THE ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY

BY DEMOCRITUS JUNIOR

[ROBERT BURTON]

1621

THE SYNOPSIS OF THE FIRST PARTITION

THE FIRST PARTITION. THE FIRST SECTION, MEMBER, SUBSECTION

In diseases consider Sect. I Memb. I
* Their Causes Subs. I
* Impulsive;
* Sin, Concupiscence, &c
* Instrumental;
* Intemperance, all second causes, &c.
* Definition, Member, Division. Subs. 2
* Of the body 300, which are
* Epidemical, as Plague, Plica, &c.
* Particular, as gout, dropsy, etc.
* Of the head or mind. Subs. 3
* In disposition; as all perturbations, evil affection, &c
* Habits, as Subs. 4
* Dotage
* Frenzy
* Madness
* Ecstasy
* Lycanthropia
* Choreus sancti Viti
* Hydrophobia
* Possession or obsession of devils
* Melancholy. See W

W: Melancholy: in which consider
* Its Equivocations, in Disposition, Improper, &c. Subsect. 5
* Memb. 2. To its explication, a digression of anatomy, in which observe
parts of
Subs. 1
* Body hath parts Subs. 2
* contained, as
* Humours, 4. Blood, phlegm, &c.
* Spirits; vital, natural, animal.
* containing
* Similar; spermatical, or flesh, bones, nerves, &c. Subs. 3

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* Dissimilar; brain, heart, liver, &c. Subs. 4
* Soul and its faculties, as
* Vegetal. Subs. 5
* Sensible. Subs. 6, 7, 8
* Rational. Subs. 9, 10, 11
* Memb 3.
* Its definition, name, difference, Subs. 1
* The part and parties affected, affectation, &c. Subs. 2
* The matter of melancholy, natural, unnatural, &c. Subs. 3
* Species, or kinds, Subs. 4, which are
* Proper to parts, as
* Of the head alone, Hypochondriacal, or windy melancholy.
* Of the whole body;
* with their several causes, symptoms, prognostics,
* Indefinite, as love-melancholy, the subject of the third Partition.
* Its Causes in general. Sect 2. A.
* Its Symptoms or signs Sect. 3 B.
* Its Prognostics or indications Sect 4. C
* Its Cures; the subject of the second Partition

A: Sect. 2 Causes of melancholy are either
* General, as Memb. 1
* Supernatural
* As from God immediately, or by second causes. Subs. 1
* Or from the devil immediately, with a digression on the nature
of spirits and devils. Subs. 2
* Or mediately, by magicians, witches. Subs. 3
* Natural
* Primary, as stars, proved by aphorisms, signs from physiognomy,
metoposcopy, chiromancy Subs. 4
* Secondary, as
* Congenite, Inward from
* Old age, temperament, Subs. 5
* Parents, it being an hereditary disease, Subs. 6
* Outward, or adventitious, which are
* Evident, outward, remote, adventitious, as
* Necessary, see Y
* Not Necessary, as Memb. 4 Sect. 2
* Nurses, Subs. 1
* Education, Subs. 2
* Terrors, affrights, Subs. 3

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* Scoffs, calumnies, bitter jests, Subs. 4
* Loss of liberty, servitude, imprisonment, Subs. 5
* Poverty and want, Subs. 6
* A heap of other accidents, death of friends, loss
&c. Subs. 7
* Contingent, inward, antecedent, nearest. Memb. 5 Sect. 2
* In which the body works on the mind, and this malady is
caused by precedent diseases; as agues, pox, &c. or
temperature innate, Subs. 1
* Or by particular parts distempered, as brain, heart,
spleen, liver, mesentery, pylorus, stomach, &c. Subs. 2
* Particular to the three species. See X.

X: Particular Causes. Sect. 2 Memb. 5
* Of head melancholy are, Subs. 3
* Inward
* Innate humour, or from distemperature adust.
* A hot brain, corrupted blood in the brain.
* Excess of venery, or defect.
* Agues, or some precedent disease.
* Fumes arising from the stomach, &c.
* Outward
* Heat of the sun immoderate.
* A blow on the head.
* Overmuch use of hot wines, garlic, onions, hot baths, overmuch
walking, &c.
* Idleness, solitariness, or overmuch study, vehement labour, &c.
* Passions, perturbations, &c.
* Of hypochondriacal, or windy melancholy, are Sect. 4
* Inward
* Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomach, mesentery, miseraic
veins, liver, &c.
* Months or hemorrhoids stopped, or any other ordinary evacuation
* Outward
* Those six non-natural things abused.
* Over all the body are, Sect. 5
* Inward
* Liver distempered, over-hot, apt to engender melancholy,
temperature innate.
* Outward
* Bad diet, suppression of hemorrhoids, &c., and such evacuations,
passions, cares, &c., those six non-natural things abused.

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Y: Necessary causes, as those six non-natural things, which are Sect. 2
Memb. 2
* Diet offending in
* Substance Subs. 1
* Bread; coarse and black, &c.
* Drink; thick, thin, sour, &c.
* Water unclean, milk, oil, vinegar, wine, spices, &c.
* Flesh
* Parts; heads, feet, entrails, fat, bacon, blood, &c.
* Kinds
* Beef, pork, venison, hares, goats, pigeons, peacocks,
fen-fowl, &c.
* Herbs, Fish, &c.
* Of fish; all shell-fish, hard and slimy fish, &c.
* Of herbs; pulse, cabbage, melons, garlick, onions, &c.
* All roots, raw fruits, hard and windy meats.
* Quality, as in
* Preparing, dressing, sharp sauces, salt meats, indurate, soused,
fried, broiled or made dishes, &c.
* Quantity
* Disorder in eating, immoderate eating, or at unseasonable times,
&c. Subs. 2
* Custom; delight, appetite, altered, &c. Subs. 3
* Retention and evacuation, Subs. 4
* Costiveness, hot baths, sweating, issues stopped, Venus in excess,
or in defect, phlebotomy, purging, &c.
* Air, hot, cold, tempestuous, dark, thick, foggy, moorish, &c Subs. 5
* Exercise, Subs. 6
* Unseasonable, excessive, or defective, of body or mind,
solitariness, idleness, a life out of action, &c.
* Sleep and waking, unseasonable, inordinate, overmuch, overlittle, &c.
Subs. 7
* Memb. 3 Sect 2.
* Passions and perturbations of the mind. Subs. 1.
With a digression of the force of the imagination, Subs. 2,
And division of the passions into, Subs. 3
* Irascible
* Sorrow, cause and symptom, Subs. 4
* Fear, cause and symptom, Subs. 5
* Shame, repulse, disgrace, &c. Subs. 6
* Envy and malice, Subs. 7
* Emulation, hatred, faction, desire of revenge, Subs. 8
* Anger a cause, Subs. 9

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* Discontents, cares, miseries, &c. Subs. 10
* Concupiscible
* Vehement desire, ambition, Subs. 11
* Covetousness, φιλαργυριαν [philargyrian], Subs. 12
* Love of pleasures, gaming in excess, &c. Subs. 13
* Desire of praise, pride, vainglory, &c. Subs. 14
* Love of learning, study in excess, with a digression on the
misery of scholars, and why the muses are melancholy, Subs. 15

B. Symptoms of melancholy are either Sect. 3
* General, as of Memb. 1
* Body, as ill digestion, crudity, wind, dry brains, hard belly,
thick blood, much waking, heaviness and palpitation of heart,
leaping to many places, &c., Subs. 1
* Mind
* Common to all or most
* Fear and sorrow without a just cause, suspicion, jealousy,
discontent, solitariness, irksomeness, continual cogitation,
restless thoughts, vain imaginations, &c. Subs. 2
* Particular to private persons, according to Subs. 3, 4
* Celestial influences, as Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, &c., parts of
the body, heart, brain, liver, spleen, stomach, &c.
* Humours
* Sanguine are merry still laughing, pleasant, meditating on
plays, women, music, &c.
* Phlegmatic, slothful, dull, heavy, &c.
* Choleric, furious, impatient, subject to see and hear
strange apparitions, &c.
* Black, solitary, sad; they think they are bewitched, dead,
* Or mixed of these four humours adust, or not adust,
infinitely varied, &c.
* Their several customs, conditions, inclinations, discipline,
* Ambitious, thinks himself a king, a lord
* Covetous, runs on his money.
* Lascivious, on his mistress
* Religious, hath revelations, visions, is a prophet, or
troubled in mind
* A scholar, on his book, &c.
* Continuance in time as the humour is intended or remitted,
* Pleasant at first, hardly discerned; afterwards harsh and
intolerable, if inveterate.
* Hence some make three degrees
* 1. Falsa Cogitato
* 2. Cogitata loqui

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* 3. Exequi loquutum
* By fits, or continuate, as the object varies, pleasing or
displeasing
* Simple, as it is mixed with other diseases, apoplexies, gout, caninus
appetitus, &c. so the symptoms are various.

Z: Particular symptoms to the three distinct species Sect. 3 Memb. 2
* Head melancholy Subs. 1
* In body
* Headache, binding and heaviness, vertigo, lightness, singing of
the ears, much waking, fixed eyes, high colour, red eyes, hard
belly, dry body; no great sign of melancholy in the other parts.
* In mind
* Continual fear, sorrow, suspicion, discontent, superfluous
cares, solicitude, anxiety, perpetual cogitaton of such toys,
they are possessed with, thoughts like dreams, &c.
* Hypochondriacal, or windy melancholy, Subs. 2
* In body
* Wind, rumbling in the guts, belly-ache, heat in the bowels,
convulsions, crudities, short wind, sour and sharp belchings,
cold sweat, pain in the left side, suffocation, palpitation,
heaviness of the heart, singing in the ears, much spittle, and
moist, &c.
* In mind
* Fearful, sad, suspicious, discontent, anxiety, &c., Lascivious by
reason of much wind, troublesome dreams, affected by fits, &c.
* Over all the body Subs. 3
* In body
* Black, most parts lean, broad veins, gross, thick blood, their
hemorrhoids commonly stopped, &c.
* In mind
* Fearful, sad, solitary, hate light, averse from company, fearful
dreams, &c.
* Symptoms of nuns', maids' and widows' melancholy, in body and mind,
* A reason of these symptoms Memb. 3
* Why they are so fearful, sad, suspicious without a cause, why
solitary, why melancholy men are witty, why they suppose they hear
and see strange voices, visions, apparitions.
* Why they prophesy, and speak strange languages, whence comes their
crudity, rambling, convulsion, cold sweat, heaviness of heart,
palpitation, cardiaca, fearful dreams, much waking, prodigious
fantasies
C. Prognostics of melancholy Sect. 4
* Tending to good, as
* Morphew, scabs, itch, breaking out, &c.

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* Black jaundice
* If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open
* If varices appear
* Tending to evil, as
* Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, &c.
* Inveterate melancholy is incurable
* If cold, it degenerates often into epilepsy, apoplexy, dotage, or
into blindness.
* If hot, into madness, despair and violent death.
* Corollaries and questions.
* The grievousness of this above all other diseases
* The diseases of the mind are more grievous than those of the body
* Whether it be lawful, in this case of melancholy, for a man to
offer violence to himself. Neg.
* How a melancholy or mad man offering violence to himself, is to be
censured

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The Anatomy of Melancholy

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