if necessary.
Extracts of strawberry, as is well known, are made from mixtures of ethers, and while the flavor is pleasant and often reminds one of strawberry fruit, still we cannot say that the artificial flavors with which we are acquainted compare with the odor of the fresh fruit.
They will answer for making syrups when the fruit is out of season or when a true juice of the fruit cannot be obtained, but we must say that we do not commend these artificial extracts as being representatives of the fruit itself. The formulæ that we present are such as will produce good trade extracts.

FLAVORING EXTRACTS OF VANILLA.

Vanilla extracts vary in quality in accordance with the fineness of the vanilla bean that is used in making them. If the
operator desires a superior extract of vanilla, the bean employed as a base must be good. We refer now to vanilla that is designed to be unexcelled and that is made from vanilla. Much of the cheap extract of the market is made from Tonka bean, coumarin, or other similar aromatic flavors. It is often, perhaps, necessary for druggists to make similar cheap extracts in order to compete with such commercial preparations as are used in some confectioneries, and, in addition to an extract of the best quality, he may desire to make an inferior brand for cheap trade. We therefore give several formulæ, from which selection may be readily made.

For a soda water flavor we commend the following:

S-33. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (FINE).
Vanilla, fine,...................................... ounce.
Sugar,about ....................................... ounce.
Alcohol, water,...........................of each a sufficient quantity.

Cut the vanilla beans transversely into thin slices, place in an iron mortar, and by concussion, gradually adding sugar to absorb the juice, crush the bean until reduced to the condition of a coarse powder.
Prepare a percolator for percolation, introduce the powder in the usual manner, press gently, and cover with dilute alcohol (about twenty fluidounces). When this liquid appears at the exit, cork the percolator and allow maceration to progress for a period of twenty-four hours.
Then remove the stopper and allow the percolation to progress slowly until one pint of tincture is obtained.
This extract is of a rich dark-brown color, and its quality will be in accordance with that of the bean used in its manipulation. If the operator uses stronger alcohol than we direct, the extract will be of a much lighter color. True extract of vanilla improves in flavor and aroma by age, and it is better to use that which has been made a month or more.

S-34. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

Balsam Peru,...................................... ounce.
Vanilla,............................................... ounce.
Sugar, alcohol, water, .............. of each a sufficient quantity.

Rub the balsam of Peru with magnesium carbonate sufficient to make a powder. Cut and bruise the vanilla with the sugar as directed in the preceding formula. Mix the two powders, pack in a percolator, and exhaust in the usual manner (see preceding formula), obtaining therefrom one pint of extract.
This extract is, in our opinion, to be preferred to flavoring extract of vanilla that is strengthened with Tonka.

S-35. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

Vanilla,............................................... ounce.
Tonka,................................................. ounce.
Sugar, water, alcohol, .............. of each a sufficient quantity.

Reduce the beans to a powder with sugar, as directed in formula No. 33, pack in a prepared percolator, and extract with dilute alcohol, making one pint of the extract.

S-36. FLAVORING VANILLA EXTRACT (CHEAP).

Tonka (or vanillons),............... ....... 1 ounce.
Balsam Peru,...................................... ounce.
Sugar, alcohol, water, of each a sufficient quantity.

Reduce the beans and balsam of Peru to a powder, as directed in No. 34, and exhaust the mixture by percolation as directed therein.
Make one pint of extract.
It will be observed that this preparation can make no claim (if made of Tonka) to the title of vanilla, and yet it is similar, in our opinion, to some of the cheap extracts of “vanilla” of the market.
From the foregoing formulæ the operator can likely make a selection to suit his taste or that of a patron. We would strongly urge, however, that, if consulted in the matter, he recommend the product of formula No. 33, and that, if desirous of building up a good and permanent soda-water business, he use only an extract made of a fine quality of vanilla bean.

S-37. FLAVORING EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN.

Oil of wintergreen,....................1 fluidounce.
Alcohol,.......................................15 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

This extract may be made of the fresh berries, but not of the flavor strength produced by the foregoing formula. There is perhaps a freshness in the extract that is made of the berries that is wanting in the solution of the oil, but few persons, however, can procure fresh wintergreen berries. In selecting oil of wintergreen, it is to be borne in mind that the commercial oil is likely to be either oil of white birch or synthetical oil.

SODA-WATER SYRUPS.

The foundation of most of these syrups is either simple syrup or rock-candy syrup. The latter of these can now be purchased in every American city, and, although it is a little more expensive than simple syrup, many pharmacists prefer it to that preparation. Rock-candy syrup is not prone to crystallize, and many believe its sweetening power to be enough superior to that of syrup made of sugar to repay the price of substitution. Again, in the rush of a busy season the druggist often has neither the time nor the conveniences to make the large bulk of syrup necessary to supply his demand, and the ready-made rockcandy syrup of the market is then a convenience.
Simple syrup made according to the U. S. P. is too thick for use as a soda syrup. It is difficult to mix it with the carbonated water, and it sticks to the glass. For a simple soda syrup the following formula has stood the test of years:

S-38. SIMPLE SYRUP (SODA SYRUP).

Pure white sugar,.......................35 (avoirdupois) pounds.
Distilled water,................................... 20 pints.

Pour the water into a kettle, add the sugar, and bring the mixture to a boil, stirring constantly. Then remove from the fire and strain while hot.
This syrup will neither crystallize in cold nor ferment in warm weather.
(The addition of certain vegetable extractives will cause any simple syrup to ferment.)
Either rock-candy syrup, or simple syrup made according to the foregoing formula, can be used in the formulæ that follow when “syrup” is commended.

S-39. SYRUP OF ALMOND OR PEACH.

Flavoring extract of almond (peach), fluidounce.
Syrup,........................................... 15 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

S-40. CHOCOLATE SYRUP.

Flavoring extract of chocolate,4 fluidounces.
Syrup, . . . . . . 12 fluidounces
Mix them together.
This syrup is brown and unsightly.

S-41. SYRUP OF COFFEE.

Flavoring extract of coffee,...... 4 fluidounces.
Syrup,........................................... 12 fluidounces
Mix them together.

S-42. SYRUP OF COFFEE.

Coffee (Java),...............................8 troyounces.
Sugar,........................................... 20 troyounces
Boiling water,.............................a sufficient amount.

Percolate the coffee with the hot water until ten fluid ounces of percolate are obtained, and in the percolate dissolve the sugar.

S-43. SYRUP OF GINGER.

Flavoring extract of ginger,..... 1 fluidounce.
Syrup,........................................... 32 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

This syrup is likely to be unsightly from the presence of finely divided resin. It is also too peppery for some persons, and must be made with less ginger than is called for by our formula. The formula that follows is more mild and yields a transparent product.

S-44. SYRUP OF GINGER.

Soluble extract of ginger,..........2 fluidounces.
Syrup,........................................... 30 fluidounces
Mix them together.

S-45. SYRUP OF LEMON.

Syrup,........................................... ...........1 pint.
Flavoring extract of lemon,.....2 fluidrachms.
Citric acid,......................................... 1 drachm.
Curcuma color, water, frothing liquid, (see S-67 through S-70)..of each a sufficient amount.

Dissolve the powdered citric acid in one-half fluidounce of water, add to the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color to bring to a lemon-yellow color. By referring to our remarks concerning lemon extract the operator will find that the quality of syrup of lemon depends upon the quality of the lemon extract employed in making it. Since we give several formulæ, choice thereof is readily made.

S-46. SYRUP OF NECTARINE.

Flavoring extract of nectarine,...1 fluidounce.
Syrup,........................................... 15 fluidounces.
Mix them together.

S-47. SYRUP OF ORANGE.

Syrup,........................................... ...........1 pint.
Flavoring extract of orange,.... 2 fluidrachms.
Citric acid,........................................ 1 drachm.
Curcuma color, water, frothing liquid,......................................of each a sufficient amount.

Dissolve the powdered citric acid in one half fluidounce of water, add to the syrup, and then add the extract, frothing liquid, and enough curcuma color, modified by a small amount of cochineal color, to bring to an orange-yellow color. By referring to our remarks concerning orange extract, the operator will find that the quality of syrup of orange depends upon the quality of the orange extract employed in making it. Since we give several formulæ, choice thereof is readily made.

S-48. SYRUP OF BLOOD ORANGE.

Syrup of blood or red orange is not distinguished from the foregoing excepting by its color. To make it, color the syrup of orange with cochineal color until it is of a rich red color.

S-49. SYRUP OF PINE:APPLE.

Syrup,........................................... ...........1 pint.
Flavoring extract of pineapple,1 fluidrachm.
Curcuma color, frothing liquid, .........................................of each a sufficient amount.

Mix the simple syrup and the extract of pineapple, color the liquid appropriately with tincture of curcuma, and then add the frothing liquid.

S-50. SYRUP OF RASPBERRY.

Flavoring extract of raspberry,...2 fluidrachms.
Simple syrup,............................. ...........1 pint.
Cochineal color, frothing liquid, .............................................of each a sufficient amount.

Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid if desirable.

S-51. SYRUP OF ROSE.

Flavoring extract of rose,......... 1 fluidounce.
Syrup,........................................... ............1 pint.
Mix them together and color red with cochineal color.

S-52. SYRUP OF SARSAPARILLA.

Flavoring extract of sarsaparilla,...1 fluidounce.
Syrup,........................................... ............1 pint.
Mix them together and color dark brown with caramel.
@

S-53. SYRUP OF STRAWBERRY.

Flavoring extract of strawberry,...2 fluidrachms.
Simple syrup,............................. ...........1 pint.
Cochineal color, frothing liquid, ..............................................of each a sufficient amount.

Mix the extract with the syrup, color with an appropriate amount of cochineal color, and add the frothing liquid if desirable.

S-54. SYRUP OF VANILLA.

Syrup,........................................... ...........1 pint.
Flavoring extract of vanilla,....2 fluidrachms.
Caramel, cochineal color, frothing liquid,..............................of each a sufficient amount.

Mix the extract and the syrup, then add caramel and cochineal color enough to give a clear red brown, and finally add the frothing liquid.
By referring to our remarks on flavoring extract of vanilla, it will be seen that the quality of syrup of vanilla depends on the quality of the extract employed in making it. The operator can, therefore, select as his judgment dictates, but our experience is to the effect that the extract made of prime long vanilla is best suited to build up a business and retain it.
In like manner other soda syrups may be extemporaneously prepared by mixing together flavoring extracts and syrup. It is unnecessary for us to consume space with details that will suggest themselves to every druggist.

CREAM SYRUPS.

These syrups have long been favorites, and when made of pure fresh milk are delicious. In former times they were made with much care and replenished daily. Now we learn that condensed milk is often substituted for fresh milk, and simple syrup is mixed therewith. The formulæ that follow are such as were used thirty years ago, and in our judgment have no superiors.

S-55. CREAM SYRUP (ORANGE CREAM).

Milk,......................................................1 quart.
Sugar,........................................... .. 2 pounds.

Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring constantly, strain, and when cool add four fluidrachms of flavoring extract of orange and enough curcuma color to bring to a rich cream color. This syrup must be freshly made each day.

S-56. NECTAR SYRUP (NECTAR CREAM).

Milk,1 quart.
Sugar,2 pounds.

Dissolve the sugar in the milk by the aid of a gentle heat, stirring constantly, strain, and when cool add four fluidrachms of flavoring extract of best vanilla (or nectar) and enough cochineal color to bring to a deep pink. This syrup must be freshly made every day.

FRUIT SYRUPS.

In recent years fruit juices have largely replaced some of the artificial flavors of former times. These juices are manufactured in large amounts by experienced men, and druggists usually find it better to purchase them than to attempt their manipulation. They produce delicious syrups, and, in our opinion, are very much to be preferred to
most of the ordinary imitation syrups that are made of artificial ethers.
Full directions for making syrups accompany them, and we need not, therefore, consider these substances in detail. While we do not recommend an attempt at manufacturing these juices generally in a small way, we believe it often judicious for the apothecary to make syrups direct from some of the juicy fruits when they are plentiful and in season. The following are suggested if the respective fruit is abundant and cheap; if not, it is better to purchase fruit juices on the market and make the syrup therefrom*.

*Men who devote their entire attention to these problems become expert, and even learn to make close imitations of natural juices by artificial methods. Their knowledge is gained at the expense of much study and experiment, and represents heavy investments, and it is needless to observe that detailed results are not distributed promiscuously .

S-57. BLACKBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Heat ripe blackberries to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-58. RASPBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-59. STRAWBERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Heat ripe berries to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-60. CHERRY (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-61. GRAPE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Heat ripe fruit to the boiling point and express the juice. To four pints of juice add six pounds of sugar, dissolve by heat, and bottle securely while hot. It must be kept in a cool, dark location.

S-61. PINEAPPLE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Wash and then slice the pineapples thinly, without removing the peel; then mix therewith one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally stir the mixture for two or three days, then squeeze the syrup therefrom and bottle it.

S-63. QUINCE (FRUIT) SYRUP.

Quarter and seed the quinces without removing the peel.
Slice thinly, and mix therewith one pound of sugar for each pound of fruit, and occasionally stir the mixture for two or three days, then add some water if too thick, and squeeze the syrup therefrom and bottle it.
Most persons peel such fruits as pineapple and quince, and thereby lose the rich aroma which mostly resides in the peel. Quince especially becomes insipid if peeled.
Other fruit syrups can be made of juicy fruits by similar methods.

WINE SYRUPS.

These artful compounds of liquors are in our opinion neither calculated to encourage a desirable trade nor promote the general welfare of the community. Whether we are believers in alcoholic beverages or not, we must all admit that the drug-store is not the place for tippling. Some of the most pronounced opponents of “wine syrups“ are to be found among men who uphold the liquor traffic in its lawful sphere. In our opinion, apothecaries may very consistently refuse to supply such flavors, and in many instances, when they are furnished, the act is apparently one of thoughtlessness on the part of the proprietor. The soda fountain of a drug-store, it seems to us, is designed as a location where the families of our patrons may obtain harmless beverages and refreshing drinks, and it seems to be a breach of trust to confront them indiscriminately with liquors and wines, sweetened and flavored to better suit the taste of children and beget an appetite therefore.*

*In my former experience (see Introduction) I well remember a curious occurrence in this direction. An officer of the army asked me for brandy and soda water: I informed him that it was against the rules of the store to furnish liquors. He abused me roundly, and finally Mr. Gordon came to my rescue and told him plainly that he must go to a saloon if
he wanted liquor. Afterward he returned and apologized to me for his violent language and complimented the management of the establishment.

“TONIC” SYRUPS.

We cannot too strongly condemn the indiscriminate use of nervines in the form of beverages. Perhaps there may be an excuse for the affixing of a name only to a fanciful, harmless syrup, the name reminding one of a remedy, and yet it seems as though the use or imaginary use of medicines should be left to the discretion of physicians.
Such “tonics” even as solution of phosphate of calcium in acid water, so fashionable in some instances at present, may better be left to the discretion of physician prescribers who understand the systemic condition of the “debilitated.” It seems to us as though much injury may result in the continued drinking of phosphoric acid and other medicines by persons who do not need such substances, and who simply imagine that they should " take a tonic."
The same remarks apply to “iron tonics” and “calisaya tonics,” and other similar syrups; and while “syrup of beef extract” may do no harm, it seems to us enough out of place as a beverage to give even a man in health the horrors and a dislike for beef tea in its proper place.
We may, with our views of this matter expressed, be pardoned for omitting formulæ for such compounds.

COLORS.

Throughout this work various substances for coloring are occasionally commended. They are, or should be, harmless, and are necessary adjuncts, for the public taste must be pampered in the way of bringing certain syrups to resemble the colors of the fruits that they are designed to imitate. It is important that these colors should be innocuous, and luckily the shades desired can be easily obtained. At the present time beautiful, concentrated red, yellow, green, and other
colors can be purchased of dealers in essential oils, and are warranted free from any poison or objectionable impurity, and may be substituted for those we commend. The colors we direct may be made as follows (natural fruit syrups do not demand artificial colors).

S-64. SOLUTION OF COCHINEAL (CARMINE).

This preparation has been used some years by the writer in preference to any “tincture” of cochineal. The fat in cochineal causes such preparations to putrefy in warm weather; and to extract the fat by means of ether from the powdered cochineal, previous to tincturing it, is expensive and tedious. The term “tincture of cochineal” is scarcely
appropriate as applied to the aqueous solutions made of cochineal, cream of tartar, and alum, and, as the object is simply to secure a coloring matter, the term might with equal propriety be applied to our solution of carmine, made as follows:

Carmine, No. 40,............................. 60 grains.
Distilled water, glycerin,.......... of each 4 ounces.
Ammonia water,.......................a sufficient quantity.

Powder the carmine and triturate with the water, gradually adding ammonia water until the carmine disappears and a dark red liquid, free from insoluble matter, remains. To this add the glycerin and mix. Should this solution ever become murky, a little ammonia water will restore its transparency.
Solution of carmine is necessarily alkaline and cannot be employed to color acid liquids. For all neutral or alkaline solutions it is admirable, and for soda-water syrups is far preferable to aniline red.

S-65. CURCUMA [TURMERIC] (YELLOW).

Macerate four ounces of good curcuma in a pint of alcohol, shaking occasionally for seven days, then filter.

S-66. CARAMEL [BURNT SUGAR] (BROWN).

In a capacious iron kettle, over a direct fire, melt a pound of sugar, and increase the temperature until empty reumatic vapors have been freely driven off and the residue has acquired a deep black color.
Then remove from this fire, allow to partially cool, and gradually and cautiously stir two pints of hot water into it.
This operation must be performed in the open air or over a good flue, for the vapors are very irritating when inhaled. Caution must also be employed in pouring the water into the hot mass, for if it be very hot the material will be thrown violently from the kettle by the sudden expansion of steam. If caramel is only wanted in small amount, it is best to purchase it.

FROTHING LIQUIDS.

In some cases it is desirable that a syrup should froth considerably. Judgment, however, must be employed in adding the frothing liquid, as well as drawing the carbonated water into the syrup, for some syrups are naturally inclined to foam too much. Among our formulæ we occasionally direct the use of a frother, and the operator can select from the following that which best suits his taste.

S-68. The white of one egg added to a quart of the syrup specified.

S-68. One ounce of mucilage of acacia added to a quart of the syrup.

S-69. Two drachms of tincture of soap bark (quillaya) added to a quart of the syrup.
The first and second of these have been in use for a long time; the last is a comparatively recent addition. That the first and second are both harmless is evident, and we have as yet heard no complaints concerning tincture of quillaya.

S-70. TINCTURE OF SOAP BARK (QUILLAYA).

Take of ground or powdered quillaya,..4 ounces.
Alcohol, water,...........................of each a sufficient amount.

Moisten the quillaya with a mixture of alcohol two ounces, water fourteen ounces, and, having allowed the moistened powder to stand an hour to expand, pack it loosely in a percolator. Cover with menstruum, and when it appears at the exit of the percolator cork the exit and allow the mixture to macerate from twelve to twenty-four hours. Then continue the percolation until one pint of tincture be obtained.
This tincture is of an opalescent color and is likely to precipitate by age; it should be kept in a cool locality. It can be made clear by increasing the proportion of alcohol in the menstruum, but this increase of alcohol is at the expense of the frothing power of the product. The larger the amount of alcohol the less its comparative value as a froth producer. One ounce of the foregoing tincture is sufficient for a gallon of syrup.

FANCIFUL TITLES.

Recent years have introduced a number of fanciful titles for syrups, such as “tutti-frutti,”' etc., and it is not uncommon to find the advantages of such syrups individualized and boldly advertised by means of great placards. These we are not expected to consider, as both the names and the mixtures are purely fanciful, and all druggists are at liberty to formulate a name designed to strike the public, and make for the name a mixture of flavors to suit their fancy.




Elixirs and Flavoring Plants

Main Library