THE INFLUENCE OF ANIMISM ON ISLAM AN ACCOUNT OF POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS

BY

SAMUEL M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S.

LONDON

CENTRAL BOARD OF MISSIONS

AND

SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING

CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE
1920


This book is one of a series of American publications which the Central Board of Missions desires to make available for students of missions in England. While considering these books to be worthy of study the Central Board of Missions takes no responsibility for their contents.

THIS VOLUME CONTAINS
THE A. C. THOMPSON LECTURES FOR 1918-1919
DELIVERED ON THE HARTFORD SEMINARY FOUNDATION AND AT PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY IN A COURSE OF LECTURES ON MISSIONS:
IT IS DEDICATED TO THE STUDENTS AND FACULTIES OF THESE INSTITUTIONS IN APPRECIATION OF
THE INVITATION TO DELIVER THE LECTURES AND IN PLEASANT RECOLLECTION OF THEIR MANY COURTESIES

PKEFACE

From the standpoint both of religion and culture Animism has been described as the tap-root which sinks deepest in
racial human experience and continues its cellular and fibrous structure in the tree-trunk of modern conviction.
All the great world religions show traces of animism in their sub-soil and none but Christianity (even that not completely) has uprooted the weed-growth of superstition. In this book it is our purpose to show how Islam sprang up in Pagan soil and retained many old Arabian beliefs in spite of its vigorous monotheism. Wherever Mohammedanism went it introduced old or adopted new superstitions. The result has been that as background of the whole ritual and even in the creed of popular Islam, Animism has conquered. The religion of the common people from Tangier to Teheran is mixed with hundreds of superstitions many of which have lost their original significance but still bind mind and heart with constant fear of demons, with witchcraft and sorcery and the call to creature-worship. Just as popular Hinduism differs in toto from the religion of the Vedas, popular Islam is altogether different from the religion as recorded in its sacred Book. Our purpose in the chapters which follow is to show how this miry clay of animism mingles with the iron of
Semitic theism in the feet of the great image with head of gold that rest on Asia and Africa. The rapid spread of Islam in Africa and Malayia is, we believe, largely due to its animistic character. The primitive religions had points of contact with Islam that were mutually attractive. It stooped to conquer them but fell in stooping. The reformation of Islam, if such be possible, must begin here. The student of Islam will never understand the common people unless he knows their curious beliefs and half-heathen practices. The missionary should not only know but sympathize. Avoiding contempt or denunciation he will even find points of contact in Animistic Islam that may lead discussion straight to the Cross and the Atonement. In popular Islam we have to deal with men and women groping after light and struggling in the mire for a firm foothold on the Rock. This book may help us to find their hand in the dark. As we read its pages we must not forget that even in Egypt and India over ninetyfour percent of the Moslem population is illiterate and there fore has no other religion than popular Islam.

                         S. M. ZWEMEE.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PACK

I ISLAM AND ANIMISM 1

II ANIMISM IN THE CREED AND THE USE OF THE ROSARY 21

III ANIMISTIC ELEMENTS IN MOSLEM PRAYER ... 43

IV HAIR, FINGER-NAILS AND THE HAND .... 66

V THE AQIQA SACRIFICE 87

VI THE FAMILIAR SPIRIT OR QARINA 107

VII JINN 125

VIII PAGAN PRACTICES IN CONNECTION WITH THE PILGRIMAGE 146

IX MAGIC AND SORCERY 163

X AMULETS, CHARMS AND KNOTS 186

XI TREE, STONE AND SERPENT WORSHIP .... 208

XII THE ZAR: EXORCISM OF DEMONS . 227




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