THE LESSER KEY OF SOLOMON
Compiled and Translated
S.L. “MacGregor” Mathers
Editing and Additional Material
(6.) VALEFOR. - The Sixth Spirit is Valefor. He is a mighty Duke, and appeareth in the shape
of a Lion with an Ass’s Head, bellowing. He is a good Familiar, but tempteth them he is a
familiar of to steal. He governeth 10 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, which is to be worn,
whether thou wilt have him for a Familiar, or not.
(7.) AMON. - The Seventh Spirit is Amon. He is a Marquis great in power, and most stern.
He appeareth like a Wolf with a Serpent’s tail, vomiting out of his mouth flames of fire; but at
the command of the Magician he putteth on the shape of a Man with Dog’s teeth beset in a
head like a Raven; or else like a Man with a Raven’s head (simply). He telleth all things Past
and to Come. He procureth feuds and reconcileth controversies between friends. He governeth
40 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this which is to be worn as aforesaid, etc.
(8.) BARBATOS. - The Eighth Spirit is Barbatos. He is a Great Duke, and appeareth when the
Sun is in Sagittary, with four noble Kings and their companies of great troops. He giveth
understanding of the singing of Birds, and of the Voices of other creatures, such as the barking
of Dogs. He breaketh the Hidden Treasures open that have been laid by the Enchantments of
Magicians. He is of the Order of Virtues, of which some part he retaineth still; and he knoweth
all things Past, and to come, and conciliateth Friends and those that be in Power. He ruleth over
30 Legions of Spirits. His Seal of Obedience is this, the which wear before thee as aforesaid.
(9) PAIMON. - The Ninth Spirit in this Order is Paimon, a Great King, and very obedient unto
LUCIFER. He appeareth in the form of a Man sitting upon a Dromedary with a Crown most
glorious upon his head. There goeth before him also an Host of Spirits, like Men with Trumpets
and well sounding Cymbals, and all other sorts of Musical Instruments. He hath a great Voice,
and roareth at his first coming, and his speech is such that the Magician cannot well understand
unless he can compel him. This Spirit can teach all Arts and Sciences, and other secret things.
He can discover unto thee what the Earth is, and what holdeth it up in the Waters; and what
Mind is, and where it is; or any other thing thou mayest desire to know. He giveth Dignity, and
confirmeth the same. He bindeth or maketh any man subject unto the Magician if he so desire it.
He giveth good Familiars, and such as can teach all Arts. He is to be observed towards the West.
He is of the Order of Dominations.13 He hath under him 200 Legions of Spirits, and part of
them are of the Order of Angels, and the other part of Potentates. Now if thou callest this Spirit
Paimon alone, thou must make him some offering; and there will attend him two Kings called
LABAL and ABALI , and also other Spirits who be of the Order of Potentates in his Host, and
25 Legions. And those Spirits which be subject unto them are not always with them unless the
Magician do compel them. His Character is this which must be worn as a Lamenbefore thee, etc.
(10.) BUER. - The Tenth Spirit is Buer, aGreat President. He appeareth in Sagittary, andthat is
his shape when the Sun is there. Heteaches Philosophy, both Moral and Natural, and the Logic
Art, and also the Virtues of allHerbs and Plants. He healeth all distempers inman, and giveth
good Familiars. He governeth50 Legions of Spirits, and his Character ofobedience is this, which
thou must wear whenthou callest him forth unto appearance.
13 Or Dominions, as they are usually termed.
(11.) GUSION. - The Eleventh Spirit in orderis a great and strong Duke, called Gusion. He
appeareth like a Xenopilus. He telleth all things,Past, Present, and to Come, and showeth the
meaning and resolution of all questions thoumayest ask. He conciliateth and reconcileth
friendships, and giveth Honour and Dignity unto any. He ruleth over 40 Legions of Spirits.
His Seal is this, the which wear thou as aforesaid.
(12.) SITRI. - The Twelfth Spirit is Sitri. He is a Great Prince and appeareth at first with a
Leopard’s head and the Wings of a Gryphon, but after the command of the Master of the
Exorcism he putteth on Human shape, and that very beautiful. He enflameth men with
Women’s love, and Women with Men’s love; and causeth them also to show themselves
naked if it be desired. He governeth 60 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, to be worn as
a Lamen before hee, etc.
(13.) BELETH. - The Thirteenth Spirit is called Beleth (or Bileth, or Bilet). He is a mighty
King and terrible. He rideth on a pale horse with trumpets and other kinds of musical
instruments playing before him. He is very furious at his first appearance, that is, while the Exorcist layeth his courage; for to do this he must hold a Hazel Wand in his hand, striking it
out towards the South and East Quarters, make a triangle, , without the Circle, and then command him into it by the Bonds and Charges of Spirits as hereafter followeth. And if he
doth not enter into the triangle, Ò, at your threats, rehearse the Bonds and Charms before
him, and then he will yield Obedience and come into it, and do what he is commanded by the Exorcist. Yet he must receive him courteously because he is a Great King, and do homage
unto him, as the Kings and Princes do that attend upon him. And thou must have always a
Silver Ring on the middle finger of the left hand held against thy face, as they do yet before AMAYMON. This Great King Beleth causeth all the love that may be, both of Men and of Women, until the Master Exorcist To protect him from the flaming breath of the enraged
Spirit; the design is given at the end of the instructions for the Magical Circle, etc., later on
in the Goetia.hath had his desire fulfilled. He is of the Order of Powers, and he governeth
85 Legions of Spirits. His Noble Seal is this, which is to be worn before thee at working.
(14.) LERAJE, or LERAIKHA. - The Fourteenth Spirit is called Leraje (or Leraie). He is a Marquis Great in Power, showing himself in the likeness of an Archer clad in Green, and
carrying a Bow and Quiver. He causeth all great Battles and Contests; and maketh wounds
to putrefy that are made with Arrows by Archers. This belongeth unto Sagittary. He governeth
30 Legions of Spirits, and this is his Seal, etc.
(15.) ELIGOS. - The Fifteenth Spirit in Order is Eligos, a Great Duke, and appeareth in the
form of a goodly Knight, carrying a Lance, anEnsign, and a Serpent. He discovereth hidden things, and knoweth things to come; and of Wars, and how the Soldiers will or shall meet.
He causeth the Love of Lords and Great Persons.
He governeth 60 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, etc.
(16.) ZEPAR. - The Sixteenth Spirit is Zepar. He is a Great Duke, and appeareth in Red Apparel
and Armour, like a Soldier. His office is to cause Women to love Men, and to bring them together
in love. He also maketh them barren. He governeth 26 Legions of Inferior Spirits, and his Seal is
this, which he obeyeth when he seeth it.
(17.) BOTIS. - The Seventeenth Spirit is Botis, a Great President, and an Earl. He appeareth at
the first show in the form of an ugly Viper, then at the command of the Magician he putteth on a
Human shape with Great Teeth, and two Horns, carrying a bright and sharp Sword in his hand.
He telleth all things Past, and to Come, and reconcileth Friends and Foes. He ruleth over 60
Legions of Spirits, and this is his Seal, etc.
(18.) BATHIN. - The Eighteenth Spirit is Bathin. He is a Mighty and Strong Duke, and appeareth
like a Strong Man with the tail of a Serpent, sitting upon a Pale-Coloured Horse. He knoweth the
Virtues of Herbs and Precious Stones, and can transport men suddenly from one country to
another. He ruleth over 30 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this which is to be worn as aforesaid.
(19.) SALLOS. - The Nineteenth Spirit is Sallos (or Saleos). He is a Great and Mighty Duke,
and appeareth in the form of a gallant Soldier riding on a Crocodile, with a Ducal Crown on his
head, but peaceably. He causeth the Love of Women to Men, and of Men to Women; and
governeth 30 Legions of Spirits.
His Seal is this, etc.
(20.) PURSON. - The Twentieth Spirit is Purson, a Great King. His appearance is comely, like a
Man with a Lion’s face, carrying a cruel Viper in his hand, and riding upon a Bear. Going before
him are many Trumpets sounding. He knoweth all things hidden, and can discover Treasure, and
tell all things Past, Present, and to Come. He can take a Body either Human or Aërial, and
answereth truly of all Earthly things both Secret and Divine, and of the Creation of the World.
He bringeth forth good Familiars, and under his Government there be 22 Legions of Spirits,
partly of the Order of Virtues and partly of the Order of Thrones. His Mark, Seal, or Character
is this, unto the which he oweth obedience, and which thou shalt wear in time of action, etc.
(21.) MARAX. - The Twenty-first Spirit isMarax. He is a Great Earl and President. He
appeareth like a great Bull with a Man’s face. His office is to make Men very knowing
in Astronomy, and all other Liberal Sciences; also he can give good Familiars, and wise,
knowing the virtues of Herbs and Stones which be precious. He governeth 30 Legions
of Spirits, and his Seal is this, which must be made and worn as aforesaid, etc.
(22.) IPOS. - The Twenty-second Spirit is lpos. He is an Earl, and a Mighty Prince, and
appeareth in the form of an Angel with a Lion's Head, and a Goose's Foot, and Hare's
Tail. He knoweth all things Past, Present, and to Come. He maketh men witty and bold.
He governeth 36 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, which thou shalt wear, etc,.
(23.) AIM. - The Twenty-third Spirit is Aim. He is a Great Strong Duke. He appeareth
in the form of a very handsome Man in body, but with three Heads; the first, like a
Serpent, the second like a Man having two Stars on his Forehead, the third like a Calf.
He rideth on a Viper, carrying a Firebrand in his Hand, wherewith he setteth cities,
castles, and great Places, on fire. He maketh thee witty in all manner of ways, and
giveth true answers unto private matters. He governeth 26 Legions of Inferior Spirits;
and his Seal is this, which wear thou as aforesaid, etc.
(24.) NABERIUS. - The Twenty-fourth Spirit is Naberius. He is a most valiant Marquis,
and showeth in the form of a Black Crane, fluttering about the Circle, and when he
speaketh it is with a hoarse voice. He maketh men cunning in all Arts and Sciences, but
especially in the Art of Rhetoric.
He restoreth lost Dignities and Honours. He governeth 19 Legions of Spirits. His Seal
is this, which is to be worn, etc.
(25.) GLASYA-LABOLAS. - The Twenty-fifthSpirit is Glasya-Labolas. He is a Mighty
President and Earl, and showeth himself in the form of a Dog with Wings like a
Gryphon. He teacheth all Arts and Sciences in an instant, and is an Author of Bloodshed
and Manslaughter. He teacheth all things Past, and to Come. If desired he causeth the
love both of Friends and of Foes. He can make a Man to go Invisible. And he hath
under his command 36 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, to be, etc.
(26.) BUNE, or BIME. - The Twenty-sixth Spirit is Bune (or Bim). He is a Strong, Great and
Mighty Duke. He appeareth in the form of a Dragon with three heads, one like a Dog, one like
a Gryphon, and one like a Man. He speaketh with a high and comely Voice.
He changeth the Place of the Dead, and causeth the Spirits which be under him to gather
together upon your Sepulchres. He giveth Riches unto a Man, and maketh him Wise and
Eloquent. He giveth true Answers unto Demands. And he governeth 30 Legions of Spirits.
His Seal is this, unto the which he oweth Obedience. He hath another Seal (which is the
first of these, 15 but the last is the best).16
(27.) RONOVE. - The Twenty-seventh Spirit is Ronove. He appeareth in the Form of a
He teacheth the Art of Rhetoric very well and giveth Good Servants, Knowledge of Tongues,
and Favours with Friends or Foes. He is a Marquis and Great Earl; and there be under his
command 19 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, etc.
(28.) BERITH. - The Twenty-eighth Spirit in Order, as Solomon bound them, is named
He is a Mighty, Great, and Terrible Duke. He hath two other Names given unto him by
men of later times, viz.: BEALE, or BEAL, and BOFRY or BOLFRY. He appeareth in the
Form of a Soldier with Red Clothing, riding upon a Red Horse, and having a Crown of Gold
upon his head. He giveth true answers, Past, Present, and to Come. Thou must make use of
a Ring in calling him forth, as is before spoken of regarding Beleth.17 He can turn all metals
into Gold. He can give Dignities, and can confirm them unto Man. He speaketh with a, very
clear and subtle Voice. He governeth 26 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, etc.
(29.) ASTAROTH. - The Twenty-ninth Spirit is Astaroth. He is a Mighty, Strong Duke, and
appeareth in the Form of an hurtful Angel riding on an Infernal Beast like a Dragon, and
carrying in his right hand a Viper. Thou must in no wise let him approach too near unto thee,
lest he do thee damage by his Noisome Breath. Wherefore the Magician must hold the
Magical Ring near his face, and that will defend him. He giveth true answers of things Past,
Present, and to Come, and can discover all Secrets. He will declare wittingly how the Spirits
fell, if desired, and the reason of his own fall. He can make men wonderfully knowing in all
Liberal Sciences. He ruleth 40 Legions of Spirits. His Seal is this, which wear thou as a
Lamen before thee, or else he will not appear nor yet obey thee, etc.
(30.) FORNEUS. - The Thirtieth Spirit is Forneus. He is a Mighty and Great Marquis, and
appeareth in the Form of a Great Sea-Monster. He teacheth, and maketh men wonderfully
knowing in the Art of Rhetoric. He causeth men to have a Good Name, and to have the
knowledge and understanding of Tongues. He maketh one to be beloved of his Foes as well
as of his Friends. He governeth 29 Legions of Spirits, partly of the Order of Thrones, and
partly of that of Angels.His Seal is this, which wear thou, etc.
(31.) FORAS. - The Thirty-first Spirit is Foras. He is a Mighty President, and appeareth in the
Form of a Strong Man in Human Shape. He can give the understanding to Men how they may
know the Virtues of all Herbs and Precious Stones. He teacheth the Arts of Logic and Ethics in
all their parts. If desired he maketh men invisible, and to live long, and to be eloquent. He can discover Treasures and recover things Lost. He ruleth over 29 Legions of Spirits, and his Seal
is this, which wear thou, etc.
(32.) ASMODAY. - The Thirty-second Spirit is Asmoday, or Asmodai. He is a Great King,
Strong, and Powerful. He appeareth with Three Heads, whereof the first is like a Bull, the
second like a Man, and the third like a Ram; he hath also the tail of a Serpent, and from his
mouth issue Flames of Fire. His Feet are webbed like those of a Goose. He sitteth upon an
Infernal Dragon, and beareth in his hand a Lance with a Banner. He is first and choicest
under the Power of AMAYMON, he goeth before all other. When the Exorcist hath a mind
to call him, let it be abroad, and let him stand on his feet all the time of action, with his Cap
or Headdress off; for if it be on, AMAYMON will deceive him and call all his actions to be
But as soon as the Exorcist seeth Asmoday in the shape aforesaid, he shall call him by his
Name, saying: “Art thou Asmoday?” and he will not deny it, and by-and-by he will bow down
unto the ground. He giveth the Ring of Virtues; he teacheth the Arts of Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry, and all handicrafts absolutely. He giveth true and full answers unto thy demands. He maketh one Invincible. He showeth the place where Treasures lie, and guardeth it. He, amongst
the Legions of AMAYMON governeth 72 Legions of Spirits Inferior. His Seal is this which
thou must wear as a Lamen upon thy breast, etc.
(33.) GAAP. - The Thirty-third Spirit is Gaap. He is a Great President and a Mighty Prince.
He appeareth when the Sun is in some of the Southern Signs, in a Human Shape, going before
Four Great and Mighty Kings, as if lie were a Guide to conduct them along on their way. His
Office is to make men Insensible or Ignorant; as also in Philosophy to make them Knowing,
and in all the Liberal Sciences. He can cause Love or Hatred, also he can teach thee to
consecrate those things that belong to the Dominion of AMAYMON his King. He can
deliver Familiars out of the Custody of other Magicians, and answereth truly and perfectly
of things Past, Present, and to Come. He can carry and re-carry men very speedily from one
Kingdom to another, at the Will and Pleasure of the Exorcist.
He ruleth over 66 Legions of Spirits, and he was of the Order of Potentates. His Seal is this
to be made and to be worn as aforesaid, etc.
(34.) FURFUR. - The Thirty-fourth Spirit is Furfur. He is a Great and Mighty Earl,
appearing in the Form of an Hart with a Fiery Tail. He never speaketh truth unless he be
compelled, or brought up within a triangle, Ò. Being therein, he will take upon himself the
Form of an Angel. Being bidden, he speaketh with a hoarse voice. Also he will wittingly urge
Love between Man and Woman. He can raise Lightnings and Thunders, Blasts, and Great Tempestuous Storms. And he giveth True Answers both of Things Secret and Divine, if
commanded. He ruleth over 26 Legions of Spirits.
And his Seal is this, etc.
(35.) MARCHOSIAS. - The Thirty-fifth Spirit is Marchosias. He is a Great and Mighty
Marquis, appearing at first in the Form of a Wolf18 having Gryphon’s Wings, and a
Serpent’s Tail, and Vomiting Fire out of his mouth. But after a time, at the command of the
Exorcist he putteth on the Shape of a Man. And he is a strong fighter. He was of the Order
of Dominations. He governeth 30 Legions of Spirits. He told his Chief, who was Solomon,
that after 1,200 years he had hopes to return unto the Seventh Throne. And his Seal is this,
to be made and worn as a Lamen, etc.
18 In one Codex of the seventeenth century, very badly written, it might be read "Ox" instead of "Wolf." - TRANS. [For me he appeared always like an ox, and very dazed.-ED.]