Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World
BOOK 6 of 12
THE SIGN-LANGUAGE OF ASTRONOMICAL MYTHOLOGY (PART II)
[Page 321]THE ancient Apt, the first great mother who was the bringer-forth in Apta, as the womb of life, was elevated to the planisphere as bringer-forth in heaven. She was constellated in the Hippopotamus or Greater Bear, and called “the mother of the fields of heaven”; “the mother of beginnings”; “the mother of movement in a circle”, “the mother of the starry revolutions”, or the cycles of time. As such, Apt was the builder of a heaven that was founded on the seven pillars of the Heptanomis. Now the most primitive Egyptian type of building is a figure of turning round, as might be in making pottery. The conical pillar, pile, or mound of earth was also a type of this turning round. Thus the heptanomis was built on seven pillars, and the mother of the revolutions was the founder of the heptanomis. How this was built has yet to be explained according to “The Mystery of the Seven Stars”. The heptanomis of the old Great Mother and her seven sons was followed by the Octonary of Am-Khemen, the park or paradise of the eight great gods. This, as we reckon, is the circumpolar enclosure which was founded when Anup, the power of Polaris North, was added to the primordial rulers, or Nomarchs, and whose animal-type, the jackal, remained as guide star in the Lesser Bear (planisphere of Denderah, plate in Book of Beginnings). The octonary was one of the “upliftings of Shu” which are alluded to in the Ritual. The heaven, that is also called the mansion of his stars, which was again and again renewed (ch. 110). Shu had been one of the sustaining powers of the firmament who were known as the seven giants. He then became the elevator of the heaven that was imaged as the cow of Nut; and lastly his was the sustaining power with Atum-Horus in the double equinox. Apparently this change from the heptanomis of the ancient mother and her seven sons to the heaven of the eight great gods upraised by Shu is indicated in the Magic Papyrus. In this the giant of seven cubits is addressed. A divine command is given to him: “Get made for me a shrine of eight cubits! And as thou hast been (or wast) a giant of seven cubits, I have said to thee, thou canst not enter this shrine of eight cubits. And, as (or although) thou wast a giant of seven cubits, thou hast entered and reposed in it. “The giant of seven cubits” in the shrine of seven cubits now gives place to one who “has the face [Page 322] of a Kafi ape, with the head of hair of a monkey Aani”. The type. that is, of the moon-god, Tehuti-Aani, in the shrine of eight cubits, or the heaven of the eight great gods in the
enclosure of Am-Khemen, the octonary of Taht, upraised by Shu (Magic Papyrus, Records of the Past, vol. x., pp. 151-154). Aani, the Kafi ape, was Taht's own especial monkey of the moon, and is a sign that the shrine of eight cubits was the octagonal heaven or octonary of Taht, the lunar god which tends to identify this with the enclosure of Am-Khemen that was upraised by Shu. In all likelihood the giant thus addressed is Shu, the lion of the uplifting force.
It is related in very old Egyptian legends that when Shu-Anhur lifted up the paradise or park of Am- Khemen he was compelled to make use of a mound or staircase with steps to it in order that he might reach the height. This mound, says Maspero, was famous throughout all Egypt. The event (as supposed history) took place at Hermopolis, the city of which Taht was lord; therefore we may look to the lunar deity for the origin of the step-mound. A figure of this mound may be seen in vignettes to the Ritual as a pyramid with seven steps called the ladder or staircase of Shu. How then did the steps or stairs of the mound originate as a lunar type of the ascent? and why should the steps be seven in number ? The
answer is because they were lunar. The moon fulfilled its four quarters in twenty-eight steps; fourteen up and fourteen down. For this reason, Osiris in the moon was represented by an eye at the top of fourteen steps. The moon in its first quarter took seven steps upward from the underworld to the summit, which in the annual reckoning was the equinoctial mount. In other words Shu now made use of a lunar reckoning previously established by the moon-god Taht, when the ark of seven cubits was superseded by Am-Khemen. There are two sets of names in the Ritual given to the seven primordial powers in two of their astronomical characters.
The first seven are called: ( I) An-ar-ef the great. (2) Kat-Kar. (3) The Bull who Loveth in his fire.(4) The Red-eyed One in the House of Gauze. (5) Fiery face which turneth backwards.(6) Dark face in its hour, and (7) Seer in the night.
The second seven are: (I) Amsta. (2) Hapi. (3) Tuamutef. (4)Kabhsenuf (5) Maa-tef-f (6) Karbek-f (7) Har-Khent-an-maa-ti.The first four of the latter seven are the gods of the four quarters, who stand on the papyrus of earth and who became the children of Horus in a later creation.
In this new heaven raised by Shu another god was born as eighth one to the seven. This was Anup (a form of Sut), as a deity of the north celestial pole. The Egyptian eight great gods consist of 7 + 1. The Phoenician Kabiri were 7 + 1. The Japanese Kami are 7 +1 In the Vâyu-Purana the group of Rishis, who are usually reckoned as seven, are spoken of as eight in number, and are therefore another group of the 7 + 1. The company of eight British gods were seven with Arthur as the eighth.
The seven powers plus one are also to be seen in the seven sleepers of Ephesus and their dog. Moreover, the dog can be identified with Anup as the golden dog or jackal at the pole. When the god of the polestar was appointed in the north it was as an eighth to the seven, and he who was the eighth became the [Page 323] supreme one, the head over all, like the occiput at the top of the seven vertebral joints in the back-bone of Anup, Ptah or Osiris (which was a figure of the pole.) The head or headland in Egyptian is Ap (or Tep), and the same word signifies the chief, the first, and also the number eight or the eighth. Anup was distinguished from the seven earth-born powers. He is expressly called “the son of the cow”. That is the son of Nut the cow of heaven; the heaven that was lifted up by Shu in the shape of the cow which brought forth Anup at the pole. Ap-ta-Urt, the cow of earth, had been the mother of the seven, who were reproduced by Nut as the Khuti or glorious ones who are eight with Anup added as the power of Polaris. Anup the highest power at the pole, then becomes arranger of the stars in this new heaven of the eight great gods, that was upraised by Shu the giant. who had been one of the primary seven powers. Anup, the eighth, is said to fix the places of the seven glorious ones, who follow after the coffin of Osiris, on the day of “Come thou hither”; which was the first day of some new creation in the Astronomical Mythology. (Rit.ch. 17). In the solar mythos the sun-god took the place of Sut-Anup, who was the earlier maintainer of the equipoise and equilibrium in the revolving system of the heavens. The speaker in the Ritual ( ch. 54) says, - “ I am the god who keepeth opposition in equipoise, as the egg which circles round”. The egg is the sun. .But he continues - “ For me there dawneth the moment of the most mighty one Sut” (or Sut-Anup ), who was the most mighty one as prevailer on the side of order at the pole before the equilibrium of forces was
known to depend upon the power of gravitation and the revolution of the sun. What the sun is at the centre of the solar system, the pole-star had been at the centre of the stellar universe in the most ancient astronomy. In place of gravitation the force that swung the system round was represented by a cord or chain attached to the pole as its symbol of controlling power. This eighth one added to the seven primary powers came at times to be designated father of the seven. Thus the eighth was raised to the headship over the seven Japanese Kami. Anup, as representative of the polar star, is lord over the seven Akhemu or non-setting stars. The Phoenician Sydik is father to the seven Kabiri, and he is the just, the righteous one. Which means that he also was a representative of the pole, identical with Anup, who is the judge.
The character is the same in relation to the seven earlier powers now called the sons, as the just one, or the judge. “King of the seven sons of earth” is a title of Anu. Reference is also made to the king of the seven Lu-Masi. (Maspero - Dawn of Civilisation. page 631. Note I, English Translation) This was the god who, as eighth to the seven and the highest of all, was the chief, the Suten or King, that is, Sut-Anup, chief to the Kamite seven in the circumpolar heaven of the eight great gods. The Assyrian seven are likewise designated the sons of Bel as the seven Annunaki or earthly Anunnas. Anup the jackal-headed was the primordial judge, but so anciently that he had been superseded by Atum and Osiris in that character. The pictures to the Ritual show him in the judgment-hall reduced to the position of inspector of weights and measures in the presence of Osiris, who has now become the great judge in Amenta. But allusions to the earlier status still remain. As [Page 324] it is said in the inscription of Khnumhetep “all the festivals on earth terminate on the hill” or over the hill of Anup. That is in the eternal feast upon Mount Hetep, the mount of glory in the polar paradise. (Inscription. Line, 96. Records, v. 12. p. 71.) In the Rig-Veda (x. 82, 2) the habitation of the one god is placed in the highest north “beyond the seven Rishis”.
These are often supposed to be represented by the seven stars in the Great Bear, but erroneously so.
The seven Rishis, Urshi or divine watchers were grouped in the Lesser Bear, the stars of which constellation never set. These were the chief of the Akhemu under Anup, god of the pole-star.
The Subbas or Mandozo, the “Ancients” of Mesopotamia, are what is called worshippers of the pole-star. To this they turn their faces in prayer, and in going to sleep. The reason assigned is that when Hivel Zivo the Subban creator assumed the government of the worlds which he had formed, he placed himself at the limits of the seven Matarathos, at the extreme point of the universe where the pole-star was then created to cover him. (Siouffi. La Religion des Soubbas. Paris 1880.) The original old man of the mountain was unquestionably the ancient deity of the pole-star. Hence the group of seven stars which accompany the head of the “Old Man” on the Gnostic stones showing that he was the head over the seven glorious ones.
(King. Gnostic Remains. ) The old man of the mountain then, is Anup, who arranged the stations of the seven on the day of “Come thou to me” (Rit., ch. 17). It is just possible that we may now discover the origin of the mystical eight-rayed star in the numerical symbol of the eight great gods, who consisted of the seven, with Anup, on his mountain, as the eighth and highest in the stellar mythos. In this way: there is a gnostic gem of loadstone figured in King's Book on which Anup is portrayed like Horus holding two monstrous scorpions in his hands. He is accompanied by the sun, as a winged scarab, the crescent moon and a star with eight rays. (Second Ed. pI. 9.) This emblem was given to the solar god in Egypt, Assyria, India and in Rome, but here it is assigned to Anup the supreme one of the eight great gods, and the first who was the eighth to the seven in the octonary of Taht or the ark of eight measures that was lifted up by Shu in the paradise of Am-Khemen.
As the pictures show, the zodiac was founded on the inundation. The mother of water figured in the southern fish, as the womb of source itself, was afterwards repeated on the ecliptic, as the wateress (later Aquarius) with all her myriad mammae streaming from the fount of liquid life, in the abyss, the Tepht, or Tuat, that was localized in the recesses of the south from whence the inundation came, and from which it was perennially renewed. When the zodiac was established, she who had been the mother of water in the south would naturally be given a foremost place. The waterer was now repeated as the multi-mammalian wet-nurse in the sign of Aquarius; the same in character, whether as the southern fish,
the water-cow, or the suckler divinized. However represented, earth as the giver of water was the type, and in Egypt the water was the inundation. The first two children of the great mother came into existence as the twin brothers, who contended with each other in the opposite elements of [Page 325] drought and water, or darkness and light, and in other phenomena. These twin powers were constellated in the sign of the Twins at the station where the two combatants were first reconciled, that was at the equinoctial level.
These then, we reckon, were amongst the earliest founders of the zodiac on some old common meeting ground of night and day, or drought and inundation which is yet visible for us in the sign of the Gemini.
Moreover it is related in the ancient legends and folk-tales that once upon a time there was a pair of brothers who were twins, and these twin brethren were the builders of a city. A typical illustration may be cited in Romulus and Remus as the mythical twins who are the reputed founders of the city of Rome. In Egypt the brother builders are the Sut and Horus twins. The city which they built was in the heavens, not on earth, and this, the Gemini remained to show, was in the circle of the ecliptic. Thus Sut and Horus, following the great mother, are also founders of the zodiac. The first pair of twins were male. These were followed by a pair in Shu and Tefnut, that were male and female, called the brother and sister. These were twinned, back to back, Shu in front. Tefnut behind, to form the figure of Sagittarius on the other side
of the zodiac exactly opposite the Gemini (oblong zodiac of Denderah).
We reckon Shu, the lion of breathing force and uplifter of the firmament. to be third of the elemental powers born of the ancient Genetrix. Shu upraised the heaven of day in one character and the heaven of night in the other. He is a pillar of support to the firmament as founder of the double equinox. He sustains the heaven with his two-pronged stick, his two arms, or with the two lions of force which represent himself and his sister Tefnut the lioness. It was at the equinoctial level that the quarrel of Sut and Horus was settled for the time being by Shu. Shu thus stands for the equinox as the link of connection betwixt Sut and Horus in the north and south. The heaven in two parts. south and north, as the domains of Sut and Horus was now followed by the heaven in three divisions that was upraised by Shu as establisher of the equinox in the more northern latitudes. And this heaven in three divisions was the heaven of the Triangle which preceded the one built on the square, by Ptah. Horus and Sut had been the twin builders and the founders south and north. Shu followed with the new foundation in the equinox, which was double, east and west. Sut, Horus, and Shu then, aided by his sister Tefnut, founded the heaven of the triangle based upon the two-fold horizon and the crossing. Shu as the equinoctial power is the third to Sut and Horus of the south and north. With him a triad was completed and the two pillars with a line across would form the figure of the triangle ”.Thus, the twins in Gemini and Shu ∇ in Sagittarius, being the three first of the seven powers, point at least to the equinoctial line being laid in those two signs of the zodiac. More particularly as his sister Tefnut. a form of the great mother. is joined with Shu in constituting the sign of Sagittarius. Thus the three brothers Sut, Horus and Shu with one female (as the mother or sister) are found together in these two fundamental signs of the zodiac. A third power born of the [Page 326] great mother in heaven was now added to the other two. Another of her seven sons was born, or the lion of force (Shu) joined the crocodile (Sebek-Horus) and the hippopotamus Sut, in a trinity of powers that sustained the firmament.
As elemental forces Sut and Horus had been ever lawless combatants and claimants, always fighting for supremacy. When Shu bad lifted up the heaven of Am-Khemen as the paradise of peace upon Mount Hetep, “he reconciled the two warrior gods with each other” and “with those who had charge of the beautiful creation which he raiseth up”. Law and order were established by putting “bounds to the contentions of the powers” and by dividing the whole universe from Zenith to Nadir into the two domains called the portion of Sut and the portion of Horus. The contention betwixt Sut and Horus had originated ages before the satanic character of the Evil One in his anthropomorphic guise had been assigned to Sut. The twin opponents had been on a footing of equality in the stellar, lunar, and solar mythos. But there always was a question of boundaries to be settled. Shu is the arbitrator in the stellar phase. (Rit, ch. 110.) In the lunar stage Taht the moon god was the judge and reconciler of the warring twins. And in the solar mythos Seb, the god of earth, adjudicates - as shown in the mythological text from Memphis (Proceedings Society of Bib. Archy., v. 23, parts 4 and 5.) When Ptah had built his mansion in the double earth the two horizons were united, or, as it is said, the double earth became united, “the union is in the house of Ptah”, and “the two pillars of the gateway in the house of Ptah are Horus and Sut”. The united ones made peace; they fraternized completely. They made a treaty.“Seb says to Horus and Sut”, “there shall be an arbitration between you”. Seb said to Horus, “come from the place where thy father was submerged”, that is in the north. Seb said to Sut, “come from the place where thou wast born”, that was in the south. “A mountain in the midst of the earth unites the portion of Horus to the portion of Sut, at the division of the earth”.
This, in the solar mythos, was the mount of the equinox. Now Horus and Sut each stood upon a hillock; they made peace saying “the two earths meet in Annu for it is the march (border) of the two earths”. In this legend there is a shifting of boundaries from south and north to east and west in the union that is now contracted in the house of Ptah, “in the house of his two earths in which is the boundary of south and north” that was drawn from east to west by the equinoctial line. “Here the united ones fraternized completely. They made a treaty”; which was sustained by Seb. And henceforth the twin powers, Sut and Horus, now called Horus and Sut, who had stood as the two pillars, south and north, for the two poles in Apta, are now “the two pillars of the gateway to the house of Ptah”; which two pillars are afterwards portrayed as the double Tat of eternal stability in the making of Amenta (Text from Memphis).
In this phase the quarrel of Sut and Horus represents the difference betwixt darkness and light in the length of night and day which went on round the year and was rectified at the point or on the Mount of Equinox. Before the solar god attained his supremacy as the [Page 327] determiner of time Shu was the readjuster of the power of the equinox. Hence Shu is said to have kept the contention of these warring powers within bounds and brought about their reconcilement (Rit., ch. 110). Thus the “reckonings of Shu” involved the readjustment of the equinoctial point and re-establishing the equilibrium of the equinoxes in the different reckonings of time. Taht the lunar time-keeper does the same thing when he “balances the divine pair”, and puts a stop to their strife in the circuit of precession (Rit., ch. 123).
All the year round, except at this point of place, it was one scale up and the other down in the contention of Sut and Horus for the mastery. But at the vernal equinox the scales were at the perfect level and the twins were exactly equal in power for the time, with Horus the fulfiller about to rise in the ascendant. Horus was the bringer of the golden age to earth. This in Egypt was the time of the inundation; in other lands and later days it is the spring-time of the year. The Saturnalia was a mode of celebrating this equality at the time of the equinoctial level, by means of various kinds of levelling customs. Slaves were equal with their masters and mistresses. Women were equal to men, the sexes changed clothing with each other, on the natural ground of equality. This Saturnalia survived as a relic of the Golden Age called Saturnian by the Greeks and Romans.
In Egypt Sut and Horus changed positions and were figured as Har-Suti, with the hawk of Horus in front and the black Neh or typhonian animal of Sut behind. This reversal represented the change of seasons in relation to the north and south. In Equatoria the desert and the drought were given to the south, which was the domain of Sut. Refreshing rain and cooling breezes came from the domain of Horus in the lifegiving north. In Egypt the water and the food of life were brought by Horus of the inundation from the south. Whereas the north in winter was the realm of darkness and of drought, and therefore the domain of Sut became that of the evil elemental power of the twins. The three powers of earth, water, and breath, or Sut, Horus, and Shu, were given stations in the zodiac; the twins, Sut and Horus, in the sign of Gemini, and Shu, as the Archer, in the sign of Sagittarius. The heaven founded on the south and north by Sut and Horus, the Twin Builders, was now followed by the heaven that Shu uplifted in the equinox as the lion of sustaining power, or rather as the dual lion of Shu and Tefnut, his sister, who is seen to be conjoined with him in Sagittarius. Thus far the zodiac was founded on the Great Mother with two pairs of twins; Sut and Horus as the Rehiu lions, with Shu and Tefnut as the Ruti or lions of the double horizon, one at each end of the equinoctial line or level where the lost balance of the contending Twins was periodically restored by the reconciler Shu. In one character Horus is designated “Horus of the Triangle”, and a theory has been put forward in Germany to the effect that the figure represents the pillar or cone of the zodiacal light. But the unexplained peculiarity of Horus of the Triangle is that his triangle is figured in a reversed position with the apex downwards and the base above, ”. Whereas the pillar ∇ of zodiacal light was never seen [Page 328] bottom-upwards in that way, and never could have been so represented. On the other hand, the triangle which was constellated in “Triangula”, is, we hold, the figure of a tripartite division of the Ecliptic, and the triple seasons of the Egyptian year. The water- season being represented by Horus; the season of wind, or breathing life, and of the equinoctial gales by Shu; and the season of dryness or drought, by Sut. These were called the water season, the green season, and the dry season.
The three signs of which are (1) “water”, (2) “growing plants”, and (3) a barn or storehouse, which showed the crops were harvested. Four months for the water season gives the correct length of the inundation. The Egyptian harvest occurred in the eighth month of the year. Then followed a season of drought and dearth, which came to be assigned to the destroyer Sut. These three seasons can be traced as a basis for the zodiac that was afterwards extended to one of four quarters and twelve signs. Horus of the inundation was given the Lion as a solar zootype. The Archer four signs further round, was assigned to Shu, the god of breathing force, and four signs are the correct measure of one season, or a tetramene.
The Lion and Archer, or Horus and Shu, represent the two seasons of the inundation and of breathing life. The name of the Archer in the Hermean Zodiac is Nephte, and Neft signifies the soul or breath. Sut was continued in conflict with Horus in the constellation of the Twins, the power of drought that was opposed to the water of life. Shu was the reconciler of these two continually warring powers, and in the zodiac he represents the green season of vegetation and breathing life that came betwixt the two seasons of water and of drought. This was fundamental, the rest is filling in. The three seasons of four months each would naturally lead to the circle of the Ecliptic being measured and divided into three parts, which tripartite division was followed, at a distance, by the Babylonians in their mapping out of the sphere, and continued by them in afar later calendar of twelve signs. The Egyptian month was divided into three weeks of ten days each, which obviously corresponded to the heaven of the triangle, the tripartite ecliptic, and the three seasons in Egypt. Then followed a heaven of four quarters or sides. in which may be traced the houses of Sut, Horus, Shu and Taht; but the division of the month or moon and the Ecliptic in three parts equated with the three seasons in a circle or zodiac that was measured monthly by the lunar god with his 3 X 10= 30 days. The two roads of heaven had been divided between the twin brothers Sut and Horus. The three roads were next divided between Sut, Horus, and Shu in the heaven
of the triangle that stood as it were upon a tripod = three roads of the south, north, and equinox.
Type after type, the mythical Great Mother and her children passed into the legendary lore of the whole world. The mother and her twins were followed by the mother in the character of sister, who is the companion of three brothers, our Sut, Horus, and Shu in the triangular heaven or triple division, the uranographic symbol of which was constellated in “Triangula”, composed of three stars held in the hand of Horus (Drummond,Oed. Jud.., pl. 3). Three brothers with one female, then, as an Egyptian group, are representatives of the [Page 329] Great Mother and her first three sons or elemental powers; the powers represented in her portrait by the water-cow, the crocodile, and lioness. The mother being indicated by the pregnant womb. The same group is also Japanese, consisting of the three ( out of seven or the eight)
Kami, with their sister Izanani. The three Kami, called the “All-alone-born Kami”, our stellar Trinity, were gods of the beginning, and are connected with the sister in the raising up of heaven (Satow, Pure Shinto, p. 67; Chamberlain, Kojiki, p. 19)- And when the Christian divinity of a triune nature is portrayed with a triangular aureole upon his head, that figure relates the deity once more to the phenomena in which a god of the Triangle had originated. The god of the Triangle was of a threefold nature in the trinity of Sut, Horus, and Shu, which three were one with the mother in the heaven of the Triangle, the mount with the triple peaks, the Ecliptic: in three divisions, the year in the three seasons, the month in three weeks.
The Triangle, like the Oval, is a figure of the female, as it was on the Goddess Nana in Babylonia. The trinity of three males. associated with one female, who was originally the Great Mother, survives in two ways still, for whilst they are performing in church four more primitive representatives of the same dramatis personae still keep it up in the pantomime, as in the dumb show of the more ancient mysteries, in the characters of columbine, clown, harlequin, and pantaloon. Harlequin is Har (or Horus) the transformer.
We might say the double Horus, one with and one without the mask. The clown is Sut, the sly and cunning one, whose zootype was the jackal. Pantaloon and his crutch are the remains of Shu and his celestial prop of the pole. Columbine corresponds to Tefnut, the sister of Shu, which explains her peculiar relationship to pantaloon, whom she rejects in favour of harlequin. Now these four appear upon Mount Hetep when the later heaven is portrayed in the ten divisions that preceded the final twelve as a trinity of primeval, powers united with the Great Mother, who was the abode as Triangle when the heaven was not yet builded on the square (Rit., ch. 110). The other four brothers who make up the group of seven great gods (at least in one form) are Amsta, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Kabhsenuf, who stand on the lotus or
papyrus, and are the four gods, paddles or eyes of the four quarters. Thus, the seven are: (I) Sebek-Horus, the crocodile; (2) Sut, the water-bull; (3) Shu, the lion; (4). Hapi, the ape; (5) Tuamutef, the jackal; (6) Kabhsenuf, the hawk; (7) Amsta, the man, who, together with the Great Mother, were the founders or the zodiac - three in the Triangle and four in the Square.
Whatsoever the seven khuti were as individual stars, they were also configurated as a group in Ursa Minor and called the followers of the coffin of Osiris, which was imaged in the Greater Bear. The seven in the stellar mythos had become the lords of rule, devoid of wrong, and living for eternity. This was as spirits perfected under the type of stars that never set (Rit., ch. 72). And here it may be explained that we have all been persistently wrong about the seven glorious ones, the seven Rishis, the seven Lu-Masi, the seven Elohim or the seven Kabiri, the “Seven Sleepers” being the seven stars in the Great Bear.
For this reason, in all the starry vast there is but one group of seven non-setting [Page 330] stars, and these are in the Lesser, not in the Greater Bear. Polaris was at one time chief of all the heavenly host, on account of its being fixed at the centre as a type of stability and uprightness. The characteristics and qualities assigned to the divinity were first seen in the steadfastness of the pole. The stars in Ursa Minor were circumpolar. These showed the seven in a group who never could be drowned by the deluge of darkness. The waters did not reach them. Not so the seven in the Greater Bear, the seven that were not circumpolar stars. About 5,000 years before the present era there was but one, the star Dubhe in Ursa Major that was circumpolar or non-setting (Lockyer, Dawn of Astronomy, p, 152). These, therefore, could not have been the seven never setting stars, who were the watchers and the rulers in the great year of the world; the starry type of the eternal powers. The typical seven were grouped in the Lesser Bear as an object picture of something out of sight, with Anup as El-Elyon at the pole. In all the mythologies the Polestar is an emblem of stability, a seat or throne of the power who is the highest god pro tem., as was Anup in Egypt, Sydik in Phoenicia , Anu in Babylonia, Tai-Yih (the arch-first) in China, Avather, or Zivo, in Mesopotamia, and others. It was not the seat that was worshipped, but the power; the sustainer and the judge that was enthroned upon the stellar Mount of Glory as the god.
The Pole-star was a type of the eternal, because apparently beyond the region of time and change. It was the earliest type of a supreme intelligence which gave the law in heaven that was unerring, just and true; if only as the law of equipoise or, as we should now say, of gravitation. This was the sole point at which there seemed to be any certainty of foothold in that moving ocean of the starry infinite. And this became a standpoint in the heavens for the mind of man to rest on at the centre and radiate to the circumference. The summit was well-named the Mount of Glory. Around this island-mount the hosts of heaven appeared to wheel by night in one vast, glorious, never-ceasing ”march past” in the presence of the “Royal Arch” or, more religiously regarded, the Most High God. The earliest law in heaven was given on the mount because the mount was an image of the pole.It was administered by the judge, whether as Anup, in the north, or Sut as jackal of the south, because the jackal in Egypt was a zootype of the judge.
It is not the mount, then, that was the divinity. but the power that dwelt upon it, as the deity called by the Japanese “ the God Eternal-Stand of the heavens” (Ame-no-Foko-Tachi Kami). The power of stability fixed as the centre of the universe was the typical eternal. This was represented by the jackal, which is to be seen at the centre of the Denderah planisphere. The jackal also is a type, not a divinity, and a type may be variously applied. The jackal itself is “Ap-Uat”, the opener or guide of roads; probably as the seer and crier in the dark and leader of the pack. But it was the dog of Sut and of Sothis as well as of Anup.
Thus the type in Sign-language may not always determine the nature of the deity. But, as Hor-Apollo rightly says, the jackal denotes the judge (B. i., p. 39). The governor at an early period was the judge, with the jackal as his sign. There were several kinds of judges in Egypt, and the “Totem” of each is the sab or [Page 331] sapient jackal. Hence the jackal, representative of Polaris, was placed above the seven as the judge of heaven because he had imaged the judge on earth. Naturally the type was not always repeated; other countries, other fauna. Besides which, the anthropomorphic succeeded the zoomorphic in an indefinitely later time; and the Semitic, Hindaic, Greek, and various other renderings are mainly anthropomorphic.
But the judge quâ judge thus set in heaven by the Egyptians at the polar centre, with his seat upon the summit underneath the tree, was repeated and continued in other mythologies upon the stellar mount.Anup became the great judge in heaven, and the seven are his ministers, as executioners, upon the judgment day. They are termed the seven “arms of the balance on the night when the eye is fixed” that is the eye of the judge, who saw through the dark (Rit., ch. 71). The Eye of Heaven that Judges the Wicked is the name of a Chinese constellation; and the god Anup was the judge whose eye was the Pole-star in the north. He was the seer in the dark, therefore the jackal was his zootype; and the jackal was followed by the later dog as a symbol of Polaris.
The lunar mythos succeeded the stellar, but the moon-god Taht was not reckoned as the ninth one.
Neither was Horus. The eighth was the highest power till the time of Ptah arid the Put-cycle of the nine.
The group of seven remained intact. Anup, as the eighth, was the highest in the stellar mythos; Taht-Khemen (later Smen) was highest in the lunar mythos; and Horus was the highest in the solar mythos, the highest being worshipped as the “Only One”. Anup and Tehuti then became two witnesses to the supremacy of Horus, the one as the eighth, who in turn became the witness for his father, Ra-Unnefer.
The deity of the Pole-star was known to the Chinese as the supreme god in nature, who has his abode on the Great Peak of Perfect Harmony. When Dr. Edkins asked a schoolmaster at Chapoo who was the lord of heaven and earth, the reply of the Chinaman was that he knew of none but Tien-hwang Ta-ti, god of the Pole-star. (Religion in China, p. 109.) Shang-ti, the supreme ruler, was the highest object of worship. His heavenly abode, Tsze-wei, is “a celestial space round the north pole” (Legge, Chinese Classics, v. iii., pt. I., p. 34) and his throne was indicated by the polar star (Chinese Repository, v. iv. p.
194). This is the most sacred as well as most ancient form of Chinese worship. A round hillock is the altar on which sacrifice was offered to him. It is said in the archaic Chow Ritual (Li) that when the sovereign worshipped Shang-ti he offered up on a round hillock a first-born male, as a whole burnt sacrifice (Douglas, Confucianism, and Taouism, pp.82-87). Both the mount and the first-born male are typical. Sut was the first-born male, and, as Sut-Anup, he was the first male ancestor. The hillock is an image of the mount. This deity was also known to the Chinese as the “Divine Prince of the Great Northern Equilibrium”, who promulgated “the laws of the silent wheels of the heavens palace”, or the cycles of time determined by the revolutions of the stars (De Groot, Fêtes d' Emoui, v. i., pp. 77, 80). [Page 332]