KNOWLEDGE OF THE HIGHER WORLDS AND ITS ATTAINMENT
THE CONDITIONS OF ESOTERIC TRAINING
The conditions attached to esoteric training are not mere inventions. They are the natural outcome of esoteric knowledge. Just as no one can become a painter who refuses to handle a paintbrush, so, too, no one can receive esoteric training who is unwilling to meet the demands considered necessary by a teacher. In the main, the latter can give nothing except advice, and everything he says should be accepted in this sense. [footnote: See Appendix and Editorial Preface.] He has already passed through the preparatory stages leading to a knowledge of the higher worlds, and knows from experience what is necessary. It depends entirely upon the freewill of each individual, whether he chooses to tread the same path or not. To insist on being admitted to esoteric training without fulfilling the conditions, would be equivalent to saying: ‘Teach me how to paint, but do not ask me to handle a paintbrush.’ The teacher can never offer anything unless the recipient comes forward to meet him of his own freewill. But it must be emphasized that a general desire for higher knowledge is not sufficient. This desire will, of course, be felt by many, but nothing can be achieved with it alone, so long as the special conditions attached to esoteric training are not accepted. This point should be considered by those who complain that the training is difficult. Failure or unwillingness to fulfil these strict conditions must entail the abandonment of esoteric training, for the time being. It is true the conditions are strict, yet they are not harsh, since their fulfilment not only should be, but indeed must be a voluntary action.
If this fact be overlooked, esoteric training can easily appear in the light of a coercion of the soul or the conscience; for the training is based on the development of the inner life, and the teacher must necessarily give advice concerning this inner life. And yet no compulsion is used when a demand is met out of free choice. On the other hand, to ask a teacher: ‘Give me your higher knowledge, but leave me my customary emotions, feelings and thoughts,’ would be an impossible demand. In this case the gratification of curiosity would be the only motive. When pursued in such a spirit, higher knowledge can never be attained.
Let us now consider in turn the conditions imposed on the student. It should be emphasized that the complete fulfilment of any one of these conditions is not insisted upon, but only the corresponding effort. It is the effort of will that matters and the ready disposition to enter upon this path.
1. The first condition is that the student should pay heed to the advancement of bodily and spiritual health. Of course, health does not depend, in the first instance, upon the individual; but the effort to improve, in this respect, lies within the scope of all. Sound knowledge can alone proceed from sound human beings. The unhealthy are not rejected, but it is demanded of the student that he should have the will to lead a healthy life. In this respect he must attain the greatest possible independence. The good counsels of others, freely bestowed though generally unsought, are, as a rule superfluous. Each must endeavour to take care of himself. From the physical aspect, it will be more a question of warding off harmful influences than of anything else. In carrying out our duty, we must often do things that are disadvantageous to our health. We must decide at the right moment to place duty higher than the care of our health. But just think how much can be discontinued, with a little goodwill. Duty must in many cases, stand higher than health, often, even, than life itself, but pleasure must never stand higher, as far as the student is concerned. For him pleasure can only be a means to health and to life, and in this connection we must, above all, be honest and truthful with ourselves. It is no use leading an ascetic life, when the underlying motive is the same, in this case as with other enjoyments. Some may derive satisfaction from asceticism as others from wine-bibbing, but they must not imagine that asceticism of this kind will assist them to attain higher knowledge. Many ascribe to their station of life everything which apparently prevents them from making progress. They say they cannot develop themselves under their conditions of life. Now many may find it desirable, in other respects, to change their station of life, but no one need do so for the purpose of esoteric training. For the latter, a person need only do as much as possible, whatever his position, to further the health of body and soul. Every kind of work can serve the whole of humanity; and it is a surer sign of greatness of soul to perceive clearly how necessary for this whole is a petty, perhaps even an unsightly employment, than to think: ‘This work is not good enough for me; I am destined for something better.’ Of special importance for the student is the effort to retain complete health of mind. An unhealthy life of thought and feeling will not fail to obstruct the path to higher knowledge. Clear, calm thinking, with stability of feeling and emotion, here form the basis of all work. Nothing should be further removed from the student than an inclination towards a fantastical, excitable life, towards nervousness, exaggeration and fanaticism. He should acquire a healthy outlook on all circumstances of life; he should meet the demands of life with steady assurance, quietly letting all things make their impression on him and reveal their message. He should be at pains to do justice to life on every occasion. All one-sided and extravagant tendencies in his sentiments and criticisms should be avoided. Failing this he would find his way merely into worlds of his own imagination, instead of higher worlds; in place of truth, his own pet opinions would assert themselves. It is better for the student to be matter-of-fact than excitable and fantastic.
2. The second condition is that the student should feel himself co-ordinated as a link in the whole of life. Much is included in the fulfilment of this condition, but each can only fulfil it in his own manner. If I am a teacher and my pupil does not answer my expectations, I must not direct my resentment against my pupil, but against myself. I must feel myself as one with my pupil, to the extent of asking myself: ‘Is my pupil’s deficiency not the result of my own action?’ Instead of directing my feelings against him, I shall rather reflect on the way I should myself behave, so that the pupil may, in the future, be better able to satisfy my demands. Proceeding from such an attitude, a change will come over the whole of the student’s way of thinking. This holds good in all things, great or small. Such an attitude of mind, for instance, alters the way I regard a criminal. I suspend my judgment, and say to myself: ‘I am only a human being as he is. Through favourable circumstances, I received an education which perhaps alone saved me from a similar fate.’ I may then also come to the conclusion that this brother of mine would have become a different man, had the same pains been taken with him by my teachers, as they took with me. I shall reflect on the fact that something was given to me which was withheld from him. And then I shall naturally come to think of myself as a link in the whole of humanity, and a sharer in the responsibility for everything that occurs. This does not imply that such a thought should be immediately translated into external action and agitation. It should be cherished in stillness within the soul. Then, quite gradually, it will set its mark on the outward demeanour of the student. In such matters each can only begin by reforming himself. It is of no avail, in the sense of the foregoing thoughts, to make general claims on the whole of humanity. It is easy to decide what men ought to be; but the student works in the depths, not on the surface. It would, therefore, be quite wrong to relate the demand here indicated with any external, say, political claims; with such, this training can have nothing to do. Political agitators ‘know’, as a rule, what to ‘demand’ of other people; but they say little of demands on themselves.
3. This brings us to the third condition. The student must work his way upward to the realization that his thoughts and feelings are as important for the world as his actions. It must be realized that it is equally injurious to hate a fellow-being, as to strike him. The realization will then follow, that by perfecting ourselves, we accomplish something not only for ourselves, but for the whole world. The world derives equal benefit from our untainted feelings and thoughts, as from our good demeanour, and as long as we cannot believe in this cosmic importance of our inner life, we are unfit for the path that is here described. We are only filled with the right faith in the significance of our inner self, of our soul, when we work at it as though it were at least as real as all external things. We must admit that our every feeling produces an effect, just as every action of our hand.
4. These words express the fourth condition: to acquire the conviction that the real being of man does not lie in his exterior, but in his interior. Anyone regarding himself as a product of the outer world, as a result of the physical world, cannot succeed in this esoteric training, for the feeling that we are beings of soul and spirit forms its very basis. The acquisition of this feeling renders the student fit to distinguish between inner duty and outward success. He learns that the one cannot be directly measured by the other. He must find the direct mean between what is indicated by external conditions, and what he recognizes to be the right conduct for himself. He is not to force upon his environment anything for which it can have no understanding, but he must be quite free from the desire to do only what can be appreciated by those around him. The voice of his own soul struggling manfully towards knowledge, is to bring to him the one and only recognition of the truths for which he stands. But he must learn as much as he possibly can from his environment so as to discover what those around him need, and what is of use to them. In this way he will develop within himself what is known in Spiritual Science as the ‘spiritual balance’. An ‘open heart’ for the needs of the outer world, lies on one of the scales, and ‘inner fortitude and unfaltering endurance’ on the other.
5. This brings us to the fifth condition: steadfastness in carrying out a resolution. Nothing should induce the student to deviate from a resolution he may have taken, save only the admission that he was in error. Every resolution is a force, and if this force does not produce an immediate effect at the point to which it was applied, nevertheless it works on in its own way. Success is only decisive when an action arises from desire. But all actions arising from desire are worthless in relation to the higher worlds. Their love towards an action is alone decisive. In this love every motive is implanted that impels the student to action. Undismayed by failure he will never grow weary of endeavouring repeatedly to translate some resolution into action. And in this way he reaches the stage of not waiting to see the outward effect of his actions, but of contenting himself with performing them. He will learn to sacrifice his actions, even his whole being, to the world, however the world may receive his sacrifice. Readiness for a sacrifice, for an offering such as this, must be shown by all who would pursue the path of esoteric training.
6. A sixth condition is the development of a feeling of thankfulness for everything with which man is favoured. We must realize that our existence is a gift from the entire universe. How much is needed to enable each one of us to receive and maintain his existence! How much do we not owe to Nature and to our fellow human beings! Thoughts such as these must come naturally to all who seek esoteric training, for if they do not feel disposed to them, they will be incapable of developing within themselves that all-embracing love, which is necessary for the attainment of higher knowledge. Nothing can reveal itself to us which we do not love. And every revelation must fill us with thankfulness, for we ourselves are the richer for it.
7. All these conditions must be united in a seventh: to regard life unceasingly in the manner demanded by these conditions. The student thus makes it possible to give his life the stamp of uniformity. All his modes of expression, will, in this way, be brought into harmony, and no longer contradict each other. And thus he will prepare himself for the inner tranquillity he must attain during the preliminary steps of his training.
Anyone sincerely showing the goodwill to fulfil these conditions may decide to seek esoteric training. He will then be ready to follow the advice given above. Much of this advice may appear to be merely on the surface, and many will perhaps say that they did not expect the training to proceed in such strict forms. But everything interior must manifest itself in an exterior way, and just as a picture is not evident, when it exists only in the mind of the painter, so, too, there can be no esoteric training without outward expression. Disregard for strict forms is only shown by those who do not know that the exterior is the avenue of expression for the interior. No doubt it is the spirit that really matters, and not the form; but just as form without spirit is null and void, so also would spirit remain inactive if it did not create for itself a form.
The above conditions are calculated to render the student strong enough to fulfil the further demands made on him in his training. If he fail in these conditions, he will hesitate before each new demand, and, without them, he will lack that faith in man which he must possess. For all striving for truth must be founded on faith in and true love for man. But though this is the foundation it is not the source of all striving for truth, for such striving can only flow from the soul’s own fountain-head of strength. And the love of man must gradually widen to a love for all living creatures, yes, for all existence. Through failure to fulfil the condition here given, the student will lack the perfect love for everything that fashions and creates, and the inclination to refrain from all destruction as such. He must so train himself that not only in his actions, but also in his words, feelings and thoughts he will never destroy anything for the sake of destruction. His joy must be in growth and life, and he must only lend his hand to destruction, when he is also able, through and by means of destruction, to promote new life. This does not mean that the student must simply look on while evil runs riot; but rather that he must seek, even in evil, that side through which he may transform it into good. He will then see more and more clearly that evil and imperfection may best be combatted by the creation of the good and the perfect. The student knows that out of nothing, nothing can be created, but also that the imperfect can be transformed into the perfect.
Anyone developing within himself the disposition to create, will soon find himself capable of facing evil in the right way.
It must be clearly realized that the purpose of this training is to build and not to destroy. The student should therefore bring with him the goodwill for sincere and devoted work, and not the intention to criticize and destroy. He should be capable of devotion, for he must learn what he does not yet know; he should look reverently on that which discloses itself. Work and devotion, these are the fundamental qualities which must be demanded of the student. Some come to realize that they are making no progress, though, in their own opinion, they are untiringly active. The reason is that they have not grasped the meaning of work and devotion in the right way. Work done for the sake of success will be the least successful, and learning pursued without devotion will be the least conducive to progress. Only the love of work, and not of success, leads to progress. And if in learning, the student seeks straight thinking and sound judgment, he need not spoil his devotion with doubts and suspicions.
We are not reduced to servile subjection in listening to some information with respectful sympathy, and because we do not at once oppose it with our own opinion. Anyone having advanced some way in the attainment of higher knowledge, knows that he owes everything to quiet attention and active reflection, and not to wilful personal judgment. We should always bear in mind that we do not need to learn what we can critically judge. Therefore if our sole intention is to judge, we can learn nothing more. Esoteric training, however, centres round learning; we must have absolutely the goodwill to be learners. If we cannot understand something, it is far better not to judge than to judge adversely. We can wait until later, for a true understanding. The higher we climb the ladder of knowledge, the more do we require the faculty of listening with quiet devotion. All perception of truth, all life and activity in the world of the spirit, become subtle and delicate in comparison with the processes of the ordinary intellect, and of life in the physical world. The more the sphere of our activity widens out before us, the more delicate are the processes in which we are engaged. It is for this reason that men arrive at such different ‘opinions’ and ‘points of view’, regarding the higher regions. But there is one and only one opinion regarding higher truths and this one opinion is within reach of all who, through work and devotion, have so risen that they can really behold truth and contemplate it. Opinions differing from the one true opinion can only be arrived at when people, insufficiently prepared, judge in accordance with their pet theories, their habitual ways of thought and so forth. Just as there is only one correct opinion concerning a mathematical problem, so also is this true with regard to the higher worlds. But before such an ‘opinion’ can be arrived at, due preparation must first be undergone. If this were only considered, the conditions attached to esoteric training would be surprising to none. It is indeed true that truth and the higher life abide in every soul, and that each can and must find them for himself. But they lie deeply buried, and can only be brought up from their deep shafts after all obstacles have been cleared away. Only the experienced can advise how this may be done. Such advice is found in Spiritual Science. No truth is forced on anyone, no dogma is proclaimed; a way, only, is pointed out. It is true that everyone could find this way unaided, but only perhaps after many incarnations. By this esoteric training this way is shortened. We thus reach more quickly a point from which we can co-operate in those worlds, where salvation and evolution of man are furthered by spiritual work. This brings to an end the indications to be given in connection with the attainment of knowledge of the higher worlds. In the following chapters, and in further connection with the above, it will be shown how this development affects the higher elements of the human organism (the soul-organism or astral body, and the spirit or thought-body). In this way, the indications here given will be placed in a new light, and it mill be possible to penetrate them in a deeper sense.